Nitin Singhania: Summary of UNESCO’S List of Intangible Cultural Heritage Notes | Study Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests) - UPSC

UPSC: Nitin Singhania: Summary of UNESCO’S List of Intangible Cultural Heritage Notes | Study Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests) - UPSC

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of UNESCO’S List of Intangible Cultural Heritage Notes | Study Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests) - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests).
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC

UNESCO’S LIST OF INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE

  • Cultural heritage- includes traditions or living expressions such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts.
  • UNESCO established its lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide & to create awareness of their significance.

Intangible cultural heritage is:
(i) Traditional, contemporary and living at the same time:

  • Intangible cultural heritage includes contemporary rural & urban practices

(ii) Inclusive:

  • Of those passed from one generation to another; evolved in response to their environments and that contribute by giving us a sense of identity and continuity.
  • Such heritage contributes to social cohesion, encouraging a sense of identity and responsibility;

(iii) Representative:

  • It’s not merely valued as a cultural good on a comparative basis, for its exclusivity or its exceptional value.
  • It thrives on its basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions, skills and customs are passed on to the rest of the community.

(iv) Community-based:

  • Intangible cultural heritage can be a heritage only when it is recognized as such by the communities, groups or individuals that create, maintain and transmit it.

(i) As of 2010, the programme has compiled two lists.

(a) The Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity:

  • Comprises of cultural practices and expressions.

(b) The List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding:

  • Composed of cultural elements that concerned communities and countries consider vulnerable and require urgent measures.

Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

  • India has following ten intangibles in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity:

1. Koodiyattam (Sanskrit theatre) [20081
(i) Combined dance drama
(ii) Conducted by Chakyars (subcaste among Hindus) who play the male caste traditionally in Kerala.
(iii) Women of Nambiar caste - female roles.
(iv) Performance lasts 6 to 20 days.
(v) Enacted inside temples
(vi) Theme- Hindu mythology.
(vii) Character “Vidushaka” explains in simple Malayalam the background of the story.
(viii) Others character use Sanskrit language.
(ix) Mizhavu, major musical instrument is used.

Try yourself:Which of the following art form depicts mythological battle between Goddess Kali and Demon Darika?
View Solution

2. Ramlila [20081
(i) Popular folk theatre in Uttar Pradesh.
(ii) Enactment of Ramayana using songs, dances & dialogues, before Dussehra.
(iii) Performed by male actors, who enact Sita as well.
(iv) Staged annually, over ten or more successive nights, during “Sharad Navaratras”.
(v) Unique Ramlila (staged since 1972), at Bakshi ka Talab near Lucknow, where lead characters are played by Muslim youths- This play also adapted into a radio play, ‘Us gaon ki ramlila’ to promote communal harmony.

3. The Tradition in Vedic chanting 120081
(i) Vedas consists of several pathas, “recitations” or ways of chanting Vedic mantras.
(ii) Traditions of Vedic chant- considered as oldest unbroken oral tradition in existence.
(iii)  UNESCO proclaimed the tradition of Vedic chanting a Masteipiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

4. Ramman [20091]
(i) Ritual theatre of Garhwal region, it is
(ii) Celebrated by Hindu Community in Saloor-Dungra villages of Painkhanda Valley in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand.
(iii) Offerings paid to village diety, Bhumiyal Devta, in courtyard of village temple.
(iv) This festival is unique as it’s not performed elsewhere in Himalayan region.
(v) A particular caste/group hosts Bhumiyal Devta during a particular year.
(vi) Each caste & occupational group- has a distinct role.
(vii) Important aspect- singing of Jagar, a musical rendition of local legends.

Try yourself:Arrange the following according to the year in ascending order in terms of their inclusion in UNESCO’s heritage list?
1. Koodiyattam
2. Kalbelia
3. Sankirtana
4. Nuvroz
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
View Solution

5. Mudivettu [2010]
(i) Traditional ritual theatre
(ii) A folk dance & drama performed in Kerala.
(iii) Depicts battle between Goddess Kali & demon Darika.
(iv) Performed in village temples, called Bhagavati Kavus, in between February & May after harvesting season.
(v) Performers- heavy make-up & gorgeous attire with conventional facial painting, tall headgear, etc
(vi) Mutual cooperation and collective participation of each caste in the ritual.

