Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

Introduction
(i) India- one of the largest film industries in Asia.
(ii) Indian film Industry- produces largest number of films in the world (in Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Bhojpuri, etc).
(iii) 2014 survey, India produces 3000 celluloid films (1000 short films & 1969feature films)
(iv) Recently, allowing full Foreign Direct Investment in film sector which led media houses like 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros., etc to invest in Indian films.

IMPORTANCE OF INDIAN CINEMA
(i) Films post-independence era have shaped our identity as a nation & helped us to portray socioeconomic Apolitical existence of Indians
(ii) Empirical studies- films have a deep impact on the common man’s psyche hence people usually carry it with themselves.
(iii) Two types of cinema: one for entertainment & other for showing realities of day-today life that is ‘alternate’ or ‘parallel’ cinema.

HISTORY OF INDIAN CINEMA
History of Indian Cinema
(i) Lumiere Brothers (famous as inventors of Cinematograph)- brought motion pictures to India by exhibiting six-soundless short films in Bombay in 1896.(ii) First film was Coconut Fair & Our Indian Empire- shot by an unknown photographer in 1897.
(iii) Then Italian duo, Colorello & Cornaglia- made an exhibition in tents at Azad Maidan in Bombay.
(iv) Followed by a spate of short films- The Death of Nelson, Call on the London Fire Brigade & Noah’s Arlcwa exhibited in Bombay in 1898.
(v) First motion venture by an Indian- Harishchandra Bhatvadekar, known as Save Dada. Fie made two short films in 1899 & exhibited them using Edison Projecting Kinetoscope. In 1900s- notable Indian filmmaker- F.B Thanawalla who made Taboot Procession & Splendid New Views of Bombay.
(vi) Hiralal Sen- Indian Life and Scenes made in 1903.
(vii) Major Warwick- established first cinema house in Madras in 1900.
(viii) Wealthy Indian businessman, Jamshedjee Madan established Elphinstone Picture House in Calcutta in 1907.
(ix) Universal Studios established- first Hollywood based agency in India in 1916.

The era of Silent Films
(i) 1910 to 1920- dominated by silent films.
(ii) They were not totally mute & included music and dance.
(iii) 1912- first Indo-British collaboration for making a silent movie, Pundalik- by N.G Chitre & R. G Torney.
(iv) 1913- Dadasaheb Phalke {father of Indian cinema)- produced Raja Harishchandra(first indigenous Indian silent film). He later made Mohini Bhasmasur, Satyavan Savitri & the first box office hit Lanka Dahan in 1917.
(v) 1918- opening of two film companies, i.e. Kohinoor Film Company & Dadasaheb Phalke’s Hindustan Cinema Films Company.
(vi) Government imposed ‘Entertainment tax’ in Calcutta in 1922 & next year in Bombay.
(vii) Filmmakers like Baburao Painter, Suchet Singh and V. Shantaram got opportunities.
(viii) Outstanding works were:
Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
(ix) Most popular subjects- mythology & history .
(x) V. Shantaram (made Amar Jyoti), a film about women’s emancipation
(xi) Notable women filmmakers- Fatima Begum- first Indian woman to produce & direct her own film in 1926, titled Bulbul-e- Parastan.
(xii) First film controversy- regarding censorship was over film Bhakta Vidhur{was banned in Madras in 1921)
(xiii) International collaborations- Madan’s Nala Damayanti (collaboration with Italy) & Himanshu Ray’s A Throw of Dice & Prem Sanyas ( Indo-German sponsorship).

The Epoch of Talkies
(i) First talking film- Alam Ara, produced by Imperial Film Company & directed by Ardeshir Irani.
(ii) It was screened at Majestic Cinema in Bombay in 1931.

(iii) It had songs by W.M. Khan (India’s first singer) & his De de khuda ke naam par was first recorded song in Indian cinematic history.
(iv) During 1930s- no pre-recording facilities^so movies did not have dialogue writers & songs were sung during shooting of movie.

(v) In late thirties- big banners like Bombay Talkies, New Theatres & Prabhat emerged & brought Studio System.

(vi) 1935- first film to use studio system- P.C Barua’s Devdas.

(vii) First Indian colour film(processed and printed in Germany)- Sairandhri made by Prabhat in 1933.

(viii) First indigenously made colour film- Kisan Kanya, produced by Ardashir Irani in 1937.

