Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): The Delhi Sultanate (Circa 1200-1400) The Mameluk Dynasty- 1 Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): The Delhi Sultanate (Circa 1200-1400) The Mameluk Dynasty- 1 Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

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 Page 1


SIX
The Delhi Sultanat—I (Circa 1200–1400)
I. THE MAMELUK
1
 SULTANS (THIRTEENTH CENTURY)
Some of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from
the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and even to overrun Bihar and
parts of Bengal have been mentioned in the previous chapter. For almost one
hundred years after that, the Delhi sultanat, as the state ruled over by these
invaders was called, was hard pressed to maintain itself in the face of foreign
invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the attempts of
the dispossessed and subordinate Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their
independence and, if possible, to oust the Turks. The Turkish rulers were
successful in overcoming these difficulties, and by the end of the century,
were in a position to extend their rule over Malwa and Gujarat, and to
penetrate into the Deccan and south India. The effects of the establishment of
the Turkish rule in northern India, thus began to be felt within a hundred
years all over India, and resulted in farreaching changes in society,
administration and cultural life.
STRUGGLE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRONG MONARCHY
Muizzuddin (Muhammad of Ghur) was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a
Turkish slave in 1206; he had played an important part in the expansion of
the Turkish Sultanat in India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave of
Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz
claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This, however, was not accepted by Aibak
who ruled from Lahore. But from this time, the Sultanat severed its links with
Ghazni. This was fortunate, since it helped to prevent India being drawn into
Central Asian politics. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanat to develop on its own
without depending on countries outside India.
Page 2


SIX
The Delhi Sultanat—I (Circa 1200–1400)
I. THE MAMELUK
1
 SULTANS (THIRTEENTH CENTURY)
Some of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from
the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and even to overrun Bihar and
parts of Bengal have been mentioned in the previous chapter. For almost one
hundred years after that, the Delhi sultanat, as the state ruled over by these
invaders was called, was hard pressed to maintain itself in the face of foreign
invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the attempts of
the dispossessed and subordinate Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their
independence and, if possible, to oust the Turks. The Turkish rulers were
successful in overcoming these difficulties, and by the end of the century,
were in a position to extend their rule over Malwa and Gujarat, and to
penetrate into the Deccan and south India. The effects of the establishment of
the Turkish rule in northern India, thus began to be felt within a hundred
years all over India, and resulted in farreaching changes in society,
administration and cultural life.
STRUGGLE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRONG MONARCHY
Muizzuddin (Muhammad of Ghur) was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a
Turkish slave in 1206; he had played an important part in the expansion of
the Turkish Sultanat in India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave of
Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz
claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This, however, was not accepted by Aibak
who ruled from Lahore. But from this time, the Sultanat severed its links with
Ghazni. This was fortunate, since it helped to prevent India being drawn into
Central Asian politics. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanat to develop on its own
without depending on countries outside India.
ILTUTMISH (1210–36)
In 1210, Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing
chaugan (polo). He was succeeded by Iltutmish who was the son-in-law of
Aibak. But before he could do so, he had to fight and defeat the son of Aibak.
Thus, the principle of heredity, of son succeeding his father, was checked at
the outset.
Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish
conquests in north India. At the time of his accession, Ali Mardan Khan had
declared himself the king of Bengal and Bihar, while Qubacha, a fellow slave
of Aibak, had declared himself an independent ruler of Multan and seized
Lahore and parts of the Punjab. At first, even some of the fellow officers of
Iltutmish near Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority. The Rajputs found
an opportunity to assert their independence. Thus, Kalinjar, Gwaliyar and the
entire eastern Rajasthan, including Ajmer and Bayana, threw off the Turkish
yoke.
During the early years of his reign, Iltutmish’s attention was concentrated
on the northwest. A new danger to his position arose with the conquest of
Ghazni by Khwarizm Shah. The Khwarizmi empire was the most powerful
state in Central Asia at this time, and its eastern frontier now extended up to
the Indus. In order to avert this danger, Iltutmish marched to Lahore and
occupied it. In 1218, the Khwarizmi empire was destroyed by the Mongols
who founded one of the strongest empires in history, which at its height
extended from China to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and from the
Caspian Sea to the river Jaxartes. The danger it posed to India and its effects
on the Delhi Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent section. While the
Mongols were busy elsewhere, Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from Multan
and Uchch. The frontiers of the Delhi Sultanat, thus, reached up to the Indus
once again.
Secure in the west, Iltutmish was able to turn his attention elsewhere. In
Bengal and Bihar, a person called Iwaz who had taken the title of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin had assumed independence. He was a generous and able ruler,
and built many public works. While he made raids on the territories of his
neighbours, the Sena rulers of East Bengal, and the Hindu rulers of Orissa and
Page 3


