NCERT Textbook - Connectors Class 10 Notes | EduRev

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English Class 10

Created by: Vinay Thomas

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Connectors Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


6
CONNECTORS
93
A. What are Connectors?
A.1 Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Now read the paragraph again.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and 
environment in case of natural disasters.  Countries may decide to rely less on 
atomic energy in the future.  Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power 
plants.  We have not yet developed a viable alternative.  Solar energy is safer.  It 
is available in abundance, free of cost.  Scientists have not yet come up with 
processes to harness solar energy for commercial use.  The present scenario on 
the power front does not look very encouraging.
1. Could you follow the meaning clearly? Yes   No                 
     2. Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected?    Yes       No          
3. What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read 
better?      _____________________________________________
Though atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave 
threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Hence countries 
may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. However presently we 
cannot shut down nuclear power plants because we have not yet developed a 
viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. Moreover, it is available in 
abundance, free of cost.  But scientists have not yet come up with processes to 
harness solar energy for commercial use. On the whole, the present scenario 
on the power front does not look very encouraging. 
1. Does the paragraph now read better?    Yes       No             
2. What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform? 
________________________________
3. Such expressions are called 'connectors'- i.e, words or phrases which join 
together the writer's or the speaker's thoughts and so make them flow more 
Page 2


6
CONNECTORS
93
A. What are Connectors?
A.1 Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Now read the paragraph again.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and 
environment in case of natural disasters.  Countries may decide to rely less on 
atomic energy in the future.  Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power 
plants.  We have not yet developed a viable alternative.  Solar energy is safer.  It 
is available in abundance, free of cost.  Scientists have not yet come up with 
processes to harness solar energy for commercial use.  The present scenario on 
the power front does not look very encouraging.
1. Could you follow the meaning clearly? Yes   No                 
     2. Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected?    Yes       No          
3. What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read 
better?      _____________________________________________
Though atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave 
threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Hence countries 
may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. However presently we 
cannot shut down nuclear power plants because we have not yet developed a 
viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. Moreover, it is available in 
abundance, free of cost.  But scientists have not yet come up with processes to 
harness solar energy for commercial use. On the whole, the present scenario 
on the power front does not look very encouraging. 
1. Does the paragraph now read better?    Yes       No             
2. What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform? 
________________________________
3. Such expressions are called 'connectors'- i.e, words or phrases which join 
together the writer's or the speaker's thoughts and so make them flow more 
94
CBSE
smoothly.  In this unit we shall practice various types of 'connectors' in 
English.
A B
Food and drink prices in New York are introduces the results
very high; furthermore, renting an 
apartment there is very expensive. 
Ragini has a great sense of humour.  adds information
In the same way, her sister Taarini 
loves a good joke.
The film had poor reviews. So, I introduces a similar idea 
went out with my friends to see a 
play instead.
Sujoy is a lazy boy. Consequently gives a different/ opposite idea
he failed in his exams.
The underlined words or phrases are examples of connectors. They perform 
different roles of connecting ideas and sentences so that discourse becomes
cohesive and coherent.  Hence the connectors are also known as cohesive
devices or discourse markers.
A.2 Read the sentences in Column A and identify the role (i.e. the "job") of the 
underlined words. Then match each sentence with a role in Column B.
Page 3


