CLAT  >  English for CLAT  >  Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2

Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2 - Notes | Study English for CLAT - CLAT

1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
It was the strangest murder trial I ever attended, where the old woman was found battered to death. He was a heavy stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. All his muscles seemed to be in his thighs. The clock had just struck two in the morning. Mrs Salmon in 15 Northwood Street had been unable to sleep: she heard a door click shut and thought it was her own gate. So she went to the window and saw Adams (that was his name) on the steps of Mrs Parker's house. He had just come out and he was wearing gloves. He had a hammer in his hand and she saw him drop it into the laurel bushes by the front gate. But before he moved away, he had looked up at her window. The fatal instinct that tells a man when he is watched exposed him in the light of a streetlamp to her gaze-his eyes suffused with horrifying and brutal fear, like an animal's when you raise a whip.
Mrs Salmon was called in the Court.
'And do you see the man here in court?'
[She looked straight at the big man in the dock, who stared hard at her with his Pekingese eyes without emotion.]
'Yes,' she said, 'there he is.'
'You are quite certain?'
She said simply, 'I couldn't be mistaken, sir.'
'Thank you, Mrs Salmon.'
[Counsel for the defence rose to cross-examine.]
Now, Mrs Salmon, you must remember that a man's life may depend on your evidence.
'Now, Mrs Salmon, you must remember that a man's life may depend on your evidence.'
'I do remember it, sir.'
Is your eyesight good?'
I have never had to wear spectacles, sir.'
You are a woman of fifty-five?'
'Fifty-six, sir.'
And the man you saw was on the other side of the road?'
'Yes, sir.'
And it was two o'clock in the morning. You must have remarkable eyes, Mrs Salmon?
No, sir. There was moonlight, and when the man looked up, he had the lamplight on his face.
And you have no doubt whatever that the man you saw is the prisoner?
None whatever, sir. It isn't a face one forgets.
Then he said, 'Do you mind, Mrs Salmon, examining again the people in court? No, not the prisoner. Stand up, please, Mr Adams!
And there at the back of the court with thick stout body and muscular legs and a pair of bulging eyes, was the exact image of the man in the dock.
Now think very carefully, Mrs Salmon. Can you still swear that the man you saw drop the hammer in Mrs Parker's garden was the prisoner and not this man, who is his twin brother?' Of course she couldn't. [Excerpts from “The Case for the Defence" by Graham Greene]


Q.51. Why do you think, has the Author called the trial, strangest' murder trial he ever attended?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Because the accused had a very strange personality.
(b) Because, despite having a potential witness and evidence against the accused, his wrong could not be proved.
(c) Because, Mrs. Salmon's evidence could not be proved before the Court.
(d) None of these.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.52. '___ his eyes suffused with horrifying and brutal fear, like an animal's when you raise a whip.' can be called as:    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Personification
(b) Simile
(c) Onomatopoeia
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.53. The expression Pekingese eyes'' used in the passage refers to which of the following?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a)
Bulging eyes
(b) Red eyes
(c) Small eyes
(d) None of them

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.54. Why was Mrs. Salmon convinced that the man she saw had committed the crime?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Because she saw the man on the steps of Mrs. Parker's I louse and he was wearing gloves.
(b) Because he had a hammer in his hand and she saw him drop it into the laurel bushes by the front gate.
(c) Because when he looked up at her window, his eyes were suffused with horrifying and brutal fear.'
(d) Because she had seen him clearly in the light of street lamp.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.55. Who was murdered in the scene described in the passage?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Mrs. Wheeler
(b) Mrs. Parker
(c) Mrs. Salmon
(d) It cannot be inferred

