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Fluid Statics
2
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals 
with the behavior/response of fluid when they are at rest. 
 Pressure, (average pressure intensity): It is the normal force 
exerted per unit area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
 Units
 SI: N/m
2
(called Pascal)
 BG: lb/ft
2
or lb/in
2
(called psi)
 CGS: dyne/cm
2
1 bar=10
5
N/m
2
=10
5
Pascal
A
F
area
force
P = =
Page 2


Fluid Statics
2
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals 
with the behavior/response of fluid when they are at rest. 
 Pressure, (average pressure intensity): It is the normal force 
exerted per unit area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
 Units
 SI: N/m
2
(called Pascal)
 BG: lb/ft
2
or lb/in
2
(called psi)
 CGS: dyne/cm
2
1 bar=10
5
N/m
2
=10
5
Pascal
A
F
area
force
P = =
Pressure vs Water depth/height
3
 Consider a strip or column of a cylindrical fluid,
 h= height or depth of strip of fluid
 ?= specific weight of fluid
 dA=cross-sectional area of strip
 dV=volume of strip
 dW=weight of strip
 Pressure at base of strip=dF/dA=dW/dA
 P= ?dV/dA
 P= ?dA.h/dA
P=?h
h
Page 3


Fluid Statics
2
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals 
with the behavior/response of fluid when they are at rest. 
 Pressure, (average pressure intensity): It is the normal force 
exerted per unit area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
 Units
 SI: N/m
2
(called Pascal)
 BG: lb/ft
2
or lb/in
2
(called psi)
 CGS: dyne/cm
2
1 bar=10
5
N/m
2
=10
5
Pascal
A
F
area
force
P = =
Pressure vs Water depth/height
3
 Consider a strip or column of a cylindrical fluid,
 h= height or depth of strip of fluid
 ?= specific weight of fluid
 dA=cross-sectional area of strip
 dV=volume of strip
 dW=weight of strip
 Pressure at base of strip=dF/dA=dW/dA
 P= ?dV/dA
 P= ?dA.h/dA
P=?h
h
Pressure vs Water depth/height
4
 P=?h
 P a h
 For h=0, P=0
 For h=h, P=?h
h
Pressure distribution 
diagram/pressure profile
 As you know atmospheric pressure reduces, as we move to 
higher elevations.  Is it because of h, as h reduces, P also reduces.
Page 4


Fluid Statics
2
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals 
with the behavior/response of fluid when they are at rest. 
 Pressure, (average pressure intensity): It is the normal force 
exerted per unit area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
 Units
 SI: N/m
2
(called Pascal)
 BG: lb/ft
2
or lb/in
2
(called psi)
 CGS: dyne/cm
2
1 bar=10
5
N/m
2
=10
5
Pascal
A
F
area
force
P = =
Pressure vs Water depth/height
3
 Consider a strip or column of a cylindrical fluid,
 h= height or depth of strip of fluid
 ?= specific weight of fluid
 dA=cross-sectional area of strip
 dV=volume of strip
 dW=weight of strip
 Pressure at base of strip=dF/dA=dW/dA
 P= ?dV/dA
 P= ?dA.h/dA
P=?h
h
Pressure vs Water depth/height
4
 P=?h
 P a h
 For h=0, P=0
 For h=h, P=?h
h
Pressure distribution 
diagram/pressure profile
 As you know atmospheric pressure reduces, as we move to 
higher elevations.  Is it because of h, as h reduces, P also reduces.
PASCAL’S LAW
5
 “Pressure at any point in fluid is same in all directions when 
the fluid is at rest”
 Consider a wedge shape element of fluid 
having dimension dx, dy and dz along x, y 
and z axis.
 dl= dimension of inclined plane making 
an angle a with the vertical
 Px, Py, Pz and P are pressure acting in x, y, 
z and perpendicular to inclined surface
 dW=weight of element
z
y
x
Py(dxdz)
Px(dydz)
P(dldz)
dx
dy
dz
a
a
a
P(dldz)
cosa
P(dldz)
sina
dW
z
y
x
Page 5