SIX
The Delhi Sultanat—I (Circa 1200–1400)
I. THE MAMELUK
1
 SULTANS (THIRTEENTH CENTURY)
Some of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from
the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and even to overrun Bihar and
parts of Bengal have been mentioned in the previous chapter. For almost one
hundred years after that, the Delhi sultanat, as the state ruled over by these
invaders was called, was hard pressed to maintain itself in the face of foreign
invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the attempts of
the dispossessed and subordinate Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their
independence and, if possible, to oust the Turks. The Turkish rulers were
successful in overcoming these difficulties, and by the end of the century,
were in a position to extend their rule over Malwa and Gujarat, and to
penetrate into the Deccan and south India. The effects of the establishment of
the Turkish rule in northern India, thus began to be felt within a hundred
years all over India, and resulted in farreaching changes in society,
administration and cultural life.
STRUGGLE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRONG MONARCHY
Muizzuddin (Muhammad of Ghur) was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a
Turkish slave in 1206; he had played an important part in the expansion of
the Turkish Sultanat in India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave of
Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz
claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This, however, was not accepted by Aibak
who ruled from Lahore. But from this time, the Sultanat severed its links with
Ghazni. This was fortunate, since it helped to prevent India being drawn into
Central Asian politics. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanat to develop on its own
without depending on countries outside India.
ILTUTMISH (1210–36)
In 1210, Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing
chaugan (polo). He was succeeded by Iltutmish who was the son-in-law of
Aibak. But before he could do so, he had to fight and defeat the son of Aibak.
Thus, the principle of heredity, of son succeeding his father, was checked at
the outset.
Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish
conquests in north India. At the time of his accession, Ali Mardan Khan had
declared himself the king of Bengal and Bihar, while Qubacha, a fellow slave
of Aibak, had declared himself an independent ruler of Multan and seized
Lahore and parts of the Punjab. At first, even some of the fellow officers of
Iltutmish near Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority. The Rajputs found
an opportunity to assert their independence. Thus, Kalinjar, Gwaliyar and the
entire eastern Rajasthan, including Ajmer and Bayana, threw off the Turkish
yoke.
During the early years of his reign, Iltutmish’s attention was concentrated
on the northwest. A new danger to his position arose with the conquest of
Ghazni by Khwarizm Shah. The Khwarizmi empire was the most powerful
state in Central Asia at this time, and its eastern frontier now extended up to
the Indus. In order to avert this danger, Iltutmish marched to Lahore and
occupied it. In 1218, the Khwarizmi empire was destroyed by the Mongols
who founded one of the strongest empires in history, which at its height
extended from China to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and from the
Caspian Sea to the river Jaxartes. The danger it posed to India and its effects
on the Delhi Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent section. While the
Mongols were busy elsewhere, Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from Multan
and Uchch. The frontiers of the Delhi Sultanat, thus, reached up to the Indus
once again.
Secure in the west, Iltutmish was able to turn his attention elsewhere. In
Bengal and Bihar, a person called Iwaz who had taken the title of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin had assumed independence. He was a generous and able ruler,
and built many public works. While he made raids on the territories of his
neighbours, the Sena rulers of East Bengal, and the Hindu rulers of Orissa and
Kamrup (Assam) continued their sway. In 1226–27, Iwaz was defeated and
killed in a battle with Iltutmish’s son near Lakhnauti. Bengal and Bihar passed
under the suzerainty of Delhi once again. But they were a difficult charge, and
repeatedly challenged the authority of Delhi.
At about the same time, Iltutmish took steps to recover Gwaliyar and
Bayana. Ajmer and Nagor remained under his control. He sent expeditions
against Ranthambhor and Jalor to reassert his suzerainty. He also attacked
Nagda, the capital of Mewar (about 22 km from Udaipur), but had to beat a
retreat at the arrival of the Gujarat armies, which had come to aid the Rana.
As a revenge, Iltutmish despatched an expedition against the Chalukyas of
Gujarat, but it was repulsed with losses.
RAZIYA (1236–39)
During his last year, Iltutmish was worried over the problem of succession.
He considered none of his surviving sons to be worthy of the throne. After
anxious consideration, he finally decided to nominate his daughter, Raziya, to
the throne, and induced the nobles and the theologians (ulama) to agree to
the nomination. Although women had ruled as queens, both in ancient Iran
and Egypt, and had acted as regents during the minority rule of princes, the
nomination of a woman in preference to sons was a novel step. In order to
assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brothers as well as against
powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Though brief,
her rule had a number of interesting features. It marked the beginning of a
struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes
called ‘the forty’ or the chahalgani. Iltutmish had shown great deference to
these Turkish chiefs After his death, these chiefs, drunk with power and
arrogance, wanted to install on the throne a puppet whom they could control.
They soon discovered that though a woman, Raziya was not prepared to play
their game. She discarded the female apparel and started holding court with
her face unveiled. She even hunted, and led the army in war. lltutmish’s wazir,
Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi, who had opposed her elevation to the throne, and
backed and supported a rebellion of nobles against her, was defeated and was
forced to flee. She sent an expedition against Ranthambhor to control the
Page 4


