Old NCERT Summary (Satish Chandra): Consolidation of Mughal Empire (Age of Akbar) UPSC Notes | EduRev

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INTRODUCTION
(i) Akbar's position was in dangerous when he succeeded his father Humayun as Delhi was seized by the Afghans.
(ii) In 1556, in the second battle of Panipat, Akabar defeated Hemu and the army of Hemu fled which made the victory of Mughal decisive.
(iii) During the first 5 years of Akbar's reign, Bairam Khan acted as his regent.
(iv) Later, Akbar removed Bairam Khan and sent him to Mecca but Bairam Khan was killed by an Afghan on his way.
(v) The military conquests of Akbar were extensive.

EARLY PHASE CONTEST WITH NOBILITY
Bairam Khan: was at the helm of affairs as reagent.
(i) He kept nobility under full control.
(ii) The empire was extended from Kabul to Jaunpur in the East and Ajmer in the west.
(iii) In the course of time Bairam Khan became arrogant
(iv) Finally, Bairam khan submitted and chose to go Mecca and was assassinated by an Afghan who had personal grudge on him.

Under Akbar:
(i) Uzbeks formed a powerful group in the nobility and broke out into rebellion between 1561 to 1567
(ii) Akbar made jaunpur his capital till he rooted them up
(iii) Mirzas also broke out into rebellions and accepted Akbar's half-brother Mirza Hakim as their ruler
(iv) Akbar marched from Jaunpur to Lahore to curb the rebellion and then marched back to Jaunpur to completely rout Uzbeks in 1567.
(v) Akbar was now free to concentrate on expansion of the Empire.

EARLY EXPANSION
(i) During Bairam Khan's regency empire extended by conquering Ajmer and Malwa
(ii) Bairam Khan rebelled before submitting to Akbar. After crushing the rebellion, Akbar sent another expedition to Malwa which was under Baz Bahadur.
(iii) Baz bahadur was defeated and brought under Mansabdari and thus bringing Malwa under Mughal rule.
(iv) At the same time the kingdom of Garh Katanga was also brought under the Mughal rule. Kingdom of Garh-Katanga= Narmada valley and Madhya Pradesh areas consisted oi several Gond and Rajput principalities brought together by Aman Das and claimed the Title of Sangram Shah.

Next 10 years- Rajasthan, Gujarat and Bengal was captured.
(i) Rajasthan: Chittor was important to conquer as it provided the shortest route from Agra to Gujarat + Symbol of Rajput spirit of resistance.
(ii) Fall of Chittor > Rathambore > most of the Rajputs submitted > Mewar
(iii) Gujarat: centre of import-export + Mirzas revolted o Therefore, important to capture.
(iv) Bengal: Afghans were powerful in Bengal and the East. They read khutbah in Akbar's name but not formally declared him as Ruler.
(v) Internal fights + declaration of independence by Daud Khan gave Akbar the opportunity he was waiting for bringing Bengal under Mughals.

ADMINISTRATION
(i) Earlier under system of Sher Shah, qanungos = hereditary local official for annua assessment revenue went corrupt.
(ii) Akbar made changes. Appointed karoris responsible for collection of revenue anc checked figures and facts given by qanungos.
(iii) With the help of Raja Todar Mai, Akbar experimented on the land revenue administration, which was completed in 1580.
(iv) The land revenue system was called Zabti or Bandobast system or Dahsala System. Payment of revenue was made generally in cash.
(v) Another system was batai, under it peasant was given choice to pay revenue in cash or in kind
(vi) 3rd system was nasaq, it was based on rough calculation of amount payable by the peasant on the basis of what he has been paying in the past.
(vii) The revenue was fixed on the average yield of land measured on the basis of previous ten years.
(i) The land was divided into four categories

  1. Polaj (cultivated every year)
  2. Parauti (once in two years)
  3. Chachar (once in three or four years)
  4. Banjar (once in five or more years)

