UPSC  >  History for UPSC CSE  >  Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy

Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

Document Description: Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy for UPSC 2022 is part of History for UPSC CSE preparation. The notes and questions for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy covers topics like and Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy.

Introduction of Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy in English is available as part of our History for UPSC CSE for UPSC & Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy in Hindi for History for UPSC CSE course. Download more important topics related with notes, lectures and mock test series for UPSC Exam by signing up for free. UPSC: Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY
(i) Philosophy- long tradition in literature of ancient India. All schools said man should strive for lfillment of four goals:

  Goals for Life Meaning Treatise on the Goal
 Artha Economic means or wealth Matters related to the economy were discussed in Arthashastras
 Dharma Regulation of soical orders Matters related to the State were discussed in the Dharamsastra
 Kama Physical pleasures or love The Kamasastra/Kamasutra were written to elaborate on sexual matters.
 Moksha Salvation There are several texts on Darshana or philosophy that deal with salvation too.

(ii) Despite similar goals, differences on means to achieve salvation, emerged between the schools.
(iii) By the beginning of Christian Era- two different schools of philosophy, as follows emerged:

Orthodox Schools
(i) Vedas- supreme revealed scriptures that hold secrets to salvation.
(ii) Did not question the authenticity o f the Vedas.
(iii) Had six sub-schools- called Shada Darshana.

Heterodox Schools
(i) Do not believe in originality of Vedas & questioned existence of God.
(ii) Three major sub schools

Question for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy
Try yourself:Which of the following do not belong to the Heterodox School of Philosophy?
View Solution

Six Major Subschools of the Orthodox School

1. Samkhya School
(i) Oldest school of philosophy
(ii) Founded by Kapil Muni who wrote Samkhya Sutra.

(iii) ‘Samkhya’ or ‘Sankhya’ literally means ‘count’.
(iv) Two phases of development as follows:
Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC
(v) Both schools argued that salvation could be attained through knowledge, the lack of which is the root cause for misery of man.
(vi) Believed in dualism or dvaitavada, i.e. the soul & matter are separate entities.
(vii) This concept- basis of real knowledge.
(viii) Knowledge- acquired through three main concepts: Pratyaksha: Perception ;Anumana: Inference & Shabda: Hearing
(ix) Have scientific system of inquiry.
(x) Prakriti & Purusha- basis of reality & absolutely independent.
(xi) Purusha- closer to attributes of a male & associated with consciousness & cannot be changed or altered.
(xii) Prakriti - three major attributes: thought, movement & transformation; closer to physiognomy of a woman.

2. Yoga School
(i) Yoga school literally means union of two major entities.
(ii) Say that salvation can be achieved by combining meditation & physical application of yogic techniques.
(iii) Techniques lead to release of Purusha from Prakriti.
(iv) Origin of Yoga & school- in Yogasutra of Patanjali (2nd century BCE).
(v) Physical aspects of this school- various postures called asanas.
(vi) Breathing exercises- pranayams.
(vii) Other means of achieving mukti or freedom are:

 Means of Achieving Freedom Meanings/Ways of achieving it
 Yama Practicing self-control
 Niyama Observation o f the rules governing one’s life
 Pratyahara Choosing an object
 Dharna Fixing the mind (over the chosen object)
 Dhyana Concentrating on the (above-mentioned) chosen object
 Samadhi Merging o f mind & object that leads tofinal dissolution o f the self.

(viii) These techniques help humans to control their mind, body & sensory organs.
(ix) These exercises help one believe in the existence of god as a guide, mentor & teacher.
(x) Help individual to move away from worldly matter & achieve concentration required to get salvation.

3. Nyaya School
(i) Believe in logical thinking to achieve salvation.
(ii) Consider life, death & salvation to be like mysteries that can be solved through logical & analytical thinking.
(iii) Argue that acquiring ‘real knowledge’ can only accrue salvation.
(iv) Founded by Gautama, author of Nyaya Sutra.
(v) Argue that use of logical tools like inference, hearing & analogy; a human being could verify truth of a proposition or statement.
(vi) Argue that creation of Universe- was through God’s hands.
(vii) Believe that God not only created the Universe but also sustained & destroyed it.
(viii) Constantly stressed on systematic reasoning & thinking.