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
The world has very few devices left to fight COVID- 19 with, but technology remains one of them. Whether it is employing the state-of-the-art technology in the discovery of cures or vaccines, or traditional technology services to enhance health care and consultations, or even tools that keep people at home occupied/productive, it is clear that technology will serve humanity at one of its darkest moments. The pandemic has contributed, in no small measure, to the understanding of the myriad ways in which available technologies have not been put to better use, and presented people with multiple opportunities to harness these devices, techniques and methods to get on with life in the time of lockdown. Among the primary uses is telemedicine, rendered inexorable now, by the temporary paralysis brought on by a freeze on movement. The Centre's recent guidelines allowing for widespread use of telemedicine services came as a shot in the arm for telehealth crusaders in the country, among them the Telemedicine Society of India that has long been battling to use the technology in its complete arc to reach remote areas in India. This move finds consonance with the rest of the world where several nations, also deeply impacted by the pandemic, have deployed telemedicine to reach people who have been unable to come to hospital, to reduce footfalls in hospitals, and to even provide medical and mental health counselling to countless people. It was way back in 2000 that telemedicine was first employed in India, but the progress has been excruciatingly slow, until the pandemic. However, it does seem as if the medical community was only held back by the lack of legislation to enable tele consultations. For no sooner was the policy announced, than hospitals and clinicians hurried to jump onto the bandwagon, advertising contact information for patients. The advantages are peculiar in the current context, when putting distance between people is paramount, as tele consultations are not barred even when health care professionals and patients may have to be quarantined. The advancement of telecommunication capabilities over the years has made the transmission of images and sound files (heart and lung sounds, coughs) faster and simpler. Pilot telemedicine experiments in ophthalmology and psychiatry have proven to be of immense benefit to the communities. Telemedicine's time is here, finally. While unleashing the full potential of telemedicine to help people, experts and government agencies must be mindful of the possible inadequacies of the medium, and securing sensitive medical information; such cognisance should guide the use of the technology.

Q.56. Which one of the following words from the passage means unavoidable'?    (CLAT, 2020
(a) Inexorable
(b) Myriad
(c) Excruciatingly
(d) Bandwagon

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.57. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) It is time to unleash the full potential of Telemedicine.
(b) It is time to unleash the full potential of Telemedicine with cognisance of its possible flaws.
(c) Technology has not been utilised to its fullest to suit the current needs.
(d) People should not be skeptical about the advantages of telemedicine.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.58. Which of the following is a significant factor contributing in slow employment of Telemedicine in India?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Telemedicine was never employed in India.
(b) There was an absence of regulations regarding the use of telemedicine consultations and medication systems.
(c) Telemedicinal Society of India failed in its efforts to promote the importance of such a system in the country.
(dAll of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.59. Telecommunication based medication has the potential for an easy outreach because:    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Pilot experiments in telemedicine have been proved to be successful.
(b) It helps in easier communication of medical images from one place to another.
(c) It helps in securing sensitive medical information.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.60. What is the meaning of the expression Shot in the arm' used in the passage?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Hitting the nail on its head.
(b) Bull's Eye
(c) Positive Impact on something
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Questions: Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.
"The night I arrived in Delhi on a visit in January 1996, the elevator at the Maurya Sheraton took us up to the twelfth floor in a breath-taking six or seven seconds. "Remarkable," I commented admiringly to the friendly hotel employee in a maroon sari and businesslike pageboy haircut, who had draped a three-kilogram marigold garland around my neck as I stepped across the threshold. "We couldn't have ascended faster in the U. S. of A."
She took my praise in stride, as well she should have. Jet-lagged after an eighteen-hour journey from New York, I had failed to notice that this was not some superfast new elevator technology that the Maurya had brought to Delhi, but rather some highly creative labelling. When I finally woke up and looked out my window, I realized that what the elevator buttons had called the twelfth floor was in fact the second. The gleaming Maurya elevator had merely taken me for a ride - and a shorter ride I'd imagined.
I couldn't help the accusatory tone out of my voice the next time I ran into the maroon sari. "Twelfth floor, huh ?" I said pointedly. "I didn't think liberalization meant being liberal with the facts."
She was surprised that I had taken offense. "Our foreign visitors much prefer to think of themselves as being on eleventh and twelfth floors than the first or second," she replied with wide-eyed innocence. "And they don't look out of the windows that much."
Welcome, I thought, to the new India. An India I was discovering for the first time: an India of five-star hotels, welcoming garlands, and smooth-talking hotel staff, where nothing is quite what it seems (not even the elevator buttons), where windows are not meant to be opened and appearances are the only reality. 


