Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
 Page 1


TWENTY
Assessment and Review
The thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the
seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and
cultural life of the country and also, to a smaller extent, in its social life.
In the field of social life, the caste system continued to dominate, despite
the challenge posed to it by Islam and loss of political power by the Rajput
rulers who were duty bound to protect dharma which implied, among other
things, the upholding of the four-fold division of society (varnashrama-
dharma). Although the Nath Panthi Jogis and the Bhakti saints vehemently
criticised the caste system, they could hardly make a dent in it. A tacit
agreement was arrived at in course of time. The criticism of the caste system
by saints did not, with some notable exceptions, extend to day-to-day or
secular life, while the Brahmans acquiesced in the advocacy of the path of
devotion as the way for salvation for all castes, specially for the Shudras.
Many women saints, such as Mira, and others such as Surdas opened the way
of bhakti for women also, and their rising above the task of service and duty
to a husband. However, the Brahmans continued to claim a privileged
position for themselves, including the exclusive right to preach and educate.
Within the framework of caste, new subgroups arose, due in parts to the
absorption of tribal groups into Hinduism, the growth of new professional
groups, and also the local and regional feelings. At the same time, the varna
status of castes rose or fell, according to the economic and political power of
the groups concerned. Rajputs, Marathas and Khatris may be mentioned in
this context.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints gradually brought about a better understanding
of the fundamental tenets of Hinduism and Islam, underlining the fact that
they had a great deal of similarity. This resulted in a greater spirit of mutual
harmony and toleration, although forces advocating a narrow, intolerant
Page 2


TWENTY
Assessment and Review
The thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the
seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and
cultural life of the country and also, to a smaller extent, in its social life.
In the field of social life, the caste system continued to dominate, despite
the challenge posed to it by Islam and loss of political power by the Rajput
rulers who were duty bound to protect dharma which implied, among other
things, the upholding of the four-fold division of society (varnashrama-
dharma). Although the Nath Panthi Jogis and the Bhakti saints vehemently
criticised the caste system, they could hardly make a dent in it. A tacit
agreement was arrived at in course of time. The criticism of the caste system
by saints did not, with some notable exceptions, extend to day-to-day or
secular life, while the Brahmans acquiesced in the advocacy of the path of
devotion as the way for salvation for all castes, specially for the Shudras.
Many women saints, such as Mira, and others such as Surdas opened the way
of bhakti for women also, and their rising above the task of service and duty
to a husband. However, the Brahmans continued to claim a privileged
position for themselves, including the exclusive right to preach and educate.
Within the framework of caste, new subgroups arose, due in parts to the
absorption of tribal groups into Hinduism, the growth of new professional
groups, and also the local and regional feelings. At the same time, the varna
status of castes rose or fell, according to the economic and political power of
the groups concerned. Rajputs, Marathas and Khatris may be mentioned in
this context.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints gradually brought about a better understanding
of the fundamental tenets of Hinduism and Islam, underlining the fact that
they had a great deal of similarity. This resulted in a greater spirit of mutual
harmony and toleration, although forces advocating a narrow, intolerant
approach continued to be strongly entrenched and sometimes influenced
state policies. But such occasions were, on the whole, limited.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints also brought about important changes in the
approach to religion, laying greater emphasis on true faith than to the formal
observances. They also contributed to the growth of regional languages and
literature. But the excessive concern with religious and spiritual affairs
resulted in a setback to the growth of rational sciences, especially to the
cultivation of science and technology.
On balance, the position of women worsened. Seclusion of women or
purdah became more widespread, while Hindu women were not able to claim
the right of remarriage or a share in their father’s property which Muslim
women had. In fact, these rights tended to be denied more and more even to
Muslim women.
In the political and economic fields, the most important development was
the political and administrative integration of the country brought about by
the Turks and later consolidated by the Mughals. Although the Turkish and
Mughal system of administration remained largely confined to northern
India, indirectly it affected other parts of India also. The institution of a well-
minted currency based on silver, the development of roads and sarais and the
preference for city life had a direct effect on the growth of trade and
handicrafts which reached its climax during the seventeenth century. Under
the Mughals, political integration was accompanied by a deliberate effort to
create a unified ruling class consisting of Muslims and Hindus. However, the
ruling class remained strongly aristocratic in character, with only limited
opportunities of career being open to the people of talent from lower classes.
It also remained largely northern in character. Aurangzeb did try to induct
large numbers of Marathas and Deccani nobles into the services. The
Deccanis were integrated, but not the Marathas. Perhaps, regional as well as
religious and social prejudices played a role in this because, unlike the Rajputs
in north India, the Maratha sardars were drawn from social sections which
had never exercised political power, or been a ruling class. Nor were they
considered Kshtriyas’s.
The Mughal nobility was organised as a bureaucracy dependent on the
monarch. However, it derived its income mainly from lands cultivated by
Page 3