Question for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy
Try yourself:Which school of philosophy has a view that Salvation can be attained through acquisition of knowledge?
View Solution

4. Vaisheshika School
(i) Believes in physicality of Universe
(ii) Realistic & objective philosophy that governs the universe.
(iii) Founder- Kanada who wrote the text goveming Vaisheshika philosophy
(iv) Argue that everything in universe is created by five main elements (called Dravya): fire, air, water, earth & ether (sky).
(v) Argue that reality has many categories- action, attribute, genus, inherence, substance & distinct quality.
(vi) Has a very scientific approach- developed atomic theory, i.e. all material objects are made of atoms.
(vii) Was also responsible for the beginning of physics in Indian subcontinent.
(viii) Are propounders of mechanical process of formation of Universe.
(ix) Believe in god and consider him as guiding principal.
(x) Believe in laws of karma guide this universe, i.e. everything is based on the actions of human beings.
(xi) Believed in salvation, parallel to creation & destruction of universe, which was a cyclic process decided by God.

5. Mimamsa School
(i) ‘Mimamsa’ means art of reasoning, interpretation & application.
(ii) Focuses on analysis of texts of Samhita & Brahmana.
(iii) Argue that Vedas contain eternal*;truth & are repositories of all knowledge.
(iv) To acquire heaven & salvation, they would have to fulfill all the duties prescribed by the Vedas.
(v) Described in - Sutras of Jaimini of 3rd century BCE.
(vi) Greatest proponents: Sabar Swami and Kumarila Bhatta.
(vii) Argue that salvation is possible through performing rituals but justification & reasoning behind Vedic rituals, should be understood.
(viii) Said humans not free of cycle of life & death, until they achieve salvation.
(ix) Main focus- ritualistic part of Vedas, i.e. to achieve salvation one has to perform Vedic rituals.
(x) Involves the assistance of priests, hence it inherently legitimized the social distance between various classes.
(xi) Used as a device by Brahmans to maintain their clout over people.

Question for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy
Try yourself:Consider the following
1. Samkhya school believes in Advaitavada
2. Ramanujan was its major philosopher
Which of the above is/are correct?
View Solution

Vedanta School
(i) Vedanta- two words- ‘Veda’ & ‘ant’, i.e. end of the Vedas.
(ii) Upholds the philosophies of life elaborated in Upanishads.
(iii) A Oldest text that formed its basis- Brahmasutra of Badrayana (2nd century BCE).
(iv) Brahma- reality of life & everything else is unreal or Maya.
(v) Atma or consciousness of self is similar to brahma.
(vi) This argument equalizes atma &brahma, knowledge of the self, would amount to understanding brahma & lead to salvation.
(vii) Brahma & atma indestructible and eternal.
(viii) Evolved in 9th century AD with philosophical intervention of Shankaracharya who wrote commentaries on Upanishads & Bhagavad Gita-> led to the development of Advaita Vedanta.
(ix) Ramanujan- major philosopher (wrote inl2th century AD). His intervention led to some differences in this school:

 Shankaracharya’s View Ramanujan’s View
 Considers brahma to be without any attributes. Considers brahma to possess certain attributes
 Considers Knowledge or jnana/gyan to be main means of attaining salvation Considers loving faith & practicing devotion as path to attain salvation

(x) Gave credence to Theory of Karma.
(xi) Believed in theory of Punarjanama or rebirth and that person has to bear the brunt of their previous actions- remedyto which is finding of one’s brahma.

