Q.1. The Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was called (2019)
(a) For immediate steps to discontinue use of CFCs that were damaging the ozone layer
(b) To reduce CO2 emissions and global wanning
(c) For conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits
(d) To assess threat posed to native species by invasive weed species.
The Earth Summit’ held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilisation of its benefits.
Q.2. Which one of the following is not a method of in situ conservation of biodiversity? (2019)
(a) Sacred grove
(b) Biosphere reserve
(c) Wildlife sanctuary
(d) Botanical garden
Botanical garden comes under ex-situ method of conservation of biodiversity.
Q.3. Which of the following is the most important for animals and plants being driven to extinction? (2019)
(a) Alien species invasion
(b) Habitat loss and fragmentation
(c) Drought and floods
(d) Economic exploitation
Habitat loss and fragmentation is the most important cause driving animals and plants to extinction. When large habitats are broken into small fragments due to various human activities, mammals and birds requiring large territories and certain animals with migratory habitats are badly affected, leading to population declines. The same can be applicable to the plant (forest) loss and degradation as millions of species are being cut and cleared for the expansion of agricultural land, harvesting timber, forest fire, as well as overgrazing.
Q.4. Decline in the population of indian native fishes due to introduction of Clarias gariepinus in river Yamuna can be categoriesd as (2019)
(b) Habitat fragmentation
(c) Over exploitation
(d) Alien species invasion.
Q.5. Western Ghats have a large number of plant and animal species that are not found anywhere else. Which of the following terms will you use to notify such species? (2019)
Q.6. Pollen grains can be stored for several years in liquid nitrogen having a temperature of (2018)
Pollen grains can be stored for several years in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. This is also known as cryopreservation.
Q.7. All of the following are included in lex-situ conservation’ except (2018)
(a) Wildlife safari parks
(b) Sacred groves
(c) Botanical gardens
(d) Seed banks
Sacred groves come under in-situ conservation and represent the pristine forest patches around places of worship which are held in high esteem by tribal communities. Cutting of trees and branches is prohibited due to religious reasons. Wildlife safari parks, botanical gardens and seed blinks come under ex-situ conservation.
Q.8. Which one of the following is related to ex situ conservation of threatened animals and plants? (2017)
(a) Biodiversity hotspots
(b) Amazon rainforest
(c) Himalayan region
(d) Wildlife safari parks
Ex situ conservation is conservation of selected rare or threatened animals and plants in places outside their natural homes, 11 includes olTsile collections like botanical gardens, zoological pinks, wildlife safari parks, gene banks, etc.
Q.9. Alexander von Humboldt described for the first time (2017)
(a) Laws of limiting factor
(b) Species area relationships
(c) Population growth equation
(d) Ecological biodiversity
Alexander von Humboldt described species-area relationship for the first time. He observed that within a region, species richness increases with increasing explored area, but only upto a limit.
Q.10. The region of biosphere reserve which is legally protected and where no human activity is allowed is known as (2017)
(a) Buffer zone
(b) Transition zone
(c) Restoration zone
(d) Core zone
Core zone or Natural zone area of a biosphere reserve is undisturbed and legally protected ecosystem. No human activity is allowed in this zone. Little human activity is allowed in the buffer zone whereas in transition zone, an active cooperation is present between reserve management and local people for activities like settlements, cropping, etc. Restoration region is degraded area which is selected for restoration to near natural form.
Q.11. How many hotspots of biodiversity’ in the world have been identified till date by Norman Myers? (2016)
Biodiversity hotspots are a method to identify- those regions of the world where attention is needed to address biodiversity loss and to guide investments in conservation. The idea was first developed by Norman Myers in 1988 to identify tropical forests hotspots characterised both by exceptional levels of plant endemism and serious habitat loss which he then expanded to a more global scope. Currently, 34 biodiversity hotspots have been identified most of which occur in tropical forests.
Q.12. Which of the following is correctly’ matched? (2016)
| (a) Aerenchyma||Opimtia|
|(b) Age pyramid||Biome|
|(c) Parthenium hysterophorus||Threat to biodiversity|
Parthenium hysterophorus is commonly known as congress grass or carrot weed. It is herbaceous annual plant of Family Asteraceae. It is a deadly invasive, noxious weed infesting cropped and non-cropped areas. It rapidly colonises area replacing the native vegetation and causes a number of human health related problems such as skin allergy, rhinitis and eye irritations. Also, being toxic and unpalatable it causes fodder scarcity. Hence, it is considered a threat to the biodiversity.