TWENTY
Assessment and Review
The thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the
seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and
cultural life of the country and also, to a smaller extent, in its social life.
In the field of social life, the caste system continued to dominate, despite
the challenge posed to it by Islam and loss of political power by the Rajput
rulers who were duty bound to protect dharma which implied, among other
things, the upholding of the four-fold division of society (varnashrama-
dharma). Although the Nath Panthi Jogis and the Bhakti saints vehemently
criticised the caste system, they could hardly make a dent in it. A tacit
agreement was arrived at in course of time. The criticism of the caste system
by saints did not, with some notable exceptions, extend to day-to-day or
secular life, while the Brahmans acquiesced in the advocacy of the path of
devotion as the way for salvation for all castes, specially for the Shudras.
Many women saints, such as Mira, and others such as Surdas opened the way
of bhakti for women also, and their rising above the task of service and duty
to a husband. However, the Brahmans continued to claim a privileged
position for themselves, including the exclusive right to preach and educate.
Within the framework of caste, new subgroups arose, due in parts to the
absorption of tribal groups into Hinduism, the growth of new professional
groups, and also the local and regional feelings. At the same time, the varna
status of castes rose or fell, according to the economic and political power of
the groups concerned. Rajputs, Marathas and Khatris may be mentioned in
this context.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints gradually brought about a better understanding
of the fundamental tenets of Hinduism and Islam, underlining the fact that
they had a great deal of similarity. This resulted in a greater spirit of mutual
harmony and toleration, although forces advocating a narrow, intolerant
approach continued to be strongly entrenched and sometimes influenced
state policies. But such occasions were, on the whole, limited.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints also brought about important changes in the
approach to religion, laying greater emphasis on true faith than to the formal
observances. They also contributed to the growth of regional languages and
literature. But the excessive concern with religious and spiritual affairs
resulted in a setback to the growth of rational sciences, especially to the
cultivation of science and technology.
On balance, the position of women worsened. Seclusion of women or
purdah became more widespread, while Hindu women were not able to claim
the right of remarriage or a share in their father’s property which Muslim
women had. In fact, these rights tended to be denied more and more even to
Muslim women.
In the political and economic fields, the most important development was
the political and administrative integration of the country brought about by
the Turks and later consolidated by the Mughals. Although the Turkish and
Mughal system of administration remained largely confined to northern
India, indirectly it affected other parts of India also. The institution of a well-
minted currency based on silver, the development of roads and sarais and the
preference for city life had a direct effect on the growth of trade and
handicrafts which reached its climax during the seventeenth century. Under
the Mughals, political integration was accompanied by a deliberate effort to
create a unified ruling class consisting of Muslims and Hindus. However, the
ruling class remained strongly aristocratic in character, with only limited
opportunities of career being open to the people of talent from lower classes.
It also remained largely northern in character. Aurangzeb did try to induct
large numbers of Marathas and Deccani nobles into the services. The
Deccanis were integrated, but not the Marathas. Perhaps, regional as well as
religious and social prejudices played a role in this because, unlike the Rajputs
in north India, the Maratha sardars were drawn from social sections which
had never exercised political power, or been a ruling class. Nor were they
considered Kshtriyas’s.
The Mughal nobility was organised as a bureaucracy dependent on the
monarch. However, it derived its income mainly from lands cultivated by
peasant proprietors. For the collection of land revenue from peasants, the
nobility depended partly on its military following and partly on the strength
of the zamindars whose rights and privileges were defended and maintained
by the state in return for their support. That is why many historians argue
that the state in medieval India remained essentially feudal.
A significant contribution of the Turks was the defence of the country from
Mongol onslaughts during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Later, for
200 years, the Mughals were able to secure the northwest frontiers of India
from foreign invasions. For this purpose, the defence of India was fixed on
the Kabul-Ghazni line with the Hindukush mountains to the north. The
politics of Central and West Asia were closely followed and sometimes an
active part was taken.
India’s reputation as a land of spices, and its position as the textile
manufactory of the eastern world including East Africa, led the European
nations to try to establish direct trade relations with India. The richness of the
oriental trade further whetted the appetite of the European nations and
quickened their economic and technological growth. Since they had hardly
any commodities to offer which were in demand in the oriental world, except
the silver and gold procured from Central and South America, the European
traders, backed by their governments sought an entry into the internal trade
of India and Asia. On a number of occasions, they desired to control Indian
territories whose income could be used for the purchase of Indian goods, just
like the Dutch who had been able to bring the East Indies (modern Indonesia)
under their control. As long as the Mughal empire was strong, the European
nations were not successful in this objective. The decline of the Mughal
empire and important political events in. India during the eighteenth century,
such as the entry of Nadir Shah and later, the Afghans, as well as the rapid
economic,development of the European nations enabled them to establish
their dominations in India as also in many other Asian countries.
While scholars have tried to explain the causes of the decline and downfall
of the Mughal empire, the reasons why India, like many other Asian nations,
could not develop as rapidly as the European nations in the economic and
scientific fields, needs further detailed study and research. The Mughal ruling
classes had no traditions of connection with the sea. While the Mughal rulers
Page 4