Three subdivisions of the Heterodox School
1. Buddhist Philosophy
(i) Founder- Gautama Buddha
(ii) After his death- his disciples called a council at Rajagriha where the main teachings of Buddhism were codified. These were:

 Name of the Disciple who write it Buddhas’ Pitakas
 Upali Vinaya Pitaka (Rules o f order for Buddhists)
 Ananda Sutta Pitaka (Buddha’s sermons and doctrines)
 Mahakashyap Abhidhamma Pitaka (Buddhist philosophy)

(iii) According to this philosophy- traditional teachings imbibed in Vedas are not useful for achieving salvation & one should not trust them blindly.
(iv) Buddha said every human being should try to seek liberation through realisation of four noble truths- Suffering in human life; Desire- fundamental cause of all the suffering; Destroy passions, desires & love for materialistic thingsto attain nirvana; lastly liberation & optimism.
(v) Nirvana/SaIvalion- is through an eight-fold path:
(a) Right Vision
(b) Right Resolve: develop a strong will-power to destroy the desires.
(c) Right Speech: control one’s speech though cultivating right speech
(d) Right Conduct: move away from desire for materialistic things.
(e) Right Means of Livelihood: do not use any unfair means to earn their livelihood.
(f) Right effort: avoid bad feelings and impressions.
(g) Right Mindfulness: keep one’s body, mind and health in correct form.
(h) Right Concentration.

Question for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy
Try yourself:Which of the following is not correctly matched?
View Solution

2. Jain Philosophy
(i) First elaborated by Jain tirthankar or wise person Rishabha Deva, who was one amongst the 24 tirthankars
(ii) Adinath- source of all Jain philosophy.
(iii) Aristanemi & AjitNath- also disseminated Jain philosophy
(iv) Also oppose the primacy of Vedas to achieve salvation.
(v) Argue that a man should control his mind by seeking right perception & knowledge.
(vi) If coupled with right conduct, would lead to salvation.
(vii) Says man should practice brahamcharya or celibacy, to achieve liberation
(viii) Major fundamentals:
(a) Natural & supernatural things in this universe are based on seven fundamental elements, i.e. jiva, ajivaa, asrava, bandha, samvara, nirjara and moksha.
(b) Two basic types of existences: Astikaya or something that has a physical shape like body & Anastakiya i.e. that which has no physical shape, like ‘time’. Everything that has a substance is called dharma, which is basis of qualities possessed by object or man.
(c) Substance is eternal and unchangeable.

Question for Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy
Try yourself:Consider the following about Vedanta school –
1. Shankaracharya considered knowledge to be the main means of attaining salvation.
2. Ramanujan considered loving the faith and practising devotion as the path of salvation.
Which of the above is/are correct?
View Solution

3. Charvaka School or Lokavata Philosophy
(i) Founder- Brihaspati
(ii) One of the earliest schools that developed a philosophical theory.
(iii) Finds mention in Vedas & Brihadarankya Upanishad.
(iv) Charvaka School- main propounder of materialistic view to achieve salvation.
(v) Was dubbed as Lokavata or something derived from common people.
(vi) ‘Lokayata’- meant keen attachment to physical & material world (loka).
(vii) Denied existence of any supernatural or divine agent who could regulate our conduct on earth.
(viii) Argued against need to achieve salvation and also denied the existence of brahma and God.
(ix) Main teachings:
(a) Against Gods and their representatives on earth - priestly class.
(b) Man- centre of all activities.
(c) Do not consider ‘ether’ as one of the five essential elements, say the universe consists of only four elements: fire, earth, water and air.
(d) No other world after this one,
(e) Pleasure should be ultimate objective of life.
(f) Propound theory of ‘eat, drink and make merry’.
(g) Materialistic philosophies dominated over idealist ones.

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
156 videos|559 docs|339 tests
Download as PDF

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

pdf

,

Extra Questions

,

Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

study material

,

past year papers

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

MCQs

,

Free

,

Sample Paper

,

Semester Notes

,

Summary

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

Viva Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Exam

,

practice quizzes

,

Nitin Singhania: Summary of Schools of Philosophy Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

Objective type Questions

;