Q.61. After reading the last line of the first paragraph, "We couldn't have ascended faster in the U. S. of A.", which of the options do you think the author is most likely to agree with?    (AIELT, 2021)
(a) India never fails to surprise
(b) Indians have been great innovators
(c) Foreigners are turning to India's technical advancement
(d) It's a fact that India hasn't made significant progress

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.62. As used in the third paragraph, the underlined word "accusatory" most nearly means all options, except    (AIELT, 2021)
(a) denunciative
(b) criminate
(c) eulogistic
(d) censuring

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.63. It can be inferred from the passage that the author's impression    (AIELT, 2021)
(a) transgresses from being proud to being even prouder
(b) plummets from a sense of pride to a sense of disillusionment
(c) trends from a level of disappointment to a level of condemnation
(d) remains steadfast on the thought of being an Indian

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.64. In the line, "...taken me for a ride - and a shorter ride I'd imagined", means    (AIELT, 2021)
(a) the elevator had taken them very swiftly
(b) the hotel was treating its guests like royalties
(c) technology had advanced in third world countries
(d) people were being hoodwinked

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.65. The tone of the passage could be summed up to be    (AIELT, 2021)
(a) pensive and remorseful
(b) matter of fact and sombre
(c) humorous and reflective
(d) fiery and critical

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Directions: Each set of questions in this section is based on the passage. The questions are to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the questions.
In order to understand the development of Gangetic Valley plains, scholars have traditionally relied primarily on evidence from historical documents. However, such documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at best. Reliable accounts arc very scarce for many parts of Northern India prior to the fifteenth century, and many of the relevant documents from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries focus selectively on matters relating to cultural or commercial interests.
Studies of fossilized pollens preserved in peats and lake muds provide an additional means of investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of changes in vegetation resulting from both human activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds and quantities of minute pollens that become trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollens and when they were deposited, and in many cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct the documentary record.
For example, analysis of samples from a bay in Jammu has revealed significant patterns of cereal-grain pollens beginning by about fourth century. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part of Jammu makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult. Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to any significant extent until the introduction of the wooden plough to India in the seventh century. Because cereal cultivation would have required tiling of the soil, the pollens evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough.
Another example concerns flax cultivation in jammu, one of the great linen-producing areas of India during the sixteenth century. Some aspects of linen production in Jammu are well documented, but the documentary record tells little about the cultivation of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that area. The record of sixteenth-century linen production in Jammu, together with the knowledge that flax cultivation had been established in India centuries before that time, led some historians to surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Jammu before the sixteenth century. But pollens analyses indicate that this is not the case; flax pollens were found only in deposits laid down since the sixteenth century.
It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative history of the landscape. For example, pollen analysis cannot identify the species, but only the genus or family, of some plants. Among these is turmeric, a cultivated plant of medicinal importance in India. Turmeric belongs to a plant family that also comprises various native weeds, including Brahma Thandu. If Turmeric pollen were present in a deposit it would be indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native species.


