Position of Women
Position of Labour
Hemchandra Laghu Arhanniti
Hemchandra Haima Vyakarana
The literary activities of the Post-Gupta and early medieval period.
victorious Aryas. Children of female slaves became their master’s property.
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Kumarila Commentary in three parts-Slokavarttika,
Tantravarttika and Tuptika.
Vachaspati Nyayakanika, Tatttvabindu
divided into a number of clans, and members of a clan marry within the tribe but outside the clan. When such a tribe is absorbed as a caste in the Brahmanical system it continues to marry within the tribe or caste and refuses to have social intercourse with other caste.
Some Typical Adminstrative
Aksapatalika: The word occurs in the Arthasastra of Kautilya and it stood for an officer incharge of records. Aksapatalika was an administrative department under the Palas and is also mentioned in the Panichobh Copper plate of Samudragupta.
Adhikari: He was official recorder or scribe who drew up documents and prepared Sale-deeds etc. It came to be used as a title and issued as such in the Panji of the fourteenth century A.D.
Karna Kayastha: According to Usanhas samhita, Karna was extracted with the task of ‘rajaseva’ and ‘durgantahpuraraksa’. It is also identified with Carana and connected with the study of the science of eroties.
The word ‘Karna’ indicated a department, a court of Law, a department of account and revenue, of war and peace and so on.
The Kayasthas were originally a professional class of accountants or scribes and the whole group of writers were later crystallised into a sort of Caste called Karna or Kayastha.
Kanungoe: This word must have come into use after Sher Shah. According to Tarikh-i-Shershahi Kanungoe was the custodian of revenue practices and regulations of the locality.
Karyi: Varma holds the view that Karyi was responsible for enacting the gifts made by the king and was at the same time incharge of village administration.
Khana: The title Khana is used both in the case of Brahmanas and Karana kayasthas of Mithila. It indicated an administrative designation, the nature of which is not very clear at this stage and the title is still current among the Brahamanas of village Bangaon in the district of Saharsa.
Chaturddharika: (Chaudhary): According to Agarwal they are small feudal Chiefs enjoying fourth part of the revenue. According to Sirear they are officers of the royal guard. Chaurodhamikas of Gupta age are meant for suppressing theft and other allied offences.
Navaka: The word occurs in Kautilya’s Arthasastra and also in Sukranitisara. He was the head of the villages. In medieval times, a Nayaka enjoyed royal land on condition of offering military help under the Vijayanagar empire.
Negi: It is a title of the Kayastha yet in vogue in the areas of U.P. It is strange that this title is found in vogue in the Palm-leaf Panjis of Mithila.
Thakkura: It is a feudal title frequently used in the Gahadawala inscriptions. Kalhana has used the word both as title and a fief-holder.
Mahattaka: The word ‘Mahattaka’ signified an officer whose rank can not be precisely flexed. Mahattaka, Mahattara, Mahto, Mahattama etc. are used in a number of inscriptions in the sense of a village Panchayat Board. Even the head of a family or a community is known as a Mahattara or Mahattama.
Majumdara: The word is connected with the revenue administration under the Muslim rulers. A Majumdar was entrusted with the maintenance of musterroll account and was associated with the pargana administration.
Some Typical Adminstrative
Malik: Malik is mentioned in connection with the cremation ground. The Governor of a Province or the Chief of a horde of slaves enjoying political status or wielding military power or authority was also known as Malik.
Rauta: Rauta is well-known feudal title, current in Mithila in the middle ages. It signified a noble man or a subordinate ruler. Even the Ganga kings of Orissa deseribed themselves as Rauta.
Laskara: Laskara is said to have been an officer incharge of possibly ten troops. He was the lowest officer in the military hierarchy based on decimal system.
Lekhi: Vidyapati describes Lekhi as a city administrator. He was responsible to Mahattaka. Chaturadharika and Panijikaras were under him.
Vaidya: Vaidyas of Bengal associate themselves with Ambasthas. In the Tamil region they are associated with the profession of surgeon. Manu prescribes the profession of a physician for Ambasthas a large section of the people who led the life of medicine men were known as Ambasthas in the forth century B.C.
Viswasa: It is an official designation derived from Vaisvasika, a privy councillor or a private Secretary. It is possibly the same as Rahasyadhikrta or Antaranga. The Muslim rulers brought this title in use.
Shiqdara: Shiqdara was a pargana officer and we find its first mention in the time of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. A Shiqdara was officer of Shiqq, a territory bigger than pargana. Shiqwas later on replaced by Sarkar.
Sarkar: An administrative unit under Sher Shah.
Sahna: It is an administrative title came into use during the time of Tughlaq.
Sahi: It indicates royal titles used by some Indian rulers of foreign origin.
the woman, the Shudra, the dog, and the blackbird, because they are untruth.