TWENTY
Assessment and Review
The thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the
seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and
cultural life of the country and also, to a smaller extent, in its social life.
In the field of social life, the caste system continued to dominate, despite
the challenge posed to it by Islam and loss of political power by the Rajput
rulers who were duty bound to protect dharma which implied, among other
things, the upholding of the four-fold division of society (varnashrama-
dharma). Although the Nath Panthi Jogis and the Bhakti saints vehemently
criticised the caste system, they could hardly make a dent in it. A tacit
agreement was arrived at in course of time. The criticism of the caste system
by saints did not, with some notable exceptions, extend to day-to-day or
secular life, while the Brahmans acquiesced in the advocacy of the path of
devotion as the way for salvation for all castes, specially for the Shudras.
Many women saints, such as Mira, and others such as Surdas opened the way
of bhakti for women also, and their rising above the task of service and duty
to a husband. However, the Brahmans continued to claim a privileged
position for themselves, including the exclusive right to preach and educate.
Within the framework of caste, new subgroups arose, due in parts to the
absorption of tribal groups into Hinduism, the growth of new professional
groups, and also the local and regional feelings. At the same time, the varna
status of castes rose or fell, according to the economic and political power of
the groups concerned. Rajputs, Marathas and Khatris may be mentioned in
this context.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints gradually brought about a better understanding
of the fundamental tenets of Hinduism and Islam, underlining the fact that
they had a great deal of similarity. This resulted in a greater spirit of mutual
harmony and toleration, although forces advocating a narrow, intolerant
approach continued to be strongly entrenched and sometimes influenced
state policies. But such occasions were, on the whole, limited.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints also brought about important changes in the
approach to religion, laying greater emphasis on true faith than to the formal
observances. They also contributed to the growth of regional languages and
literature. But the excessive concern with religious and spiritual affairs
resulted in a setback to the growth of rational sciences, especially to the
cultivation of science and technology.
On balance, the position of women worsened. Seclusion of women or
purdah became more widespread, while Hindu women were not able to claim
the right of remarriage or a share in their father’s property which Muslim
women had. In fact, these rights tended to be denied more and more even to
Muslim women.
In the political and economic fields, the most important development was
the political and administrative integration of the country brought about by
the Turks and later consolidated by the Mughals. Although the Turkish and
Mughal system of administration remained largely confined to northern
India, indirectly it affected other parts of India also. The institution of a well-
minted currency based on silver, the development of roads and sarais and the
preference for city life had a direct effect on the growth of trade and
handicrafts which reached its climax during the seventeenth century. Under
the Mughals, political integration was accompanied by a deliberate effort to
create a unified ruling class consisting of Muslims and Hindus. However, the
ruling class remained strongly aristocratic in character, with only limited
opportunities of career being open to the people of talent from lower classes.
It also remained largely northern in character. Aurangzeb did try to induct
large numbers of Marathas and Deccani nobles into the services. The
Deccanis were integrated, but not the Marathas. Perhaps, regional as well as
religious and social prejudices played a role in this because, unlike the Rajputs
in north India, the Maratha sardars were drawn from social sections which
had never exercised political power, or been a ruling class. Nor were they
considered Kshtriyas’s.
The Mughal nobility was organised as a bureaucracy dependent on the
monarch. However, it derived its income mainly from lands cultivated by
peasant proprietors. For the collection of land revenue from peasants, the
nobility depended partly on its military following and partly on the strength
of the zamindars whose rights and privileges were defended and maintained
by the state in return for their support. That is why many historians argue
