NCERT Textbook - Relatives Class 10 Notes | EduRev

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English Class 10

Created by: Vinay Thomas

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Relatives Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


5
RELATIVES
85
In written English (more than in the spoken form) we often give information 
about a person or a thing by using a group of words called relatives -- who, which, 
where and whose.
Example :  The band which performed on the annual day played good music.
Relatives help to convey our idea in a well-connected and compact way.
Two ideas :    1. My brother has composed a song.
                                   and
   2. I like it.
can be conveyed thus
a) I like the song which my brother has composed
                           OR
b) My brother has composed a melodious song which I liked. 
     A B
1. A dermatologist is a) an instrument which measures temperature. 
2. A cassock is b) a place where grains are stored.
3. A thermometer is c) a doctor who treats skin diseases. 
4. A granary is d) a gown which is worn by a priest.
5. A widower is e) an animal which lives both on land and in water.
6. A tragedy is f) a disease which causes loss of memory. 
7. Amnesia is g) a play which has sad or tragic ending.
8. An amphibian is h) an instrument for viewing minute objects. 
9. A microscope is i) a man whose wife is dead.
A-1 Match the items in A with their definitions.
Page 2


5
RELATIVES
85
In written English (more than in the spoken form) we often give information 
about a person or a thing by using a group of words called relatives -- who, which, 
where and whose.
Example :  The band which performed on the annual day played good music.
Relatives help to convey our idea in a well-connected and compact way.
Two ideas :    1. My brother has composed a song.
                                   and
   2. I like it.
can be conveyed thus
a) I like the song which my brother has composed
                           OR
b) My brother has composed a melodious song which I liked. 
     A B
1. A dermatologist is a) an instrument which measures temperature. 
2. A cassock is b) a place where grains are stored.
3. A thermometer is c) a doctor who treats skin diseases. 
4. A granary is d) a gown which is worn by a priest.
5. A widower is e) an animal which lives both on land and in water.
6. A tragedy is f) a disease which causes loss of memory. 
7. Amnesia is g) a play which has sad or tragic ending.
8. An amphibian is h) an instrument for viewing minute objects. 
9. A microscope is i) a man whose wife is dead.
A-1 Match the items in A with their definitions.
86
CBSE
Now underline the relative (called a relative pronoun) in the sentences above. 
The first one has been done for you.
Working in pairs, make six questions like the ones given below: 
1. What is the name of the tree which ……….. ?
2. What is the name of the island where ……….. ?
3. What is the name of the person who ……….. ?
4. What is the name of the play which ……….. ?
5. What is the name of the stadium where ……….. ?
6. What is the name of the product which ……….. ?
Now each pair will ask three of their questions to the rest of the class. 
a) underline the relative; 
b) circle the word or phrase which the relative refers to;
c) in pairs, discuss why you think there are commas in four of these 
sentences.
1) An oculist is a person who treats eye diseases.
2) Ishita's brother, who is an architect, said the house needs a proper security 
system.
3) Copper, which is an element, is mixed with zinc to make brass.
4) The shed where aeroplanes are housed is called a hangar.
A-2 Quiz
A-3 Read the following questions silently and then
Page 3


5
RELATIVES
85
In written English (more than in the spoken form) we often give information 
about a person or a thing by using a group of words called relatives -- who, which, 
where and whose.
Example :  The band which performed on the annual day played good music.
Relatives help to convey our idea in a well-connected and compact way.
Two ideas :    1. My brother has composed a song.
                                   and
   2. I like it.
can be conveyed thus
a) I like the song which my brother has composed
                           OR
b) My brother has composed a melodious song which I liked. 
     A B
1. A dermatologist is a) an instrument which measures temperature. 
2. A cassock is b) a place where grains are stored.
3. A thermometer is c) a doctor who treats skin diseases. 
4. A granary is d) a gown which is worn by a priest.
5. A widower is e) an animal which lives both on land and in water.
6. A tragedy is f) a disease which causes loss of memory. 
7. Amnesia is g) a play which has sad or tragic ending.
8. An amphibian is h) an instrument for viewing minute objects. 
9. A microscope is i) a man whose wife is dead.
A-1 Match the items in A with their definitions.
86
CBSE
Now underline the relative (called a relative pronoun) in the sentences above. 
The first one has been done for you.
Working in pairs, make six questions like the ones given below: 
1. What is the name of the tree which ……….. ?
2. What is the name of the island where ……….. ?
3. What is the name of the person who ……….. ?
4. What is the name of the play which ……….. ?
5. What is the name of the stadium where ……….. ?
6. What is the name of the product which ……….. ?
Now each pair will ask three of their questions to the rest of the class. 
a) underline the relative; 
b) circle the word or phrase which the relative refers to;
c) in pairs, discuss why you think there are commas in four of these 
sentences.
1) An oculist is a person who treats eye diseases.
2) Ishita's brother, who is an architect, said the house needs a proper security 
system.
3) Copper, which is an element, is mixed with zinc to make brass.
4) The shed where aeroplanes are housed is called a hangar.
A-2 Quiz
A-3 Read the following questions silently and then
87
CBSE
5) The Indian cricket team is flying to Chennai, where 2011 world cup's last 
league match is going to be played.
6) Chanakya, whose disciple was Chandragupta, was a teacher of Economics 
and Political science in Takshashila University.
7) The countries that export petroleum are planning to hike the price.
Sentences two, three, five and six have commas because 
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
1. That well built boy _______ I met at the sports meet is a famous hockey 
player.
2. Aditya, _______ mother got an award for the best teacher, is my nephew.
3. The great Bengal tiger, ______ is found in India, is rapidly becoming a 
threatened species.
4. Kailash Mansarovar, a holy place in Tibet and ______ many Indian pilgrims 
go in May, is very difficult to get to.
5. Teachers _______ have taught Arnav say that he is an exceptionally creative 
student.
6. Interviewers tend to prefer candidates _______ have well rounded 
personalities.
* In modern English (spoken as well as written), who and whom mean the same. 
Whom is not often used now in international English.
A-4 Use who*, whose, where, or which to complete each sentence below.
Page 4


