Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 10

Class 10 : Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Science Class 10.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

Metals

Metals show metallic lustre, are generally hard, malleable and ductile. They are good conductors of heat and electricity.  

Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev


The following activities prove the above points:

Activity-1

Aim: Perform an activity to show that metals possess lustre.

Materials required: Copper strip, blade, piece of cloth.

Procedure:

  • Take a copper strip that has remained exposed to moisture and atmosphere for a long time. It will have a greenish coating of copper oxide and copper carbonate.
  • Rub the strip with a blade patiently for about five minutes.
  • Clean the surface with a clean cloth piece.

Results:

  • We shall find that the surface which was dull earlier become shining red-brown which is the colour of copper. 
  • The activity proves that metals have lustre. 
  • All metals have lustre, but the colours might be different.

Activity-2

Aim: Perform an activity to prove that metals are malleable (can be beaten into sheets) and ductile (can be drawn into wires).
Materials required: 
Metals such as iron, copper, aluminium, hammer.
Procedure: 

  • Take a small piece of iron metal. Place it on an iron block.
  • Strike the iron piece with a hammer about ten times. We observe that the iron piece is flattened into a thin sheet. This property is known as malleability. Most of the metals are malleable. Gold and silver are the most malleable metals.

Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev


Note:

  • Similarly, we find that most metals are ductile, i.e., they can be drawn into wares, using a suitable mechanical device.
  • Surprisingly, one gram of gold can be drawn into thin wire measuring two kilometres.

Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev


Activity-3

AimPerform an activity to show that metals are good conductors of heat.
Materials required: 
Iron stand, clamp, iron wire, pin, wax, burner.
Procedure: 

  • Take long straight ironware about 30 cm long.
  • Clamp it to an iron stand as shown.
  • Fix a pin to the free end of the wire using wax.
  • Heat the wire using a burner near the place where it is clamped.

Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRevExperiment Setup Result:

  • We observe that after some time, the pin that was fixed to the free end of the wire with wax falls down. 
  • We observe the same with other metals. This is because the wax gets melted because of heat.
  • This proves that metals are good conductors of heat. The best conductors of heat are silver and copper. Lead and mercury are comparatively poor conductors of heat.

Activity-4

Aim: Perform an activity to show that metals are good conductors of electricity.

Materials required: Battery, bulb, switch, clips, samples of metals.
Procedure:

  • Set up an electric circuit as shown.
  • Place a piece of copper metal between terminals A and B.
  • We find that the bulb in the circuit glows. This is because the copper metal passes on the current from clip A to clip B.

Result:

  • Copper metal is a good conductor of electricity.
  • We observe the same phenomenon with other metals also.
Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRevMetals conduct Heat and Electricity easily


Metals are Sonorous  

  • Metals produce a sound when they strike a hard surface. We express it by saying that metals are sonorous.
  • That is why school bells are made of metals.

Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev


Try yourself:Which property of metals is used for making bells and strings of musical instruments like Sitar and Violin?
View Solution

Non-Metals
  • Substances like carbon, sulphur and iodine are non-metals.
    Overview of Metals And Non-Metals (part -1) Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  • They are either solids or gas with the exception of bromine which is a liquid.
  • Non-metals, in general, do not possess metallic lustre, do not conduct heat and electricity and are not sonorous. 
  • They are comparatively softer substances.
Exceptions
  • Metals, in general, have high melting points. But mercury, gallium and caesium have low melting points and are liquids at room temperature.
  • Iodine, a non-metal, shows lustre.
  • Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, is the hardest natural substance known. Graphite, another allotrope of carbon, is a conductor of electricity.
  • Alkali metals like sodium and potassium (metals) are soft and can be cut with a knife. They have low densities and low melting points.

Activity-5

Aim: Perform an experiment to decide whether the given substance is a metal or a non-metal.
Materials required: 
A piece of magnesium ribbon, sulphur powder, pair of tongs, an iron sheet, burner, test tube, blue and red litmus papers.
Procedure: 
  • Hold the Mg ribbon with a pair of tongs. It burns and forms a white residue.
  • Collect the white residue and dissolve it in water in a test tube.
  • Dip red litmus paper into it. It turns blue showing that the solution was alkaline. It means metals on burning form basic oxides.
  • Now bum sulphur powder on a thick sheet of iron. Collect the fumes produced (SO2) into an inverted test tube over it.
  • Immediately add water to the test tube and shake.
  • Now dip a blue litmus paper into the solution. It turns red.
  • That means the solution in the test tube was acidic.
  • That means sulphur, a non-metal on burning forms oxide which is acidic.
Result:
  • Thus metals form basic oxides, and non-metals form acidic oxides.
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