(ix) Some distinctive films:    
Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

War Ravaged 1940s
(i) During forties - fervour for independence was displayed in films like Dharti ke Lai, Do Aankhen Baarah Haath, etc.
(ii)Tragic love stories - Chandralekha, Laila Majnu, Sikander, Chitralekha, etc.
(iii) Social issues- Chetan Anand’s Neecha Nagar; Aurat by Mehboob; Pukar by Sohrab Modi, etc.
(iv) Lyricist V. Shantaram made- Dr. Kotnis ki Atma Katha, Pinjra, Padosi, Geet Gaya Patharo Ne which dominated this period.
(v) 1948- establishment of RK Films by Kapoor family- its first film titled Aag.

Coming of Age -1950s
(i) 1950s- setting up of Central Board of Film Certification, to regulate content of large number of films, which were being produced in north & south India.
(ii) ‘Trinity’ of Hindi cinema-Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand & Raj Kapoor, came up.
(iii) First technicolour film - 1953 by Sohrab Modi, titled Jhansi Ki Rani.
(iv) First International Film Festival of India. (IFFI) was held in Bombay- 1952.
(v) Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen- first Indian film to win an award at Cannes.
(vi) Cannes award- won by Satyajit Ray’s Father Panchali; Mother India was nominated best Foreign Language films category- 1957 for Oscar Award.
(vii) Government of India instituted National Film Awards^ first given to feature film Shyamchi Aai; best short film award - Mahabalipuram by Jagat Murari.
(viii) First film to win President’s Gold Medal- Mirza Ghalib by Sohrab Modi in 1954.
(ix) Other distinguished films:

 1954 S.K Ojha Naaz First film to shoot at foreign locations
 1957 K. A. Abbas Pardesi First Indo-Soviet collaboration
 1958 Guru DuttKagaz Ke Phool
 First Indian film in Cinemascope


The Golden Era - 1960s
(i) Music was used as unique selling point (USP) by movies like Jis Desh main Ganga Behti hai, starring Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand’s Guide, Yash Chopra’s Wac/t, etc.
(ii) Two wars of 1962 & 1965- became subject of several nationalistic films like Chetan Anand’s Haqeeqat, Shakti Samanta’s
(iii) Rajesh Khanna Starring Aradhana & Raj Kapoor starring Sangam- became cult.
(iv) Government established Film & Television Institute of India in Pune in 1960 to train writers, directors and actors in their craft. It was in 1969- Dadasaheb Phalke passed away & Dadasaheb Phalke Award for lifetime achievement was instituted.

The ‘Angry Young Man’ Phase - 1970-80
(i) ‘Era of Amitabh Bachchan’.
(ii) Successful movies- Zanjeer, Agnipath, Amar Akbar & Anthony, etc.
(iii) Another major genre- horror movies, which was pioneered by Ramsay Brothers in movies like Do Gaz Zameen ke Neeche.
(iv) Censor Board used term ‘B-grade’ movies for this genre.
(v) Religious films on deities like Jai Santoshi Maa, etc.
(vi) Sholay- first film to be made on 70 mm scale- broke all existing records & was longest running film in cinemas till 1990s.
(vii) Kaili Azmi & Javed Akhtar wrote screenplay & dialogues of this.
(viii) Kaifi Azmi- first to write an entire film in rhyming lyrics->it was an adaptation of a Punjabi love story titled Heer Raniha.

Phase of Romantic Cinema-1980-2000
(i) 1980 onwards- movies about social issues, romantic movies & family dramas.
(ii) Major actors- Anil Kapoor, Jackie Shroff & Govinda, who acted in Tezaab, Ram Lakhan, Phool aur Kante, Hum, etc.
(iii) Late 80s- emergence of ‘antihero’ through films like Baazigar and Darr, which launched Shah Rukh Khan.
(iv) After Liberalisation, Globalisation and Privatisation (LPG) in the 1990speople wanted to see films about the rich urban youth.
(v) Filmmakers like Aditya Chopra (Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge, Dil to Pagal hai, etc) made those.
(vi) Second triumvirate of Indian cinema- the Khans -Shahrukh Khan, Salman Khan and Aamir Khan.
(vii) My Dear Kuttichatan- India’s first 3D movie that in Malyalam & was dubbed in Hindi and titled Chhota Chetan.
(viii) Dolby sound system- first used in 1942-A Love Story by Vidhu Vinod Chopra.
(ix) International collaborations- by fimmakers Gurinder Chadha & Shekhar Kapur led to films like Bend it Like Beckham, Bride & Prejudice & Elizabeth.
(x) Dominating Filmmakers- Imtiaz Ali, Raju Hirani, Sanjay Leela Bhansali & Karan Johar dominate the scene.