SIX
The Delhi Sultanat—I (Circa 1200–1400)
I. THE MAMELUK
1
 SULTANS (THIRTEENTH CENTURY)
Some of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from
the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and even to overrun Bihar and
parts of Bengal have been mentioned in the previous chapter. For almost one
hundred years after that, the Delhi sultanat, as the state ruled over by these
invaders was called, was hard pressed to maintain itself in the face of foreign
invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the attempts of
the dispossessed and subordinate Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their
independence and, if possible, to oust the Turks. The Turkish rulers were
successful in overcoming these difficulties, and by the end of the century,
were in a position to extend their rule over Malwa and Gujarat, and to
penetrate into the Deccan and south India. The effects of the establishment of
the Turkish rule in northern India, thus began to be felt within a hundred
years all over India, and resulted in farreaching changes in society,
administration and cultural life.
STRUGGLE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRONG MONARCHY
Muizzuddin (Muhammad of Ghur) was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a
Turkish slave in 1206; he had played an important part in the expansion of
the Turkish Sultanat in India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave of
Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz
claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This, however, was not accepted by Aibak
who ruled from Lahore. But from this time, the Sultanat severed its links with
Ghazni. This was fortunate, since it helped to prevent India being drawn into
Central Asian politics. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanat to develop on its own
without depending on countries outside India.
ILTUTMISH (1210–36)
In 1210, Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing
chaugan (polo). He was succeeded by Iltutmish who was the son-in-law of
Aibak. But before he could do so, he had to fight and defeat the son of Aibak.
Thus, the principle of heredity, of son succeeding his father, was checked at
the outset.
Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish
conquests in north India. At the time of his accession, Ali Mardan Khan had
declared himself the king of Bengal and Bihar, while Qubacha, a fellow slave
of Aibak, had declared himself an independent ruler of Multan and seized
Lahore and parts of the Punjab. At first, even some of the fellow officers of
Iltutmish near Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority. The Rajputs found
an opportunity to assert their independence. Thus, Kalinjar, Gwaliyar and the
entire eastern Rajasthan, including Ajmer and Bayana, threw off the Turkish
yoke.
During the early years of his reign, Iltutmish’s attention was concentrated
on the northwest. A new danger to his position arose with the conquest of
Ghazni by Khwarizm Shah. The Khwarizmi empire was the most powerful
state in Central Asia at this time, and its eastern frontier now extended up to
the Indus. In order to avert this danger, Iltutmish marched to Lahore and
occupied it. In 1218, the Khwarizmi empire was destroyed by the Mongols
who founded one of the strongest empires in history, which at its height
extended from China to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and from the
Caspian Sea to the river Jaxartes. The danger it posed to India and its effects
on the Delhi Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent section. While the
Mongols were busy elsewhere, Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from Multan
and Uchch. The frontiers of the Delhi Sultanat, thus, reached up to the Indus
once again.