5
RELATIVES
85
In written English (more than in the spoken form) we often give information 
about a person or a thing by using a group of words called relatives -- who, which, 
where and whose.
Example :  The band which performed on the annual day played good music.
Relatives help to convey our idea in a well-connected and compact way.
Two ideas :    1. My brother has composed a song.
                                   and
   2. I like it.
can be conveyed thus
a) I like the song which my brother has composed
                           OR
b) My brother has composed a melodious song which I liked. 
     A B
1. A dermatologist is a) an instrument which measures temperature. 
2. A cassock is b) a place where grains are stored.
3. A thermometer is c) a doctor who treats skin diseases. 
4. A granary is d) a gown which is worn by a priest.
5. A widower is e) an animal which lives both on land and in water.
6. A tragedy is f) a disease which causes loss of memory. 
7. Amnesia is g) a play which has sad or tragic ending.
8. An amphibian is h) an instrument for viewing minute objects. 
9. A microscope is i) a man whose wife is dead.
A-1 Match the items in A with their definitions.
86
CBSE
Now underline the relative (called a relative pronoun) in the sentences above. 
The first one has been done for you.
Working in pairs, make six questions like the ones given below: 
1. What is the name of the tree which ……….. ?
2. What is the name of the island where ……….. ?
3. What is the name of the person who ……….. ?
4. What is the name of the play which ……….. ?
5. What is the name of the stadium where ……….. ?
6. What is the name of the product which ……….. ?
Now each pair will ask three of their questions to the rest of the class. 
a) underline the relative; 
b) circle the word or phrase which the relative refers to;
c) in pairs, discuss why you think there are commas in four of these 
sentences.
1) An oculist is a person who treats eye diseases.
2) Ishita's brother, who is an architect, said the house needs a proper security 
system.
3) Copper, which is an element, is mixed with zinc to make brass.
4) The shed where aeroplanes are housed is called a hangar.
A-2 Quiz
A-3 Read the following questions silently and then
87
CBSE
5) The Indian cricket team is flying to Chennai, where 2011 world cup's last 
league match is going to be played.
6) Chanakya, whose disciple was Chandragupta, was a teacher of Economics 
and Political science in Takshashila University.
7) The countries that export petroleum are planning to hike the price.
Sentences two, three, five and six have commas because 
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
1. That well built boy _______ I met at the sports meet is a famous hockey 
player.
2. Aditya, _______ mother got an award for the best teacher, is my nephew.
3. The great Bengal tiger, ______ is found in India, is rapidly becoming a 
threatened species.
4. Kailash Mansarovar, a holy place in Tibet and ______ many Indian pilgrims 
go in May, is very difficult to get to.
5. Teachers _______ have taught Arnav say that he is an exceptionally creative 
student.
6. Interviewers tend to prefer candidates _______ have well rounded 
personalities.
* In modern English (spoken as well as written), who and whom mean the same. 
Whom is not often used now in international English.
A-4 Use who*, whose, where, or which to complete each sentence below.
88
CBSE
A-5 Read the following sentences and punctuate them, using commas where 
necessary.
A-6 Fun with definitions
A-7 Read the following sentences. There are errors is some of them. Underline 
the error and write the word in the space provided. Put a ü if there is no 
error.
1. Tushar who is my best friend is studying in Cornell University, USA.
2. Konark where we are going for our next excursion is famous for its sun 
temple.
3. Mr Misra who was in the US has started his own business in New Delhi.
4. Yesterday I met Saina Nehwal who is a famous badminton player.
5. Popeye likes to eat lots of spinach which contains iron.
Working in pairs, choose three of the following words and write your own 
humorous and unusual definitions for them. Two examples have already been 
done for you.
dentist hotel alarm clock moped
mirror classroom astrologer mobile phone
1. A mirror is a device that frightens the daylights out of most people.
2. An alarm clock is an instrument that wakes you up early so that you can go 
to sleep again.
1. The bus who goes to the station is a low-floor bus.              ____________
2. The man which was here a little while ago is a minister.      ____________
Page 5