Q.66. The phrase "documentary record" (para 2 and 4) primarily refers to -    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period.
(b) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recoded conditions and events of that time.
(c) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen.
(d) the kinds and qualities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.67. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) In certain parts of Jammu, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
(b) Cereal grain cultivation began in Jammu around fourth century.
(c) In certain parts of India, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the wooden plough.
(d) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.68. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Gangetic Valley plains, at least some historians believed which one of the following?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Turmeric was not used as a medicinal plant in India until after the sixteenth century.
(b) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in India until at least the seventh century.
(c) The history of the Gangetic Valley plains during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was well documented.
(d) The beginning of flax cultivation in Jammu may well have occurred before the sixteenth century.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.69. Which of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) The second paragraph describes a view' against which the author intends to argue, end the final paragraph states the author's argument against that view.
(b) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.
(c) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.
(d) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.70. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?     (NLUD, 2020)
(a) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.
(b) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Gangetic Valley plains.
(c) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and turmeric had a significant impact on the Gangetic Valley plains.
(d) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
What I have tried to do is to discern and articulate the natural laws of a particular kind of human undertaking, which I have described as "the enterprise of subjecting human conduct to the governance of rules". These natural laws have nothing to do with any “brooding omnipresence in the skies.” Nor have they the slightest affinity with any such proposition as that the practice of contraception is a violation of God's law. They remain entirely terrestrial in origin and application.
They are not "higher" laws; if any metaphor of elevation is appropriate they should be called "lower" laws. They are like the natural laws of carpentry, or at least those laws respected by a carpenter who wants the house he builds to remain standing and serve the purpose of those who live in it.
Though these natural laws touch one of the most vital of human activities they obviously do not exhaust the whole of man's moral life. They have nothing to say on topics as polygamy, the study of Marx, the worship of God, the progressive income tax, or the subjugation of women. If the question be raised whether any of these subjects, or others like them, should be taken as objects of legislation, that question relates to what 1 have called the external morality of law.
As a convenient (though not wholly satisfactory) way of describing the distinction being taken we may speak of a procedural, as distinguished from a substantive natural law. What I have called the internal morality of law is in this sense a procedural version of natural law, though to avoid misunderstanding the word 'procedural' should be assigned a special and expanded sense so that it would include, for example, a substantive accord between official action and enacted law. The term 'procedural' is, however, broadly appropriate as indicating that we are concerned, not with the substantive aims of legal rules, but with the ways in which a system of rules for governing human conduct must be constructed and administered if it is to be efficacious and at the same time remain what it purports to be.


Q.71. The passage is an explanation of ____
(1) Legal Morality
(2) The Worship of God
(3) Natural Law
(4) God's Law
Choose the correct option from below.    (DU LLB, 2020)

(a) 1, 2, 3 & 4
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 3 only

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.72. The procedural version of natural law relates to    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a) Internal morality
(b) External morality
(c) Objects of legislation
(d) Human activities

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.73. Natural laws, according to this passage, are
1. the ones, having brix>ding omnipresence in the skies
2. terrestrial in origin and application
3. higher laws
4. lower laws
Choose the correct option from below:    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a) 1 and 3 both
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 both
(d) 2 and 4 both

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.74. The term 'procedural' means and includes 
1. A substantive accord between official action and enacted law 
2. Administration of a system of rules for governing human conduct 
3. Construction of a system of rules for governing human conduct 
4. External morality 
Choose the correct option from below    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a) 1, 2, 3 & 4
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.75. The enterprise of subjecting human conduct to the governance of rules relates to
1. Natural laws
2. God's Laws
3. Objects of legislation
4. Higher laws
Choose the correct option from below.    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a)1, 2, 3 & 4
(b)1 only
(c) 2 and 3 both
(d) 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Directions: In the paragraph below there are five sentences. In each sentence there are pairs of highlighted words (A, B). Select the most appropriate words to form correct sentences. Then from the options given select the correct option.

Q.76. Internationally high rise walls serve as street (A) paintings (B) canvasses. In Delhi and Gurgaon artists have (A) earmarked (B) earmark a district and after civic authority (A) compliance, (B) grant transformed it into a throbbing art district. A walk through the (A) instalment (B) installations for public interaction is (A) instituted (B) envisaged.
It is hoped that this will discourage defiling city's public places.    (CLAT, 2018)

(a) ABABB
(b) BABAB
(c) BAABB
(d) ABABA

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.77.  Pie charts are another extremely effective (A) visual (B) graph presentation of data. They show what proportions make up a whole. Each segment should be (A) cleared (B) differentiated by shading, cross- hatching or colour and should be (A) labelled (B) articulated horizontally. (A) Initially (B) Conventionally, the largest slice begins at the 12 o'clock position then slices are sequenced clockwise in (A) descending (B) clarified positions.    (CLAT, 2018)
(a) ABABA
(b) BBABA
(c) BABBA
(d) BAABA