Secure in the west, Iltutmish was able to turn his attention elsewhere. In
Bengal and Bihar, a person called Iwaz who had taken the title of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin had assumed independence. He was a generous and able ruler,
and built many public works. While he made raids on the territories of his
neighbours, the Sena rulers of East Bengal, and the Hindu rulers of Orissa and
Kamrup (Assam) continued their sway. In 1226–27, Iwaz was defeated and
killed in a battle with Iltutmish’s son near Lakhnauti. Bengal and Bihar passed
under the suzerainty of Delhi once again. But they were a difficult charge, and
repeatedly challenged the authority of Delhi.
At about the same time, Iltutmish took steps to recover Gwaliyar and
Bayana. Ajmer and Nagor remained under his control. He sent expeditions
against Ranthambhor and Jalor to reassert his suzerainty. He also attacked
Nagda, the capital of Mewar (about 22 km from Udaipur), but had to beat a
retreat at the arrival of the Gujarat armies, which had come to aid the Rana.
As a revenge, Iltutmish despatched an expedition against the Chalukyas of
Gujarat, but it was repulsed with losses.
RAZIYA (1236–39)
During his last year, Iltutmish was worried over the problem of succession.
He considered none of his surviving sons to be worthy of the throne. After
anxious consideration, he finally decided to nominate his daughter, Raziya, to
the throne, and induced the nobles and the theologians (ulama) to agree to
the nomination. Although women had ruled as queens, both in ancient Iran
and Egypt, and had acted as regents during the minority rule of princes, the
nomination of a woman in preference to sons was a novel step. In order to
assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brothers as well as against
powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Though brief,
her rule had a number of interesting features. It marked the beginning of a
struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes
called ‘the forty’ or the chahalgani. Iltutmish had shown great deference to
these Turkish chiefs After his death, these chiefs, drunk with power and
arrogance, wanted to install on the throne a puppet whom they could control.
They soon discovered that though a woman, Raziya was not prepared to play
their game. She discarded the female apparel and started holding court with
her face unveiled. She even hunted, and led the army in war. lltutmish’s wazir,
Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi, who had opposed her elevation to the throne, and
backed and supported a rebellion of nobles against her, was defeated and was
forced to flee. She sent an expedition against Ranthambhor to control the
Rajputs, and successfully established law and order in the length and breadth
of her kingdom. But her attempt to create a party of nobles loyal to her and to
raise a non-Turk to high office led to opposition. The Turkish nobles accused
her of violating feminine modesty, and of being too friendly to an Abyssinian
noble, Yaqut Khan. Yaqut Khan had been appointed Superintendent of the
Royal Stable which implied closeness to the sovereign. But contemporary
writers have not accused Raziya of any personal intimacy with him: the
charge that he used to lift her from the arms-pit to her horse is wrong because
Raziya always appeared in public on an elephant, not on horse-back.
Rebellions broke out at Lahore and Sirhind. Razia personally led an
expedition against Lahore, and compelled the governor to submit. On the
way to Sirhind, an internal rebellion broke out in which Yaqut Khan was
killed, and Raziya imprisoned at Tabarhinda. However, Raziya won over her
captor, Altunia, and after marrying him made a renewed attempt on Delhi.
Raziya fought valiantly, but was defeated and killed in a forest by bandits
while she was in flight.
Page 5


