Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Introduction:
A Natural region is a group of areas where the conditions of relief, temperature, rain-fall, natural vegetation and consequently the cultural environment are more or less similar.

Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRevThe Burren, a vast natural region in Ireland

  • The boundaries of naturals regions are permanent, because they are determined by nature.
  • They do not, therefore, change as political boundaries do.
  • But at the same time, the boundaries of natural regions are not so-well demarcated as political boundaries.

Natural Regions
World may be divided in the following natural regions: 

  • Tropical Region
  • Equatorial Region 
  • Savanna Region 
  • Monsoon Region 
  • Hot Desert Region

Warm Temperate Region

  • China-type Region 
  • Mediterranean-type Region 
  • Turan-type Region

Cool Temperate Region

  • St. Lawrence-type Region 
  • Prairies-type Region 
  • N.W. Europe-type Region 
  • Taiga Region

Cold Region

  • Tundra Region
    Question 1:Which of the following regions come under cold Temperate region?

Equatorial Region

  • Location: It stretches along the equator in the form of a belt roughly between the latitude of 10°N and 10°S.
  • It includes the Amazon lowlands, and the coast of Guianas in South America; Congo basin and Guinea Coast of Africa, and Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea and South Philippines of the Asian continent.

Natural Environments

Climate: It is a hot-wet climatic region. The temperature is normally in the vicinity of 27°C throughout the year.
Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRevGlobal mean surface temperature change since 1880 

  • The annual range of temperature is the smallest.
  • Rain falls throughout the year and almost daily. But it is heavier just after the positions of Equinoxes on two occasions i.e. after 21st March and 23rd September.
  • There is, practically, no change in season.
  • The average annual rainfall is everywhere more than 150 cms and at places as high as 300 cms.

Natural Vegetation: Forest is the natural vegetation. Equatorial forests are the world’s densest forests. They are also known as Selvas.

  • With abundant supply of sunshine and rain, trees attain very high stature, sometimes as high as 100 metres.
  • The foliage is so thick and the trees grow so close that they form a continuous canopy of green foliage and sometimes there are two or three canopies formed. They are also called “three-tier” vegetation.
    Question 2:The equatorial region belt stretches across the earth between which of these latitude?

Animal Life: The tsetse fly is a menace on account of its poisonous sting. The hippopotamus, the rhinoceros and the elephants are found abundantly.

  • The Hippos are found in Swampy areas.
  • Most of the native animal life finds its abode not on the surface, but on the tree trunks.
  • They are, the gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys, apes, sloths, lizards etc.
  • Some roaming animals have changed from leaping to climbing ones i.e. the Jaguar of the Amazon basin.

Cultural Environments

  • Mode of life: The entire equatorial region, is by far, a region of the primitive races, who live by hunting, fishing and gathering only.
  • Several primitive races of this region are worth mentioning i.e. the Amazon Indians, the Congo-basin Pygmies, the Dayaks of Borneo, the Semangs of Malaysia, the Veddas of Ceylon, the Kubus of Sumatra and the Head-hunter of New-Guinea Islands.

Economic Development

Forestry: 

Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRevMadhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in India.Although the chief natural resources of the Equatorial regions are the forests, yet forestry is very little developed. Reasons are as follow:

  • It is very difficult to penetrate into them because of their denseness and tangled under growth.
  • The trees do not grow in pure stands.
  • The trees are generally hardwood trees, which are not suitable for commercial purposes.
  • Transporting of wood is a problem because transportation facility is limited to the streams, which are also not so suitable for navigation.
  • There is paucity of finances with these backward people.

Mining: The equatorial regions have a number of potential areas of mineral resources.

  • Malaysia is noted for tin.
  • Indonesia has mineral oil and tin.
  • Guinea-coast countries are rich in bauxite.
  • The Congo-basin has areas of copper, tin and precious stones.
  • The Amazon-basin has iron ore.
    Question 3:Which of the following Indian states has the highest forest cover in terms of area?

IMPORTANT CITIES

Singapore

  • This city is the capital of an island country of the same name.
  • The small island of Singapore is situated near the southern tip of the Malaya peninsula separated by the straits of Malacca.
  • It is very important port, because of its location on the cross-roads of the Indian and the Pacific Ocean routes.
  • It has made a name for entrepot trade and is famous for handling the products of the Equatorial and the Monsoon regions.

Jakarta

  • It is a big city of the Java Island. It is a big commercial centre handling local trade of tropical products.
  • Jakarta (also the capital of Indonesia) is an important sea-port, which handles much of the Indonesia foreign trade.

Manaus (Brazil)

Natural Regions of The World UPSC Notes | EduRevManaus in 1865

  • It is an important city of the Amazon-basin, situated in the interior at the confluence of river Rio-Negro with Amazon.
  • Centrally located as it is, it has grown into a big commercial centre of forest-products.
  • It has progressed with the development of rubber-plantations.
  • It is connected with the port city of Belem, the gateway of the Amazon-basin by river-navigation route of the Amazon.

Accra

  • It is a coastal town of Ghana situated on the guinea-coast. It is an important port, which handles most of the foreign trade of Ghana.
  • Its important exports are cocoa, rubber, tin, manganese, timber and several minor forest products.
  • This city is also the capital of Ghana Republic.
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