The Parallel Cinema
(i) Has always been there from late 1940s\
(ii) Purpose- to ercatc good eincma
(iii) Not extremely commercially viable.
(iv) It first started in regional cinema first with production of Mrinal Sen’s Bhuvan Shome in 1969. Opened a wave of ‘new cinema’, to focusing on artistic excellence & had a humanist perspective
(v) Causative factors for coming of parallel cinema in India:
(a) global trend after World War II
(b) neo-realism and was reflected in Mother India, Shree 420, etc. plethora of institutions to study of films were opened in 1964
(c) India became a hotspot for international film festivals.
(vi) Foremost name in parallel cinema- Satyajit Ray who made Appu Trilogy-Father Panchali, Apur Sansar and Aparajito.
(vii) Other names- Ritwik Ghatak- problems of lower middle-class- Nagarik, Aajantrik and Meghe Dhaka Tara.
(viii) 1980s, parallel cinema brought role of women to the forefront.
(ix) Famous women directors- Sai Paranjpye (Chasme Baddoor, Sparsh), Kalpana Lajmi (Ek Pal) and Apama Sen (36 Chowringhee Lane).
(x) Meera Nair- film Salaam Bombay won Golden Cannes Award in 1989.

Role of women in Indian Cinema
(i) During period of silent movies- restrictions placed on woman’s life were focused.
(ii) During 1920-40, most directors V. Shantaram, Dhiren Ganguli and Baburao Painter- women emancipation issues like ban on child marriages, abolition of sati, etc.
(iii) Then supported widow remarriage, women’s education & right to equality of women in workspace.
(iv) 1960-80 approach to the woman was extremely stereotypical as heroine or ‘ideal woman’, they glorified motherhood.
(v) Notable directors- Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Guru Putt, Shyam Bengal, etc.

SOUTH INDIAN CINEMA
(i) Includes five film industries of South India- Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam & Tulu (Coastal Karnataka) film Industries.
(ii)  2010 statistics- 723 films produced in South Indian languages & 588 in all other Indian languages.
(iii) Telugu & Tamil film industries- biggest.
(iv) Kannada & Telugu films- domestic audiences; Tamil & Malayalam- sizeable diaspora abroad.
(v) Themes- literature, mythology & folklore.
(vi) Telugu cinema- mythological themes from Ramayana & Mahabharata.
(vii) N.T. Rama Rao- famous for portrayals of Krishna, Rama, Shiva, Arjuna & Bhima. NTR played Krishna’s role in 17 movies & become a successful political leader.
(viii) Mythological stories- Kannada & Tamil films.
(ix) Kannada mythological films- ‘Babruvahana’ & ‘Ramanjaneya Yuddha’.
(x) ‘Tiruvilaiyadal' (very successful Tamil film)- director A.P. Nagrajan & Shivaji Ganeshan,was the actor.
(xi) Major component of South Indian cinema- films based on socio-economic issues.
(xii) Plots involve: corruption, asymmetric power structures prevalent social structures and its problems, unemployment, dowry, remarriages, violence on women etc.
(xiii) Themes- love, revenge, crimes, fight between good and evil, family dramas, etc.
(xiv) Actors- two types: aggressive & comical.
(xv) Recent times- strong female characters are depicted.
(xvi) Notable superstars- M.G. Ramachandran, NT Rama Rao, Shivaji Ganesan, Gemini Ganesan, Rajkumar, Vishnuvardhan, Rajinikanth, Thilakan, Prem Nazir, Mohan Lai, Kamal Hasan, Mammootty, Ajith Kumar, Chiranieevi, Mahesh Babu, Joseph Vi jay and many more.