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.78. One of the predictable difficulties you can expect to (A) encounter (B) counter when you go to a different country to study or work is language. But difficulties may also result from (A) culture (B) cultural differences, which are often less (A) conscious (B) obvious at first and can be unexpected. A Dutch academic was one of the first persons to propose an (A) influential (B) dire theory of cultural (A) diversity (B) division.    (CLAT, 2018)
(a) ABABA
(b) ABBAA
(c) AABBA
(d) ABABB.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives.
Civil and political rights and socio-economic rights do not exist in a state of antagonism. The conditions necessary for realising or fulfilling socio-economic rights do not postulate the subversion of political freedom. The reason for this is simple. Socio-economic entitlements must yield true benefits to those for whom they are intended. This can be achieved by eliminating rent-seeking behaviour and by preventing the capture of social welfare benefits by persons who are not entitle to them. Capture of social welfare benefits can be obviated only when political systems are transparent and when there is a free flow of information Opacity ensures benefit to those who monopolize scarce economic resources. On the other hand, conditions where civil and political freedoms flourish ensure that governmental policies are subject to critique and assessment. It is this scrutiny which sub-serves the purpose of ensuring that socio-economic benefits actually permeate to the underprivileged for whom they are meant. Conditions of freedom and a vibrant assertion of civil and political rights promote a constant review of the justness of socio-economic programmes and of their effectiveness in addressing deprivation and want. Scrutiny of public affairs is founded upon the existence of freedom. Hence civil and political rights and sociao-economic rights are complementary and not mutually exclusive.


Q.79. According to the passage, assertion of rights ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2018)
(a) 
is frowned upon
(b) must be discouraged
(c) promotes just social policies
(d) is desirable

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.80. Which of the following statements best conveys the idea of the passage?    (D.U. LL.B., 2018)
1. Civil and political rights and social and economic rights are opposed to each other.
2. Political freedom must be compromised to realize rights.
3. Existence of criticism of government is a proof of vibrant assertion of civil and political rights.
4. Transparency ensures equitable distribution of resources.
(a)
2 and 4
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.81. According to the passage capture of social benefits ______ .     (D.U. LL.B., 2018)
(a) ensures accountability
(b) must be discouraged to ensure equitable distribution of resources
(c) is an evil necessity
(d) should be encouraged to maintain free flow of information

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.82. 'Opacity' means:    (D.U. LL.B., 2018)
(a) Ostensible 
(b) Transparent
(c) Unclear
(d) Opal like