5
RELATIVES
85
In written English (more than in the spoken form) we often give information 
about a person or a thing by using a group of words called relatives -- who, which, 
where and whose.
Example :  The band which performed on the annual day played good music.
Relatives help to convey our idea in a well-connected and compact way.
Two ideas :    1. My brother has composed a song.
                                   and
   2. I like it.
can be conveyed thus
a) I like the song which my brother has composed
                           OR
b) My brother has composed a melodious song which I liked. 
     A B
1. A dermatologist is a) an instrument which measures temperature. 
2. A cassock is b) a place where grains are stored.
3. A thermometer is c) a doctor who treats skin diseases. 
4. A granary is d) a gown which is worn by a priest.
5. A widower is e) an animal which lives both on land and in water.
6. A tragedy is f) a disease which causes loss of memory. 
7. Amnesia is g) a play which has sad or tragic ending.
8. An amphibian is h) an instrument for viewing minute objects. 
9. A microscope is i) a man whose wife is dead.
A-1 Match the items in A with their definitions.
86
CBSE
Now underline the relative (called a relative pronoun) in the sentences above. 
The first one has been done for you.
Working in pairs, make six questions like the ones given below: 
1. What is the name of the tree which ……….. ?
2. What is the name of the island where ……….. ?
3. What is the name of the person who ……….. ?
4. What is the name of the play which ……….. ?
5. What is the name of the stadium where ……….. ?
6. What is the name of the product which ……….. ?
Now each pair will ask three of their questions to the rest of the class. 
a) underline the relative; 
b) circle the word or phrase which the relative refers to;
c) in pairs, discuss why you think there are commas in four of these 
sentences.
1) An oculist is a person who treats eye diseases.
2) Ishita's brother, who is an architect, said the house needs a proper security 
system.
3) Copper, which is an element, is mixed with zinc to make brass.
4) The shed where aeroplanes are housed is called a hangar.
A-2 Quiz
A-3 Read the following questions silently and then
87
CBSE
5) The Indian cricket team is flying to Chennai, where 2011 world cup's last 
league match is going to be played.
6) Chanakya, whose disciple was Chandragupta, was a teacher of Economics 
and Political science in Takshashila University.
7) The countries that export petroleum are planning to hike the price.
Sentences two, three, five and six have commas because 
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
1. That well built boy _______ I met at the sports meet is a famous hockey 
player.
2. Aditya, _______ mother got an award for the best teacher, is my nephew.
3. The great Bengal tiger, ______ is found in India, is rapidly becoming a 
threatened species.
4. Kailash Mansarovar, a holy place in Tibet and ______ many Indian pilgrims 
go in May, is very difficult to get to.
5. Teachers _______ have taught Arnav say that he is an exceptionally creative 
student.
6. Interviewers tend to prefer candidates _______ have well rounded 
personalities.
* In modern English (spoken as well as written), who and whom mean the same. 
Whom is not often used now in international English.
A-4 Use who*, whose, where, or which to complete each sentence below.
88
CBSE
A-5 Read the following sentences and punctuate them, using commas where 
necessary.
A-6 Fun with definitions
A-7 Read the following sentences. There are errors is some of them. Underline 
the error and write the word in the space provided. Put a ü if there is no 
error.
1. Tushar who is my best friend is studying in Cornell University, USA.
2. Konark where we are going for our next excursion is famous for its sun 
temple.
3. Mr Misra who was in the US has started his own business in New Delhi.
4. Yesterday I met Saina Nehwal who is a famous badminton player.
5. Popeye likes to eat lots of spinach which contains iron.
Working in pairs, choose three of the following words and write your own 
humorous and unusual definitions for them. Two examples have already been 
done for you.
dentist hotel alarm clock moped
mirror classroom astrologer mobile phone
1. A mirror is a device that frightens the daylights out of most people.
2. An alarm clock is an instrument that wakes you up early so that you can go 
to sleep again.
1. The bus who goes to the station is a low-floor bus.              ____________
2. The man which was here a little while ago is a minister.      ____________
89
CBSE
3. That's the house where the poet was born.                          ____________
4. The bird whose lays the biggest egg is the ostrich.                ____________
5. Karn, where home is in Gurgaon, is studying in Manipal.   ____________
The pen drive which I borrowed from my friend was lost
In this kind of sentence, that can replace which, especially in spoken 
English. 'That' is easier to say than 'which'.
Rewrite the following sentences substituting that for which. Then say 
each one aloud to your partner.
1. That was a very fine car which your friend bought last month wasn't it?
2. All the members of my family prefer cakes which are made without egg.
3. The team which wins the quiz competition will be going to Ooty.
4. Neither Govind nor I like stories which are full of violent incidents.
In many cases, relatives (including that as a substitute) can be omitted in order 
to economize with words. This is a matter of style. When you are reading or 
listening to English, notice when this happens.
1. I found the book which I wanted to read.
2. The boy who I met at the hotel is a wonderful magician.
3. This is the best movie that I've ever seen.
4. The girl who is talking to Mr. Mallya is the pilot.
5. Silk sarees which are made in Banaras are popular all over the world.
A-8
B-1 Read the following sentences aloud to your partner without the relative as 
shown in the example.
B. Reduced relatives
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