that the state in medieval India remained essentially feudal.
A significant contribution of the Turks was the defence of the country from
Mongol onslaughts during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Later, for
200 years, the Mughals were able to secure the northwest frontiers of India
from foreign invasions. For this purpose, the defence of India was fixed on
the Kabul-Ghazni line with the Hindukush mountains to the north. The
politics of Central and West Asia were closely followed and sometimes an
active part was taken.
India’s reputation as a land of spices, and its position as the textile
manufactory of the eastern world including East Africa, led the European
nations to try to establish direct trade relations with India. The richness of the
oriental trade further whetted the appetite of the European nations and
quickened their economic and technological growth. Since they had hardly
any commodities to offer which were in demand in the oriental world, except
the silver and gold procured from Central and South America, the European
traders, backed by their governments sought an entry into the internal trade
of India and Asia. On a number of occasions, they desired to control Indian
territories whose income could be used for the purchase of Indian goods, just
like the Dutch who had been able to bring the East Indies (modern Indonesia)
under their control. As long as the Mughal empire was strong, the European
nations were not successful in this objective. The decline of the Mughal
empire and important political events in. India during the eighteenth century,
such as the entry of Nadir Shah and later, the Afghans, as well as the rapid
economic,development of the European nations enabled them to establish
their dominations in India as also in many other Asian countries.
While scholars have tried to explain the causes of the decline and downfall
of the Mughal empire, the reasons why India, like many other Asian nations,
could not develop as rapidly as the European nations in the economic and
scientific fields, needs further detailed study and research. The Mughal ruling
classes had no traditions of connection with the sea. While the Mughal rulers
were quick to recognize the importance of foreign trade, arid for that reason
gave patronage and support to the European trading companies, they had
little understanding of the importance of naval power in the economic
development of a nation.
India’s lagging behind in the field of naval power was a part of its growing
backwardness in the field of science and technology. Even the mechanical
clock which brought together all the European inventions in the field of
dynamics was not produced in India during the seventeenth century. The
superiority of the Europeans in the field of artillery was freely acknowledged.
Even where Indian craftsmen were able to copy European developments—as
for example in the field of ship-building—little ability to innovate was
displayed. Apart from the attitude of the ruling class to which we have
referred, the social structure, historical traditions and the outlook of various
sections are important in this context. There was too much emphasis on past
learning, and of showing deference to those who were supposed to be the
repositories of this knowledge—the Brahmans and the mullahs. Akbar’s
efforts to modernize the syllabus by introducing more science subjects of
secular interest were defeated due to the pressure of these elements. The very
skill of the Indian artisans and their availability in large number inhibited the
efforts to develop and apply machine power to productive enterprises. The
effect of the caste system in breeding an attitude of insularity and
conservatism is, however, a matter of discussion.
Thus, India lagged behind the world in the field of science and technology
and the Mughal ruling class remained singularly blind to this development.
Like all ruling classes on their way out, the Mughal ruling class was more
concerned with matters of immediate concern, including its creature
comforts, than matters which would shape the future.
Despite this, the developments in various fields in India during the period
should not be lost sight of. The growth of political integration was paralleled
by cultural integration. Indian society was one of the few societies in the
world which was able to develop a more or less unified culture despite
differences in race, religion and language. This unified culture was reflected
in an outburst of creative activity which makes the seventeenth century a
second classical age. In the south, the traditions of the Cholas were continued
Page 5