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Directions: Read the given passage carefully and choose the most appropriate option to the questions given below.
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was created in the early 1990s as a component of the Uruguay Round negotiation. However, it could have been negotiated as part of the Tokyo Round of the 1970s, since negotiation was an attempt at a 'constitutional reform' of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Or it could have been put off to the future, as the US government wanted. What factors led to the creation of the WTO in the early 1990s?
One factor was the pattern of multilateral bargaining that developed late in the Uruguay Round. Like all complex international agreements, the WTO was a product of a series of trade-offs between principal actors and groups. For the United States, which did not want a new organization, the disputed settlement part of the WTO package achieved its longstanding goal of a more effective and more legal dispute settlement system. For the Europeans, who by the 1990s had come to view GATT dispute settlement less in political terms add more as a regime of legal obligations, the WTO package was acceptable as a means to discipline the resort to unilateral measures by the United States. Countries like Canada and other middle and smaller trading partners were attracted by the expansion of a rule-based system and by the symbolic value of a trade organization, both of which inherently support the weak against the strong. The developing countries were attracted due to the provisions banning unilateral measures. Finally, and perhaps most important, many countries at the Uruguay Round came to put a higher priority on the export gains than on the import losses that the negotiation would produce, and they came to associate the WTO and a rule-based system with those gains. This reasoning - replicated in many countries - was contained in U. S. Ambassador Kantor's defence of the WTO, and it announced to a recognition that international trade and its benefits cannot be enjoyed unless trading nations accept the discipline of a negotiated rule-based environment.
A second factor in the creation of the WTO was pressure from lawyers and the legal process. The dispute settlement system of the WTO was seen as a victory of legalists but the matter went deeper than that. The GATT, and the WTO, are contract organizations based on rules, and it is inevitable that an organization creating a further rule will in turn be influenced by legal process. Robert Hudee has written of the 'momentum of legal development', but what is this precisely? Legal development can he defined as promotion of the technical legal values of consistency, clarity (or certainty) and effectiveness; these are values that those responsible for administering any legal system will seek to maximize. As it played out in the WTO, consistency meant integrating under one roof the whole lot of separate agreements signed under GATT auspices; clarity meant removing ambiguities about the powers of contracting parties to make certain decisions or to undertake waivers; and effectiveness meant eliminating exceptions arising out of grandfather-rights and resolving defects in dispute settlement procedures and institutional provisions. Concern for these values is inherent in any rule-based system of cooperation, since without these value rules would be meaningless in the first place, therefore, create their own incentive for fulfilment.
The moment of legal development has occurred in other institutions besides the GATT, most notably in the European Union (EU). Over the past two decades the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has consistently rendered decisions that have expanded incrementally the EU's internal market, in which the doctrine of 'mutual recognition' handed down in Cassis de Dijon case in 1979 was a key turning point. The court is now widely recognized as a major player in European integration, even though arguably such a strong role was not originally envisaged in the Treaty of Rome, which initiated the current European Union. One means the Court used to expand integration was the teleological method of interpretation', whereby the actions of member states were evaluated against 'the accomplishment of the most elementary goals set forth in the Preamble to the (Rome) treaty. The teleological method represents an effort to keep current policies consistent with slated goals, and it is analogous to the effort in GATT to keep contracting party trade practices consistent with slated rules. In both cases legal concerns and procedures are an independent force for further cooperation.
In the large part the WTO was an exercise in consolidation. In the context of a trade negotiation that created a near-revolutionary expansion of international trade rules, the formation of the WTO was a deeply conservative act needed to ensure that the benefits of the new rules would not be lost. The WTO was all about institutional structure and dispute settlement: these are the concerns of conservatives and not revolutionaries, that is why lawyers and legalists took the lead on these issues. The WTO codified the GATT institutional practice that had developed by custom over three decades, and it incorporated a new dispute settlement system that was necessary to keep both old and new rules from becoming a sham. Both the international structure and the dispute settlement system were necessary to preserve and enhance the integrity of the multilateral trade regime that had been built incrementally from the 1940s to the 1990s.