SIX
The Delhi Sultanat—I (Circa 1200–1400)
I. THE MAMELUK
1
 SULTANS (THIRTEENTH CENTURY)
Some of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from
the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and even to overrun Bihar and
parts of Bengal have been mentioned in the previous chapter. For almost one
hundred years after that, the Delhi sultanat, as the state ruled over by these
invaders was called, was hard pressed to maintain itself in the face of foreign
invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the attempts of
the dispossessed and subordinate Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their
independence and, if possible, to oust the Turks. The Turkish rulers were
successful in overcoming these difficulties, and by the end of the century,
were in a position to extend their rule over Malwa and Gujarat, and to
penetrate into the Deccan and south India. The effects of the establishment of
the Turkish rule in northern India, thus began to be felt within a hundred
years all over India, and resulted in farreaching changes in society,
administration and cultural life.
STRUGGLE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRONG MONARCHY
Muizzuddin (Muhammad of Ghur) was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a
Turkish slave in 1206; he had played an important part in the expansion of
the Turkish Sultanat in India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave of
Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz
claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This, however, was not accepted by Aibak
who ruled from Lahore. But from this time, the Sultanat severed its links with
Ghazni. This was fortunate, since it helped to prevent India being drawn into
Central Asian politics. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanat to develop on its own
without depending on countries outside India.
ILTUTMISH (1210–36)
In 1210, Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing
chaugan (polo). He was succeeded by Iltutmish who was the son-in-law of
Aibak. But before he could do so, he had to fight and defeat the son of Aibak.
Thus, the principle of heredity, of son succeeding his father, was checked at
the outset.
Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish
conquests in north India. At the time of his accession, Ali Mardan Khan had
declared himself the king of Bengal and Bihar, while Qubacha, a fellow slave
of Aibak, had declared himself an independent ruler of Multan and seized
Lahore and parts of the Punjab. At first, even some of the fellow officers of
Iltutmish near Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority. The Rajputs found
an opportunity to assert their independence. Thus, Kalinjar, Gwaliyar and the
entire eastern Rajasthan, including Ajmer and Bayana, threw off the Turkish
yoke.
During the early years of his reign, Iltutmish’s attention was concentrated
on the northwest. A new danger to his position arose with the conquest of
Ghazni by Khwarizm Shah. The Khwarizmi empire was the most powerful
state in Central Asia at this time, and its eastern frontier now extended up to
the Indus. In order to avert this danger, Iltutmish marched to Lahore and
occupied it. In 1218, the Khwarizmi empire was destroyed by the Mongols
who founded one of the strongest empires in history, which at its height
extended from China to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and from the
Caspian Sea to the river Jaxartes. The danger it posed to India and its effects
on the Delhi Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent section. While the
Mongols were busy elsewhere, Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from Multan
and Uchch. The frontiers of the Delhi Sultanat, thus, reached up to the Indus
once again.
Secure in the west, Iltutmish was able to turn his attention elsewhere. In
Bengal and Bihar, a person called Iwaz who had taken the title of Sultan
Ghiyasuddin had assumed independence. He was a generous and able ruler,
and built many public works. While he made raids on the territories of his
neighbours, the Sena rulers of East Bengal, and the Hindu rulers of Orissa and
Kamrup (Assam) continued their sway. In 1226–27, Iwaz was defeated and
killed in a battle with Iltutmish’s son near Lakhnauti. Bengal and Bihar passed
under the suzerainty of Delhi once again. But they were a difficult charge, and
repeatedly challenged the authority of Delhi.
At about the same time, Iltutmish took steps to recover Gwaliyar and
Bayana. Ajmer and Nagor remained under his control. He sent expeditions