TWENTY
Assessment and Review
The thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the
seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and
cultural life of the country and also, to a smaller extent, in its social life.
In the field of social life, the caste system continued to dominate, despite
the challenge posed to it by Islam and loss of political power by the Rajput
rulers who were duty bound to protect dharma which implied, among other
things, the upholding of the four-fold division of society (varnashrama-
dharma). Although the Nath Panthi Jogis and the Bhakti saints vehemently
criticised the caste system, they could hardly make a dent in it. A tacit
agreement was arrived at in course of time. The criticism of the caste system
by saints did not, with some notable exceptions, extend to day-to-day or
secular life, while the Brahmans acquiesced in the advocacy of the path of
devotion as the way for salvation for all castes, specially for the Shudras.
Many women saints, such as Mira, and others such as Surdas opened the way
of bhakti for women also, and their rising above the task of service and duty
to a husband. However, the Brahmans continued to claim a privileged
position for themselves, including the exclusive right to preach and educate.
Within the framework of caste, new subgroups arose, due in parts to the
absorption of tribal groups into Hinduism, the growth of new professional
groups, and also the local and regional feelings. At the same time, the varna
status of castes rose or fell, according to the economic and political power of
the groups concerned. Rajputs, Marathas and Khatris may be mentioned in
this context.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints gradually brought about a better understanding
of the fundamental tenets of Hinduism and Islam, underlining the fact that
they had a great deal of similarity. This resulted in a greater spirit of mutual
harmony and toleration, although forces advocating a narrow, intolerant
approach continued to be strongly entrenched and sometimes influenced
state policies. But such occasions were, on the whole, limited.
The Bhakti and Sufi saints also brought about important changes in the
approach to religion, laying greater emphasis on true faith than to the formal
observances. They also contributed to the growth of regional languages and
literature. But the excessive concern with religious and spiritual affairs
resulted in a setback to the growth of rational sciences, especially to the
cultivation of science and technology.
On balance, the position of women worsened. Seclusion of women or
purdah became more widespread, while Hindu women were not able to claim
the right of remarriage or a share in their father’s property which Muslim
women had. In fact, these rights tended to be denied more and more even to
Muslim women.
In the political and economic fields, the most important development was
the political and administrative integration of the country brought about by
the Turks and later consolidated by the Mughals. Although the Turkish and
Mughal system of administration remained largely confined to northern
India, indirectly it affected other parts of India also. The institution of a well-
minted currency based on silver, the development of roads and sarais and the
preference for city life had a direct effect on the growth of trade and
handicrafts which reached its climax during the seventeenth century. Under
the Mughals, political integration was accompanied by a deliberate effort to
create a unified ruling class consisting of Muslims and Hindus. However, the
ruling class remained strongly aristocratic in character, with only limited
opportunities of career being open to the people of talent from lower classes.
It also remained largely northern in character. Aurangzeb did try to induct
large numbers of Marathas and Deccani nobles into the services. The
Deccanis were integrated, but not the Marathas. Perhaps, regional as well as
religious and social prejudices played a role in this because, unlike the Rajputs
in north India, the Maratha sardars were drawn from social sections which
had never exercised political power, or been a ruling class. Nor were they
considered Kshtriyas’s.
The Mughal nobility was organised as a bureaucracy dependent on the
monarch. However, it derived its income mainly from lands cultivated by
peasant proprietors. For the collection of land revenue from peasants, the
nobility depended partly on its military following and partly on the strength
of the zamindars whose rights and privileges were defended and maintained
by the state in return for their support. That is why many historians argue
that the state in medieval India remained essentially feudal.
A significant contribution of the Turks was the defence of the country from
Mongol onslaughts during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Later, for
200 years, the Mughals were able to secure the northwest frontiers of India
from foreign invasions. For this purpose, the defence of India was fixed on
the Kabul-Ghazni line with the Hindukush mountains to the north. The
politics of Central and West Asia were closely followed and sometimes an
active part was taken.
India’s reputation as a land of spices, and its position as the textile
manufactory of the eastern world including East Africa, led the European
nations to try to establish direct trade relations with India. The richness of the
oriental trade further whetted the appetite of the European nations and
quickened their economic and technological growth. Since they had hardly
any commodities to offer which were in demand in the oriental world, except
the silver and gold procured from Central and South America, the European
traders, backed by their governments sought an entry into the internal trade
of India and Asia. On a number of occasions, they desired to control Indian
territories whose income could be used for the purchase of Indian goods, just
like the Dutch who had been able to bring the East Indies (modern Indonesia)
under their control. As long as the Mughal empire was strong, the European
nations were not successful in this objective. The decline of the Mughal