Q.83. In the method of interpretation of the European Court of justice    (CLAT, 2017)
(a) Current policies need to be consistent with stated goals.
(b) Actions against member states needed to be evaluated against the said community goals.
(c) Contracting party trade practices need to be consistent with stated rules.
(d) Enunciation of the most elementary community goals needed to be emphasized.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.84. What would be the closest reason why WTO was not formed in 1970s?    (CLAT, 2017)
(a)
The Tokyo Round negotiations was an attempt at constitutional reform.
(b) The US government did not like it.
(c) Lawyers did not work for the dispute settlement system.
(d) Important players did not find it in their best interest to do so.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.85. The most likely reason for the acceptance of the WTO package by nations was that    (CLAT, 2017)
(a) They recognized the need for a rule-based environment to protect the benefits of increased trade.
(b) Its rule-based system leads to export gains.
(c) It has the means to prevent the US from taking unilateral measures.
(d) It settles disputes more legally and more effectively.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.86. According to the passage, WTO promoted the technical legal values partly through    (CLAT, 2017)
(a) Rules that create their own incentive for fulfilment. 
(b) Ambiguities about the powers of contracting parties to make certain decisions.
(c) Integrating under one roof the agreements signed under GATT.
(d) Grandfather-rights exceptions and defects in dispute settlement procedures.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.87. In the statement '... it amounted to a recognition that international trade and its benefits cannot be enjoyed unless trading nations accept the discipline of a negotiated rule-based environment', it refers to    (CLAT, 2017)
(a) The higher priority on export gains placed by many countries at the Uruguay Round.
(b) The export gains many countries came to associate with a rule-based system.
(c) Ambassador Kantor's defence of the WTO.
(d) The provision of a rule-based system by the WTO.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives given.
Legislation is the prime source of law and consists in the declaration of legal rules by a competent authority. A parliamentary legislature frames new laws, such as Acts of Parliament, and amends or repeals old laws. Legislature may delegate law making powers to lower bodies. Delegated legislation may be open to challenge for irregularity of process; and the legislature usually has the right to withdraw delegated powers if it sees fit. Most legislatures have their powers restricted by the nation's Constitution, and Montesquieu's theory of the separation of powers typically restricts a legislature's powers to legislation. Although the legislature has the power to legislate, it is the courts who have the power to interpret statutes. Similarly, although parliaments have the power to legislate, it is usually the executive who decides on the legislative programme. Judicial precedent is based on the doctrine of stare decisis, and mostly associated with jurisdictions based on the English Common Law, but the concept has been adopted in part by Civil Law systems. Precedent is the accumulated principles of law derived from centuries of decisions. Judgments passed by judges in important cases are recorded and become significant source of law. A judicial precedent is a judgment or decision of a court of law cited as an authority for deciding a similar state of fact in the same manner or on the same principle or by analogy. Equity is the case law developed by the Court of Chancery which is now defunct. Equity prevails over common law, but its application is discretionary. Equity's main achievements are: trusts, charities, probate, and equitable remedies. The Judicature Reforms in the 1870s effected a procedural fusion of the two bodies of law, ending their institutional separation. The reforms did not effect any substantive' fusion, however. Judicial or academic reasoning which assumes the contrary has been described as a "fusion fallacy". A custom as a law is not written, but is a rule whereby if a practice can be shown to have existed for a very long time, such as "since time immemorial", it becomes a source of law.


Q.88. The doctrine of stare decisis is associated with ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) 
Judicial Precedent
(b) Delegated Legislation
(c) Customs
(d) Legislation.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.89. Who has the supreme power to interpret statutes?    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) Parliament
(b) Court
(c) Legislature
(d) Executive.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.90. Judicial precedent is associated mainly with jurisdictions based on ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) 
Continental law
(b) Canon law
(c) English Common law
(d) Civil law.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.91. To which of the following court, though now non-operational, does equity owe its origin?     (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) 
Curia Regis
(b) House of Lords
(c) Privy Council
(d) Court of Chancery.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.92. Who may delegate law-making powers to lower bodies?    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) Executive
(b) Judiciary
(c) Convention
(d) Legislature.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.93. A judgment of a court of law cited as an authority is useful for deciding a later case which has ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a)
a fundamental similarity in the area of dispute
(b) a similar state of fact
(c) the same parties before the court
(d) its origin in the same place.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.94. Which two areas of law were amalgamated in the later part of nineteenth century?    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) Equity and custom
(b) Common law and equity
(c) Common law and civil law
(d) Civil law and equity.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.95. A practice which has been followed for a very long period of time becomes a source of law as ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) legislation
(b) equity 
(c) precedent
(d) custom

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.96. Probate is one of the contributions of ____.    (D.U. LL.B., 2017)
(a) Equity
(b) Common law
(c) Customary law
(d) Civil law

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The document Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2 - Notes | Study English for CLAT - CLAT is a part of the CLAT Course English for CLAT.
All you need of CLAT at this link: CLAT
33 videos|32 docs|58 tests
Download as PDF

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

Free

,

ppt

,

Exam

,

pdf

,

Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2 - Notes | Study English for CLAT - CLAT

,

practice quizzes

,

video lectures

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2 - Notes | Study English for CLAT - CLAT

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

past year papers

,

mock tests for examination

,

study material

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions: Comprehension- 2 - Notes | Study English for CLAT - CLAT

,

Semester Notes

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

;