RECENT FILM CONTROVERSIES
(i) Shekhar Kapoor- Bandit Queen (1994) - Banned by Censor Board on grounds of nudity & obscene content.
(ii) Deepa Mehta’s Water (portrayed lives of widows in 1930s & their exclusion from society)- one of the most important controversies of this millennium as it was banned in various cinema halls in India.
(iii) Deepa Mehta’s Fire (1996)- banned by Censor Board on the ground of showing ‘unnatural’ lesbian relations between two sisterin- laws played by Shabana Azmi and Nandita Das.
(iv) Madras Cafe- banned in Sri Lanka & parts of United Kingdom as it was made on Sri Lankan Civil War.
(v) Anurag Kashyap’s Paanch- banned by Censor Board as it was high on drug abuse, violence & obscene language.
(vi) Black Friday (on Mumbai bomb blasts) - stopped from release by Bombay High Court.
(vii) Messenger of God- by Baba Ram Rahim (2014) - created chaos in parts of North India.
(viii) Kamal Haasan’s Vishwaroopam- Muslim groups of Tamil Nadu said that it hurt their religious sentiments → Censor Board of India gave it a go ahead & movie was released.
(ix) Parzania (2005)- on Gujarat riots- was not screened in Gujarat but won a National Award..
(a) Role of Central Board of Film Certification or “Censor Board” has come under great scrutiny in recent times Athcrc are serious questions with regard to definition & interpretation of taste, morality & public sentiment. Also greater transparency is needed in its functioning. Artistic creativity and freedom has to be encouraged to create a truly vibrant democracy.

INDIAN CINEMATOGRAPH ACT OF 1952
(i) Government of India instituted Indian Cinematograph Act, 1952 to certify films.
(ii) Major function of Act- to flesh out constitution & functioning of Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC), or ‘Censor Board of India’.
(iii) Provides for- appointment of a Chairman of Censor Board & a team of people (not less than twelve and not more than twenty five) to be appointed by Central Government.
(iv) Board- examines a film & decides if film should not be exhibited on the grounds of offense to a certain geographical area, age group, religious denomination or political group.
(v) Can also direct to make modifications & excisions in the film, which if not made, Censor Board can refuse to sanction film for public exhibition.
(vi) Certification of films- subject under Central Government but enforcement of censorship in their respective domains lies with State governments.
(vii) Certification- done on following basis:
 Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
(viii) Act established Film Certification Appellate Tribunal (FCAT) under section 5D for hearing appeals of disgruntled parties who ask for a re-examination of decision of Censor Board (CBFC).

Censorship in India
(i) Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) - government body that governs & directs censorship in India.
(ii) It was set up in 1950 as Central Board of Film Censors which changed under Act of 1952.
(iii) Is under Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.
(iv) Head office- Mumbai & regional offices- Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Guwahati, Cuttack, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad.
(v) CBFC has a Chairman & governing members, appointed by government through Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.
(vi) Members- famous & talented personalities from film industry or other intellectuals; term- three years.
(vii) An advisory panel in regional office- headed by Regional officers.
(viii) On disagreement between filmmakers & Censor Board-> two-tier committees can be approached-Examining Committee & Revising Committee.
(ix) All films, even foreign films that are imported to India or that have been dubbed have to get a Censor Board certificate. Only exception to it are films made especially for Doordarshan as they are official broadcaster for Government of India & they have their own set of rules for examining such films.
(x) CBFC certification- not required for television programmes & serials.
(xi) 2016- Shyam Benegal Committee->to lay down norms for film certification that take note of best practices in various parts of the world & give sufficient and adequate space for artistic and creative expression.
(xii) Major highlights of report:
(a) Scope of CBFC should be restricted to categorizing suitability of film to audience groups on the basis of age & maturity.
(b) Stated that Board, including Chairman, should only play the role of a guiding mechanism for CBFC & not be involved in day-to-day affairs of certification.
(c) Online submission of applications as well as simplification of forms & accompanying documentation.
(d) Recertification of a film should be permitted.
(e) Categorization of films should be more specific & apart from U category, UA Category can be broken up into further subcategories - UA12+ & UA15+. The A category should also be subdivided into A and AC (Adult with Caution) categories.

Does India need a National Film Policy
(i) Necessary that India should have a national film policy because we have the world’s largest film producing industry.
(ii) More than a thousand movies are made per year and their contribution to the GDP of India has been significant.
(iii) Industry is facing a paradox as contents of films produced are rigidly controlled by government through Censor Board. So, there should be a limit to the government’s intervention for sustained growth.
(iv) A policy should be brought to bring Regional cinema at par with mainstream Hindi cinema.
(v) Film schools on lines of FTII, should be started to teach art of filmmaking & photography
(vi) Need for global promotion of Indian cinema.
(vii) Policy can ensure that incentives are given for digitisation of content.
(viii) New guidelines for censorship issues to keep up with changing socio-cultural scenario.
(ix) Amendments to prohibit piracy should be made by making strict punitive & monetary action against offenders.

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Indian Cinema Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
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