empire and important political events in. India during the eighteenth century,
such as the entry of Nadir Shah and later, the Afghans, as well as the rapid
economic,development of the European nations enabled them to establish
their dominations in India as also in many other Asian countries.
While scholars have tried to explain the causes of the decline and downfall
of the Mughal empire, the reasons why India, like many other Asian nations,
could not develop as rapidly as the European nations in the economic and
scientific fields, needs further detailed study and research. The Mughal ruling
classes had no traditions of connection with the sea. While the Mughal rulers
were quick to recognize the importance of foreign trade, arid for that reason
gave patronage and support to the European trading companies, they had
little understanding of the importance of naval power in the economic
development of a nation.
India’s lagging behind in the field of naval power was a part of its growing
backwardness in the field of science and technology. Even the mechanical
clock which brought together all the European inventions in the field of
dynamics was not produced in India during the seventeenth century. The
superiority of the Europeans in the field of artillery was freely acknowledged.
Even where Indian craftsmen were able to copy European developments—as
for example in the field of ship-building—little ability to innovate was
displayed. Apart from the attitude of the ruling class to which we have
referred, the social structure, historical traditions and the outlook of various
sections are important in this context. There was too much emphasis on past
learning, and of showing deference to those who were supposed to be the
repositories of this knowledge—the Brahmans and the mullahs. Akbar’s
efforts to modernize the syllabus by introducing more science subjects of
secular interest were defeated due to the pressure of these elements. The very
skill of the Indian artisans and their availability in large number inhibited the
efforts to develop and apply machine power to productive enterprises. The
effect of the caste system in breeding an attitude of insularity and
conservatism is, however, a matter of discussion.
Thus, India lagged behind the world in the field of science and technology
and the Mughal ruling class remained singularly blind to this development.
Like all ruling classes on their way out, the Mughal ruling class was more
concerned with matters of immediate concern, including its creature
comforts, than matters which would shape the future.
Despite this, the developments in various fields in India during the period
should not be lost sight of. The growth of political integration was paralleled
by cultural integration. Indian society was one of the few societies in the
world which was able to develop a more or less unified culture despite
differences in race, religion and language. This unified culture was reflected
in an outburst of creative activity which makes the seventeenth century a
second classical age. In the south, the traditions of the Cholas were continued
by the Vijayanagara kingdom. The Bahmani kingdom and its successor states
also contributed to cultural developments in various fields. The rich cultural
developments in the various regional kingdoms during the fifteenth century
were, to some extent, integrated in the new cultural forms developed by the
Mughals. However, this integrated culture came under pressure from the
religious dogmatists of the two faiths, as well as from the competing and
conflicting interests of various sections in the ruling classes. But that it
survived, on the whole, till the middle of the nineteenth century is no mean
tribute to all those saints, scholars and enlightened rulers who had helped to
build it.
The period was also marked by economic development and growth. Trade
and manufactures expanded and there was expansion and improvement of
cultivation also. However, the growth was uneven in different areas and
during different phases. Apart from the Ganga valley where the Mughals
spent a substantial part of the revenue resources of the empire, the areas
which developed rapidly during the seventeenth century were Gujarat, the
Coromandel coast and Bengal. Perhaps, it is no accident that these have been
the areas in the forefront of economic development of India in the modern
period, particularly in the post-independence era.
Would India have continued to progress economically and even attained
an industrial revolution of its own, if the Mughal empire had continued?
While trade and manufactures continued to expand during the eighteenth
century, despite the downfall of the Mughal empire, it remained backward
compared to Europe, not only in the field of science and technology, but in
other fields as well. Thus, most of the manufactures remained small in scale,
with hardly any machinery, with the workers using the simplest tools. In
consequence, howsoever skilful a craftsman might be, his productivity and
efficiency remained low. Nor could the artisans develop into traders and
entrepreneurs as in the West, both because of caste and because most artisans
had little by way of capital. This was a reflection of the extremely uneven
distribution of money and resulted in the domestic market being limited.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was a growth of the
putting out (dadni) system. This increased production, but made the artisans
more and more dependent on the merchants, Indian or foreign.
Read More
155 videos|421 docs|303 tests

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

Exam

,

Free

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

ppt

,

Sample Paper

,

MCQs

,

past year papers

,

Summary

,

study material

,

Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): Assessment and review Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

,

pdf

,

Extra Questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

practice quizzes

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

Objective type Questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Viva Questions

;