Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

UPSC Prelims Paper 2 CSAT - Quant, Verbal & Decision Making

Quant : Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

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Introduction

  • Pie charts are specific types of data presentation where the data is represented in the form of a circle. 
  • In a pie chart, a circle is divided into various sections or segments such that each sector or segment represents a certain proportion or percentage of the total. In such a diagram, the total of all the given items is equated to 360 degrees and the degrees of angles, representing different items, are calculated proportionately. 
  • The entire diagram looks like a pie and its components resemble slices cut from a pie. The pie chart is used to show the break-up of one continuous variable into its component parts.
  • Example: 
    The chart below shows the distribution of the sales of the car industry between six car companies.  Looking at the chart below, we can infer that Maruti accounts for 24 percent of the market share, while GM accounts for 35 percent of the market share, Ford for4 percent of the market share, Tata for 10 percent of the market share, Hyundai for 15 percent of the market share and Fiat for 12 percent of the market share.Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRevDistribution of car sales between six companies
  • The pie chart encompasses a circle of 360 degrees which represents 100 percent of the value of the continuous variable. Thus, 3.6 degrees on the pie chart represent 1 percent of the total value of the continuous variable being represented.
  • A single pie diagram can represent only one continuous variable. Hence, in terms of versatility of data representation, pie charts are less versatile than either of bar charts, x-y graphs or tables. 
  • However, their utility is in the fact that the representation of data is cleaner and it gives an immediate idea of the relative distribution of the continuous variable amongst different sectors.

Example:
Consider the information provided in the pie chart below relating to India's foreign trade in 1997-98 and the first eight months of 1998-99. Total trade with a region is defined as the sum of exports to and imports from that region.

Trade deficit is defined as the excess of imports over exports. Trade deficit may be negative.
Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

What is the region with which India had the highest total trade in 1997-98?

(A) USA 

(B) Other E.U. 

(C) OPEC 

(D) Others

Answer - (C)
Solution:
Trade with a region is the aggregate of imports from and exports to that region. The question is about a relative position and not an absolute position and thus should involve nothing more than glancing the pie charts and at the very most some small additions that can eminently he done orally. Whatever he the figures of total exports and total imports, these will not be necessary since what is asked is a relative position.

Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

In the present case, imports into India are USD 40779 million and we may safely take I as 4 (rounding off 40779 to the nearest ten thousand) and exports from India are USD 33979 million we may safely take E as 3 (rounding off 33979 to the nearest ten thousand).

Pie Chart - Introduction and Examples (with Solutions), Data Interpretation LR Notes | EduRev

Option C is the clear choice. It would be stupid to merely add the percentages alone. A percentage is after all so much out of the whole. If you are comparing percentages of the same whole, you can tell which is higher. But comparing differing percentages of two different wholes is logical only when you take their absolute values. For Example 9% of 200 (we shall call 200 as A) is far higher than 36% of 40 (we shall call 40 as B) and rushing to the conclusion that 36% of B is higher than 9% of A would be stupid.

Assuming 40779 as 4 and 33979 as 3 would:

(A) Save a lot of time.

(B) Save a lot of effort..

(C) Ensure that we are comparing equals on both sides, and

(D) Ensure that you get the correct answer in a jiffy.


Try yourself:In 1997-98 the amount of Indian exports, in millions US $, to the region with which India had the lowest total trade, is approximately:​
View Solution

Try yourself:In I997-98, the trade deficit with respect to India, in billions of US $, for the region with the highest trade deficit with respect to India, is approximately equal to:
View Solution

Try yourself:What is the region with the lowest trade deficit with India in 1997 - 98?
View Solution

Try yourself:Assume that the average monthly exports from India and imports to India during the remaining four months of 1998-99 would be the same as that for the first eight months of the year.

What is the region to which Indian imports registered the highest percentage growth between 1997-98 and 1998-99?

View Solution

Try yourself:Assume that the average monthly exports from India and imports to India during the remaining four months of 1998-99 would be the same as that for the first eight months of the year.

What is the percentage growth rate in India's total trade deficit between 1997-98 and1998-99?

View Solution

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