Try yourself:Sankirtana is a ritual singing in the State of -
View Solution

6. Kalbelia, included in 2010
(i) Performed by Kalbelia tribe of Rajasthan.
(ii) Dance movements resemble a serpent.
(iii) This tribe was known for its frequent movement from one place to another and the occupation of catching snakes & trading snake venom.
(iv) Songs- based on mythology & involves spontaneous lyrics and improvisation during performance.

7. Chhau [2010]
(i) Tribal martial art dance
(ii) Performed in Odisha, Jharkhand & West Bengal.
(iii) Three subgenres of this dance based on place of origin & development
(a) Purulia Chhau (West Bengal)
(b) Seraikella Chhau ( Jharkhand)
(c) Mayurbhanj Chhau (Odisha).
(iv) Performed during spring festival & lasts for 13 days.
(v) Whole community participates.
(vi) Male dancers perform it during night time in an open space.
(vii) Blend of dance & martial practices employing mock combat techniques.
(viii) Theme- Hindu mythology.
(ix) Mask is worn by dancers except in Mayurbhanj Chhau.

8. Buddhist Chanting of Ladakh [2012]
(i) Refers to recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in trans- Himalayan Ladakh region in Jammu & Kashmir.

Try yourself:Consider the following statements:
1. Sankirtana is a ritual singing from Manipur.
2. It is included in the UNESCO list
3. It is related to Vaishnavism.
Which of the above is/are true?
View Solution

9.Sankirtana [2013]
(i) Ritual singing, drumming & dancing art form of Manipur.
(ii) Performed to mark religious occasions & various stages in life of Manipuri Vaishnavites.
(iii) Practised at temples.
(iv) Performers narrate the life & deeds of Lord Krishna.
(v) It reinforces the relationship between individual & community through life cycle ceremonies.
(vi) Typical Sankirtana performance has two drummers & 10 singers-dancers performing in the hall of a domestic courtyard.
(vii) Cymbals and Drums are used.

10. Traditional Brass and Copper craft of Utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru in Punjab [2014]
(i) Oral tradition
(ii) Passed on to generations of ‘Thathera’ community.
(iii) Metals are heated & moulded into thin plates with curved shapes.
(iv) Utensils have functional as well as ritualistic purpose.
(v) Brass, copper & Kansa (alloy of zinc, tin & copper) are used.
(vi) Recommended for medicinal purposes in Ayurveda texts.
(vii) Was patronised & encouraged by Maharaja Ranjit Singh (19th century).
(viii) Utensils are of wide variety like those used in langars of Gurudwaras.

11. Nuvroz [2016]
(i) New Year for the Parsis
(ii) Celebrated as spring festival by Kashmiri community.
(iii) Denotes Zoroastrian respect for environment.
(iv) Custom to lay down a table & place a copy of Gathas, lit a lamp or a candle, put a shallow ceramic plate with sprouted wheat or beans, small bowl with a silver coin, flowers, painted eggs, sweets & a bowl of water containing goldfish in it- all of which signify prosperity, wealth, colour, sweetness & happiness.

12. Yoga [2016]
(i) Consists of a series of poses, meditation, controlled breathing, word chanting etc.
(ii) Help a person build selfrealisation.
(iii) Was transmitted through Guru-Shishya parampara.

13. Kumbh Mela [2017]
(i) Kumbh Mela - a mass Hindu pilgrimage to bathe in a sacred river.
(ii) It is held at four places: Prayagraj, Haridwar, Nashik and Ujjain.
(iii) At any of the above place, it is held after every 12 years.
(iv) In Nashik and Ujjain it is called Simhastha. In Prayagraj and Haridwar, Kumbh mela held after every 6 years is called Ardha Kumbh.

Try yourself:Which of the following is not in the UNESCO’s intangible list?
View Solution

(v) Kumbh at Prayagraj is celebrated 3 years after Kumbh at Haridwar and 3 years before Kumbh at Nashik and Ujjain.

The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of UNESCO’S List of Intangible Cultural Heritage Notes | Study Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests) - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests).
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