Q.13. Red list contains data or information on (2016)
(a) All economically important plants
(b) Plants whose products are in international trade
(c) Threatened species
(d) Marine vertebrates only
A red data book or red list is a catalogue of taxa facing risk of extinction. Red data book or red list was initiated.in 1963.
Q.14. Which of the following national parks is home to the famous musk deer or hangul? (2016)
(a) Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur
(b) Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh
(c) Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Anmaehal Pradesh
(d) Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir
Q.15. Which is the national aquatic animal of India? (2016)
(a) Blue whale
(c) Gangetie shark
(d) River dolphin
River dolphin found in holy river Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus and its tributaries is the National aquatic animal of India. Presence of river dolphin in Ganga indicates pure and freshwater.
Q.16. Which of the following is the most important cause of animals and plants being driven to extinction? (2016)
(a) Habitat loss and fragmentation
(d) Alien species invasion
Destruction of natural habitat causes the most serious threat to the biodiversity. Over-population, urbanisation and industrialisation lead to the destruction or fragmentation of natural habitats to fulfill the requirement of additional land. Loss of habitat results in annihilation of pants, microorganisms and foreing out of animals which in alien lands die our after some time. Fragmentation of habitats results in disruption of complex interactions amongst species, destruction of species in the eleared regions, annihilation of species restricted to deeper undisturbed parts of forests and decreased biodiversity in the habitat fragments.
Q.17. Cryopreservation of gametes of threatened species in viable and fertile condition can be referred to as (2015)
(a) Advanced exsitu conservation of biodiversity
(b) In situ conservation by sacred groves
(c) In situ cryo-conservation of biodiversity
(d) In situ conservation of biodiversity
In such type of conservation, the threatened animals and plants are taken out of their natural habitat and protected in special areas like zoological parks and wild life sanctuaries.
Q.18. In which of the following both pairs have correct combination: (2015)
(a) In situ conservation : Cryopreservation Ex situ conservation : Wildlife Sanctuary
(b) In situ conservation : Seed Bank Ex situ conservation : National Park
(c) In situ conservation : Tissue culture Ex situ conservation : Sacred groves
(d) In situ conservation : National Park Ex situ conservation : Botanical Garden
In-situ (on site) conservation is within the natural habitat eg- sea, river and forest. Exsitu (off site) conservation is outside the natural habitat e.g. zoological park.
Q.19. The species confined to a particular region and not found elsewhere is termed as: (2015)
Endemic species is confined to a particular area due to special type of adaptation according to that region.
Q.20. An example of ex situ conservation is: (2014)
(a) National Park
(b) Seed Bank
(c) Wildlife Sanctuary
(d) Sacred Grove
In Ex-situ conservation the threatened animals and plants are taken out of their natural habitat and are protected in special parks or areas like, Zoological parks, Wild life safari parks and Botanical gardens etc. The ex situ conservation also includes cryopreservation, fertilization of eggs in vitro and propagation of plants through ‘Tissue culture methods’, preservation of seeds through Seed banks.
Q.21. A species facing extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future is called: (2014)
(c) Critically Endangered
Critically Endangered: The taxon facing very high risk of extinction in the wild can become extinct any moment in the immediate future, e.g. Sus savings (Pigmy Hog), Berberis nilghiriensis.
Q.22. The organization which publishes the Red List of species is: (2014)
IUCN or WCN maintains a red data book which is a catalogue of threatened plants and animals facing risk of extinction. The IUCN red list (2004) documents the extinction of 784 species (including 338 vertebrates, 359 invertebrates and 87 plants) in the last 500 years.
Q.23. Given below is the representation of the extent of global diversity of invertebrates. What groups the four portions (A-D) represent respectively? (2014)
Arthropoda is the largest phylum of Animalia which includes insects. Over twothirds of all named species on earth are arthropods. They have organ system level of organisation. Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum. They are terrestrial or aquatic (marine or fresh).