MANSABDARI & ARMY
(i) Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system in his administration
(ii) Under this system every officer was assigned a rank (Mansab)
(iii) Lowest rank was 10 and the highest was 5000 for the nobles.
(iv) Princes of royal blood received even higher ranks.
(v) The ranks were divided into two - Zat and Sawar.
(vi) Zat means personal and it fixed the personal status of a person.
(vii) Sawar rank indicated the number of cavalrymen of a person who was required to maintain.
(viii) Every sawar had to maintain at least two horses.
(ix) All appointments, promotions and dismissals were directly made by the emperor

ORGANIZTION OF GOVERNMENT
(i) HARDLY any changes were brought
(ii) Pargana and Sarkar continued as before. The chief officers of the Sarkar were-
(a) Fauzdar=law and order
(b) Amalguzar=revenue collection
(iii) The territories were divided into
(a) Jagir = allotted to nobles and members of the Royal family
(b) Khalisa = income from khalisa lands went directly to Royal exchequer
(c) Inam = allotted to learned and religious men

RELATION WITH THE RAJPUTS
(i) Akbar married the Rajput Princess, the daughter of Raja Bharmal.
(ii) For four generation, the Rajputs served the Mughals and many served in the positions of military generals as well.
(iii) Akbar appointed Raja Man Singh and Raja Bhagawan Das in the senior position of the Mughal Administration.
(iv) Though majority of the Rajput states surrendered to Akbar, the Ranas of Mewar continued to confront even though they were defeated several times.
(v) In 1576, the Mugahl Army defeated Rana Pratap Singh in the battle of Haldighati, following the defeat of Mewar, other leading Rajput leaders surrendered to Akbar anc accepted his
(vi) Akbar's policy towards Rajput was combined with a broad religious toleration.
(vii) He abolished the pilgrim tax and later the jiziya.

REBELLIONS & FURTHER EXPANSION
(i) The new system of Administration was not liking to many nobles because
(ii) Tightening of administrative machinery
(iii) Greater control over nobles More regard to the interests of people
(iv) Sentiments of regional independence were strong

Rebellions:
(i) In Bengal and Bihar extending up to Jaunpur related to strict enforcement of Dagh system
(ii) Mirza Hakim (Akbar's half-brother) Ruler of Kabul abetted rebellion preparing for invading Punjab and joining forces with The Afghans.

Expeditions
(i) Akbar marched to Lahore to crush the rebellion and entered Kabul (first Indian Ruler to do so)
(ii) He left the kingdom into the hands of his Sister which was symbolic of his broadmindedness.
(iii) Conquest of Sindh and stayed in Lahore till the dangers of Uzbek rebellion persisted.
(iv) After securing north-west Akbar marched to the east, west and the Deccan.
(v) Akbar not only brought about political but cultural and emotional integration of the people within the vast empire.

STATE, RELIGION & SOCIAL REFORMS
(i) It's Akbar's religious policy that made way to his name in the history pages.
(ii) Akbar was a pious Muslim but after marrying Jodha Bai of Amber, he abolished pilgrim tax.
(iii) In 1562, he abolished jiziya.
(iv) He allowed his Hindu wives to worship their own gods.
(v) In 1575, Akbar built Ibadat Khana (House of worship) at his new capital Fatepur Sikri anc invited scholars from all religions like Christianity, Hinduism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism.
(vi) He did not like the intrusion of the Muslim Ulemas in political matters.
(vii) In 1579, he delivered the "Infallibility Decree" and proclaimed his religious powers.
(a) In 1582, he propagated a new religion called Din llahi or Divine Faith
(b) The new religion believed in one God.
(c) It had all the good points of every religion.
(d) Its foundation was balanced.
(e) It didn't endorse any philosophy.
(f) It aimed at bridging the gap that separated different religions.
(g) The new religion had only 15 followers including Birbal.
(h) Akbar did not compel anyone to join his new religion,
(i) However, the new religion proved to be a failure, after Akbar's death.

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