Fluid Statics
2
 Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals 
with the behavior/response of fluid when they are at rest. 
 Pressure, (average pressure intensity): It is the normal force 
exerted per unit area. It is denoted by P and is given by;
 Units
 SI: N/m
2
(called Pascal)
 BG: lb/ft
2
or lb/in
2
(called psi)
 CGS: dyne/cm
2
1 bar=10
5
N/m
2
=10
5
Pascal
A
F
area
force
P = =
Pressure vs Water depth/height
3
 Consider a strip or column of a cylindrical fluid,
 h= height or depth of strip of fluid
 ?= specific weight of fluid
 dA=cross-sectional area of strip
 dV=volume of strip
 dW=weight of strip
 Pressure at base of strip=dF/dA=dW/dA
 P= ?dV/dA
 P= ?dA.h/dA
P=?h
h
Pressure vs Water depth/height
4
 P=?h
 P a h
 For h=0, P=0
 For h=h, P=?h
h
Pressure distribution 
diagram/pressure profile
 As you know atmospheric pressure reduces, as we move to 
higher elevations.  Is it because of h, as h reduces, P also reduces.
PASCAL’S LAW
5
 “Pressure at any point in fluid is same in all directions when 
the fluid is at rest”
 Consider a wedge shape element of fluid 
having dimension dx, dy and dz along x, y 
and z axis.
 dl= dimension of inclined plane making 
an angle a with the vertical
 Px, Py, Pz and P are pressure acting in x, y, 
z and perpendicular to inclined surface
 dW=weight of element
z
y
x
Py(dxdz)
Px(dydz)
P(dldz)
dx
dy
dz
a
a
a
P(dldz)
cosa
P(dldz)
sina
dW
z
y
x
PASCAL’S LAW
6
Py(dxdz)
Px(dydz)
P(dldz)
a
a
P(dldz)
cosa
P(dldz)
sina
P P
o dy dz P dydz P
dl dy o dl dy dldz P dydz P
o dldz P dydz P
F
x
x
x
x
x
=
= -
= = -
= -
=
?
) (
/ cos / ) (
cos ) (
0
a
a
Q
dW
P P
o dx dz P dxdz P
dw dl dx o dl dx dldz P dxdz P
o dldz P dW dxdz P
F
y
y
y
y
y
=
= -
? = = -
= - -
=
?
) (
0 & / sin / ) (
sin ) (
0
a
a
Q
Read More
57 videos|90 docs|76 tests

FAQs on PPT: Fluid Statics - Fluid Mechanics for Mechanical Engineering

1. What is fluid statics?
Ans. Fluid statics is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest. It focuses on studying the equilibrium conditions and pressure distribution in fluids without any motion or flow.
2. How is fluid statics different from fluid dynamics?
Ans. Fluid statics and fluid dynamics are two branches of fluid mechanics. While fluid statics deals with fluids at rest, fluid dynamics is concerned with the study of fluids in motion or flow. The main difference lies in the presence or absence of motion in the fluid.
3. What are some applications of fluid statics?
Ans. Fluid statics has various practical applications. It helps in understanding the stability of floating objects, designing dams and reservoirs, calculating buoyant forces on submerged objects, and determining the pressure distribution in fluid-filled containers.
4. How is pressure defined in fluid statics?
Ans. In fluid statics, pressure is defined as the force exerted by a fluid per unit area. It is measured in pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²). Pressure is influenced by factors such as the fluid's density, depth, and gravitational acceleration.
5. What is Pascal's law and its significance in fluid statics?
Ans. Pascal's law states that when pressure is applied to a fluid in a confined space, the pressure change is transmitted uniformly in all directions. This law is crucial in fluid statics as it helps in understanding the behavior of fluids in containers, hydraulic systems, and other applications.
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