6
CONNECTORS
93
A. What are Connectors?
A.1 Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Now read the paragraph again.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and 
environment in case of natural disasters.  Countries may decide to rely less on 
atomic energy in the future.  Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power 
plants.  We have not yet developed a viable alternative.  Solar energy is safer.  It 
is available in abundance, free of cost.  Scientists have not yet come up with 
processes to harness solar energy for commercial use.  The present scenario on 
the power front does not look very encouraging.
1. Could you follow the meaning clearly? Yes   No                 
     2. Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected?    Yes       No          
3. What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read 
better?      _____________________________________________
Though atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave 
threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Hence countries 
may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. However presently we 
cannot shut down nuclear power plants because we have not yet developed a 
viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. Moreover, it is available in 
abundance, free of cost.  But scientists have not yet come up with processes to 
harness solar energy for commercial use. On the whole, the present scenario 
on the power front does not look very encouraging. 
1. Does the paragraph now read better?    Yes       No             
2. What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform? 
________________________________
3. Such expressions are called 'connectors'- i.e, words or phrases which join 
together the writer's or the speaker's thoughts and so make them flow more 
94
CBSE
smoothly.  In this unit we shall practice various types of 'connectors' in 
English.
A B
Food and drink prices in New York are introduces the results
very high; furthermore, renting an 
apartment there is very expensive. 
Ragini has a great sense of humour.  adds information
In the same way, her sister Taarini 
loves a good joke.
The film had poor reviews. So, I introduces a similar idea 
went out with my friends to see a 
play instead.
Sujoy is a lazy boy. Consequently gives a different/ opposite idea
he failed in his exams.
The underlined words or phrases are examples of connectors. They perform 
different roles of connecting ideas and sentences so that discourse becomes
cohesive and coherent.  Hence the connectors are also known as cohesive
devices or discourse markers.
A.2 Read the sentences in Column A and identify the role (i.e. the "job") of the 
underlined words. Then match each sentence with a role in Column B.
95
CBSE
A.3 Complete the sentences given below using appropriate expressions given 
in the box.
  incidentally I'm afraid on the one hand
  consequently for instance nevertheless
  in other words on the other hand on the contrary
1 The agenda for development should ___________________________ encourage 
industrialization and _________________________ preserve the environment 
and human rights. 
2. My new job is very demanding, ___________________________ I enjoy the 
challenge it offers to my creativity.
3. The team did not get discouraged by the early setback.  _________ it started 
playing a more aggressive game.
4. I have managed to find a flat near my work spot and I will be moving in there 
by next week. _____________________, I met Prof. Anil Kapoor, our economics 
teacher at college, during the house hunting.
5. Many roadside restaurants cut cost by using cheap ingredients in their 
dishes. Take the cooking medium, ____________________.  Instead of good 
quality refined oil, they mostly use palmoline which has high levels of 
saturated fatty acids.
6. The Sharmas decided to go to the USA to stay with their son. 
_________________ they had to dispose of their flat at Jaipur.
7. The committee considers the quotation submitted by the firm rather 
unrealistic.  ________________________, the firm will not be able to deliver the 
product in time as per the specifications stipulated.
Page 4