against Ranthambhor and Jalor to reassert his suzerainty. He also attacked
Nagda, the capital of Mewar (about 22 km from Udaipur), but had to beat a
retreat at the arrival of the Gujarat armies, which had come to aid the Rana.
As a revenge, Iltutmish despatched an expedition against the Chalukyas of
Gujarat, but it was repulsed with losses.
RAZIYA (1236–39)
During his last year, Iltutmish was worried over the problem of succession.
He considered none of his surviving sons to be worthy of the throne. After
anxious consideration, he finally decided to nominate his daughter, Raziya, to
the throne, and induced the nobles and the theologians (ulama) to agree to
the nomination. Although women had ruled as queens, both in ancient Iran
and Egypt, and had acted as regents during the minority rule of princes, the
nomination of a woman in preference to sons was a novel step. In order to
assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brothers as well as against
powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Though brief,
her rule had a number of interesting features. It marked the beginning of a
struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes
called ‘the forty’ or the chahalgani. Iltutmish had shown great deference to
these Turkish chiefs After his death, these chiefs, drunk with power and
arrogance, wanted to install on the throne a puppet whom they could control.
They soon discovered that though a woman, Raziya was not prepared to play
their game. She discarded the female apparel and started holding court with
her face unveiled. She even hunted, and led the army in war. lltutmish’s wazir,
Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi, who had opposed her elevation to the throne, and
backed and supported a rebellion of nobles against her, was defeated and was
forced to flee. She sent an expedition against Ranthambhor to control the
Rajputs, and successfully established law and order in the length and breadth
of her kingdom. But her attempt to create a party of nobles loyal to her and to
raise a non-Turk to high office led to opposition. The Turkish nobles accused
her of violating feminine modesty, and of being too friendly to an Abyssinian
noble, Yaqut Khan. Yaqut Khan had been appointed Superintendent of the
Royal Stable which implied closeness to the sovereign. But contemporary
writers have not accused Raziya of any personal intimacy with him: the
charge that he used to lift her from the arms-pit to her horse is wrong because
Raziya always appeared in public on an elephant, not on horse-back.
Rebellions broke out at Lahore and Sirhind. Razia personally led an
expedition against Lahore, and compelled the governor to submit. On the
way to Sirhind, an internal rebellion broke out in which Yaqut Khan was
killed, and Raziya imprisoned at Tabarhinda. However, Raziya won over her
captor, Altunia, and after marrying him made a renewed attempt on Delhi.
Raziya fought valiantly, but was defeated and killed in a forest by bandits
while she was in flight.
ERA OF BALRAN (1246–87)
The struggle between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs continued, till one
of the Turkish chiefs, Ulugh Khan, known in history by his later title of
Balban, gradually arrogated all power to himself, and finally ascended the
throne in 1265. During the earlier period, Balban held the position of naib or
deputy to Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltutmish, whom Balban
had helped in securing the throne in 1246. Balban further strengthened his
position by marrying one of his daughters to the young sultan. The growing
authority of Balban alienated many of the Turkish chiefs who had hoped to
continue their former power and influence in the affairs of government, since
Nasiruddin Mahmud was young and inexperienced. They, therefore, hatched
a conspiracy (1253) and ousted Balban from his position. Balban was replaced
by Imaduddin Raihan who was an Indian Muslim. Although the Turkish
chiefs wanted that all power and authority should remain in their hands, they
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Old NCERT Textbook (Satish Chandra): The Delhi Sultanate (Circa 1200-1400) The Mameluk Dynasty- 1 Notes | Study History for UPSC CSE - UPSC

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video lectures

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practice quizzes

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Sample Paper

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MCQs

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