6
CONNECTORS
93
A. What are Connectors?
A.1 Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Now read the paragraph again.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and 
environment in case of natural disasters.  Countries may decide to rely less on 
atomic energy in the future.  Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power 
plants.  We have not yet developed a viable alternative.  Solar energy is safer.  It 
is available in abundance, free of cost.  Scientists have not yet come up with 
processes to harness solar energy for commercial use.  The present scenario on 
the power front does not look very encouraging.
1. Could you follow the meaning clearly? Yes   No                 
     2. Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected?    Yes       No          
3. What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read 
better?      _____________________________________________
Though atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave 
threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Hence countries 
may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. However presently we 
cannot shut down nuclear power plants because we have not yet developed a 
viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. Moreover, it is available in 
abundance, free of cost.  But scientists have not yet come up with processes to 
harness solar energy for commercial use. On the whole, the present scenario 
on the power front does not look very encouraging. 
1. Does the paragraph now read better?    Yes       No             
2. What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform? 
________________________________
3. Such expressions are called 'connectors'- i.e, words or phrases which join 
together the writer's or the speaker's thoughts and so make them flow more 
94
CBSE
smoothly.  In this unit we shall practice various types of 'connectors' in 
English.
A B
Food and drink prices in New York are introduces the results
very high; furthermore, renting an 
apartment there is very expensive. 
Ragini has a great sense of humour.  adds information
In the same way, her sister Taarini 
loves a good joke.
The film had poor reviews. So, I introduces a similar idea 
went out with my friends to see a 
play instead.
Sujoy is a lazy boy. Consequently gives a different/ opposite idea
he failed in his exams.
The underlined words or phrases are examples of connectors. They perform 
different roles of connecting ideas and sentences so that discourse becomes
cohesive and coherent.  Hence the connectors are also known as cohesive
devices or discourse markers.
A.2 Read the sentences in Column A and identify the role (i.e. the "job") of the 
underlined words. Then match each sentence with a role in Column B.
95
CBSE
A.3 Complete the sentences given below using appropriate expressions given 
in the box.
  incidentally I'm afraid on the one hand
  consequently for instance nevertheless
  in other words on the other hand on the contrary
1 The agenda for development should ___________________________ encourage 
industrialization and _________________________ preserve the environment 
and human rights. 
2. My new job is very demanding, ___________________________ I enjoy the 
challenge it offers to my creativity.
3. The team did not get discouraged by the early setback.  _________ it started 
playing a more aggressive game.
4. I have managed to find a flat near my work spot and I will be moving in there 
by next week. _____________________, I met Prof. Anil Kapoor, our economics 
teacher at college, during the house hunting.
5. Many roadside restaurants cut cost by using cheap ingredients in their 
dishes. Take the cooking medium, ____________________.  Instead of good 
quality refined oil, they mostly use palmoline which has high levels of 
saturated fatty acids.
6. The Sharmas decided to go to the USA to stay with their son. 
_________________ they had to dispose of their flat at Jaipur.
7. The committee considers the quotation submitted by the firm rather 
unrealistic.  ________________________, the firm will not be able to deliver the 
product in time as per the specifications stipulated.
96
CBSE
8. Though the demand of the union appears to be reasonable, _____________ 
that the company will not be able to accede to it is the present market 
conditions.
Role Connectors
1. Change of subject a. consequently
2. Making things clear b. I'm afraid
3. Stating the effect c. on the one hand
/ on the other hand
4. Softening the effect of some d. in other words
bad news.
5. Balancing contrasting points e. nevertheless
6. Contradicting f. for instance
7. Emphasing a contrast g. incidentally 
8. Giving examples h. on the contrary
You might have found this exercise a little challenging.  Hence the answers are 
given below which you can discuss in your class.
Answers: 1- g; 2- d; 3- a; 4- b; 5- c; 6- h; 7- e; 8- f.
A.4 You have already seen in A2 the four roles of the connectors.  Now match 
the following roles with the connectors that you have used to complete 
the  sentences in A.3.
Page 5


6
CONNECTORS
93
A. What are Connectors?
A.1 Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions that follow.
Now read the paragraph again.
Atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy. It poses a threat to life and 
environment in case of natural disasters.  Countries may decide to rely less on 
atomic energy in the future.  Presently we cannot shut down nuclear power 
plants.  We have not yet developed a viable alternative.  Solar energy is safer.  It 
is available in abundance, free of cost.  Scientists have not yet come up with 
processes to harness solar energy for commercial use.  The present scenario on 
the power front does not look very encouraging.
1. Could you follow the meaning clearly? Yes   No                 
     2. Do you think the ideas and sentences are well connected?    Yes       No          
3. What are the words and phrases you can insert to make the paragraph read 
better?      _____________________________________________
Though atomic energy is less polluting than thermal energy, it poses a grave 
threat to life and environment in case of natural disasters. Hence countries 
may decide to rely less on atomic energy in the future. However presently we 
cannot shut down nuclear power plants because we have not yet developed a 
viable alternative. Solar energy is safer. Moreover, it is available in 
abundance, free of cost.  But scientists have not yet come up with processes to 
harness solar energy for commercial use. On the whole, the present scenario 
on the power front does not look very encouraging. 
1. Does the paragraph now read better?    Yes       No             
2. What is the function that the highlighted words and phrases perform? 
________________________________
3. Such expressions are called 'connectors'- i.e, words or phrases which join 
together the writer's or the speaker's thoughts and so make them flow more 
94
CBSE
smoothly.  In this unit we shall practice various types of 'connectors' in 
English.
A B
Food and drink prices in New York are introduces the results
very high; furthermore, renting an 
apartment there is very expensive. 
Ragini has a great sense of humour.  adds information
In the same way, her sister Taarini 
loves a good joke.
The film had poor reviews. So, I introduces a similar idea 
went out with my friends to see a 
play instead.
Sujoy is a lazy boy. Consequently gives a different/ opposite idea
he failed in his exams.
The underlined words or phrases are examples of connectors. They perform 
different roles of connecting ideas and sentences so that discourse becomes
cohesive and coherent.  Hence the connectors are also known as cohesive
devices or discourse markers.
A.2 Read the sentences in Column A and identify the role (i.e. the "job") of the 
underlined words. Then match each sentence with a role in Column B.
95
CBSE
A.3 Complete the sentences given below using appropriate expressions given 
in the box.
  incidentally I'm afraid on the one hand
  consequently for instance nevertheless
  in other words on the other hand on the contrary
1 The agenda for development should ___________________________ encourage 
industrialization and _________________________ preserve the environment 
and human rights. 
2. My new job is very demanding, ___________________________ I enjoy the 
challenge it offers to my creativity.
3. The team did not get discouraged by the early setback.  _________ it started 
playing a more aggressive game.
4. I have managed to find a flat near my work spot and I will be moving in there 
by next week. _____________________, I met Prof. Anil Kapoor, our economics 
teacher at college, during the house hunting.
5. Many roadside restaurants cut cost by using cheap ingredients in their 
dishes. Take the cooking medium, ____________________.  Instead of good 
quality refined oil, they mostly use palmoline which has high levels of 
saturated fatty acids.
6. The Sharmas decided to go to the USA to stay with their son. 
_________________ they had to dispose of their flat at Jaipur.
7. The committee considers the quotation submitted by the firm rather 
unrealistic.  ________________________, the firm will not be able to deliver the 
product in time as per the specifications stipulated.
96
CBSE
8. Though the demand of the union appears to be reasonable, _____________ 
that the company will not be able to accede to it is the present market 
conditions.
Role Connectors
1. Change of subject a. consequently
2. Making things clear b. I'm afraid
3. Stating the effect c. on the one hand
/ on the other hand
4. Softening the effect of some d. in other words
bad news.
5. Balancing contrasting points e. nevertheless
6. Contradicting f. for instance
7. Emphasing a contrast g. incidentally 
8. Giving examples h. on the contrary
You might have found this exercise a little challenging.  Hence the answers are 
given below which you can discuss in your class.
Answers: 1- g; 2- d; 3- a; 4- b; 5- c; 6- h; 7- e; 8- f.
A.4 You have already seen in A2 the four roles of the connectors.  Now match 
the following roles with the connectors that you have used to complete 
the  sentences in A.3.
97
CBSE
B. Adding information
B.1 You are already familiar with words like and, as well as, and also to add 
information already given in a sentence.  You will now learn to use more 
formal words to add information.  These are furthermore, moreover,
additionally, and in addition which are particularly useful in formal 
writing.
Complete the following sentences using furthermore, moreover, 
additionally, and in addition.
B.2 Write a second sentence in each pair, using the clues and a suitable 
connector.
1. Their team has got the best players.  _____________________, their coach is 
fantastic.
2. We had a terrible time on our holiday.  The weather was hot; __________, the 
air was humid.
3. Greens contain Vitamin A. __________, they are rich sources of iron.
4. _________________ to being a good student, Rahul works very hard to help his 
parents.
5. He is ignorant; ___________, he is lazy.
6. That house isn't big enough for us, and ____________________, it's too 
expensive.
1. Harbhajan scored a half century in the first Quarter Finals of the World Cup 
Cricket Match against  the West Indies. (five wickets).
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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