CLAT  >  Logical Reasoning for CLAT  >  Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning

Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Directions: Read the following short passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow each passage.

Q.1. Therapists have just completed an extensive study of recently delinquent juveniles in order to determine which factors contributed most to the delinquency. The researchers found that in a great majority of the cases of delinquency, the parents met, on average, fewer than 4 times per week with their children. From this data, the therapists have determined that a failure to spend time together with the children is a major factor leading to delinquency.
Which one of the following, if true, would cast the most doubt on the researcher's hypothesis?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) 
Parents and children in the study who reported that they met each other more than four times per week also indicated that they tended to perceive their relationships as healthy.
(b) In many cases, people in unhappy family tend to express their displeasure by avoiding contact with each other when possible.
(c) Most of the families in the study who were unable to meet often with each other worked outside of the home.
(d) Many families who have a long and strong family bonding met each other fewer than four times per week.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.2. Several coaching centres have recently switched at least partially from study material written by hand on printer paper from study material written on a computer and sent electronically with no use of paper at all. Therefore, less printer paper will be used as a result of these changes than would have been used if these coaching centres had continued to use handwritten study materials.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
The amount of printer paper needed to explain the electronic study material is less than the amount that would have been used for handwritten material.
(b) Coaching centres that used more printer paper were more likely to switch to electronic materials than centres that used less printer paper.
(c) Some of the Institutes that have switched at least partially to electronic study material still primarily used printer paper for other operations.
(d) More printer paper was used to create manuals for the use of electronic study materials than was used to write handwritten materials.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.3. In visual media, it's possible to induce viewers to project their feelings onto characters on the screen. In one study, a camera shot of a girl's face was preceded by images of a still river. The audience thought the girl's face registered contentment. When the same girl's face was preceded by images of a mighty and violent tsunami wave, the audience thought the girl's face registered fear. Media news teams must be careful to avoid such manipulation of their viewers.
Which of the following is best supported by the information in the passage?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) 
The technique for manipulating audiences described in the passage would also work in an audio program that played dramatic music.
(b) Audiences should strive to be less gullible.
(c) Images of a still river engendered feelings of happiness in the audiences.
(d) The expression on the woman's face was, in actuality, blank.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.4. Although measuring the productivity of outsourced workers is a complex endeavor.
Company X, which relies heavily on outsourced workers, must find ways to assess the performance of these workers. The risks to a company that does not review the productivity of its human resources are simply too great. Last year, Company Y was forced into receivership after its productivity declined for three consecutive quarters.
The clauses in the italics in the above paragraph, play which of the following roles in the argument above?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
The first clause in italics express a position, and the second warns against the adoption of that position.
(b) The first clause in italics represents the author's conclusion, and the second supports the conclusion with an analogy.
(c) The first clause in italics states the author's premises, and the second states the author's conclusion.
(d) The first clause in italics provides background information, and the second offers evidence to contradict that information.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.5. A telephonic poll conducted in two states asked respondents whether they get adequate water during summers. Ninety-nine percent of respondents said their houses were having running water through-out the day. The pollsters published their findings, concluding that ninety-nine percent of all homes in India have adequate water for use.
Which of the following most accurately describes a questionable technique employed by the pollsters in drawing their conclusions?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
The pollsters conducted the poll by telephone, thereby relying on the veracity of respondents.
(b) The pollsters never defined the term "adequate" in terms of a specific quantity of water.
(c) The pollsters didn't visit respondent's houses in person, so no measure of adequacy of water during summers in a subject's house was actually made.
(d) The poll assumes conditions in the two states are representative of the entire country.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.6. In the following question, choose the correct alternative which can replace the question mark Ignominous : Honourable :: Cajole : ?    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a) Notorious
(b) Coax
(c) Bully
(d) Filch

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.7. In the following question, choose the correct alternative which can replace the question mark Condign: Deserved :: Veracity : ?    (DULLB, 2020)
(a)
Mercy
(b) Boring
(c) Obloquy
(d) Accuracy

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.8. Complete the series.
RESTITUTION, ESTITUTIO, TITUTIO, ITUTI,    (DULLB, 2020)
(a) UTT
(b) TUT
(c) ITU
(d) TI

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.9. If A x B means A is to the north of B; A + B means A is to the south of B; A + B means A is to the west of B; A - B means A is to the east of B; then in P % Q + R - S, S is in which direction with respect to Q?    (DULLB, 2020)
(a) South - West
(b) South - East
(c) North - East
(d) North - West

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.10. Read the passage and answer the following question:
Nine diplomats R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z are sitting around a table facing the centre. Z sits 5th to the right of X. T is not an immediate neighbour of either X or Z. S sits between Y and V. T sits 4th to the left of V. U sits 2nd to the right of W. Y is not an immediate neighbour of Z.
Which of the following is U's position with respect to S in the anti-clock wise direction starting from S?    (DULLB, 2020)
(a) 
3 to the Left
(b) 4 to the Left
(c) 5 to the Right
(d) 7 to the Right

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.11. Read the passage and answer the following question:
Nine diplomats R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z are sitting around a table facing the centre. Z sits 5th to the right of X. T is not an immediate neighbour of either X or Z. S sits between Y and V. T sits 4th to the left of V. U sits 2nd to the right of W. Y is not an immediate neighbour of Z.
Three of the following pairs are alike based on their seating positions in the above arrangement and so form a group. Find the odd one out    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a)
TR
(b) ZS
(c) YW
(d) UV

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.12. Read the passage and answer the following one question:
A wildlife sanctuary contains animals of at least two of the following six kinds—nilgai, chinkara, black buck, wild boar, leopards, and jackals. No other kinds of animals are in the sanctuary. The following conditions must hold:
1. Jackals are not in the sanctuary if Chinkaras are
2. Black bucks are not in the sanctuary if Wild boars are
3. Either wild boar or jackal, but not both, are in the sanctuary
4. Jackals are in the sanctuary if Nilgais, Leopards, or both are in the sanctuary.
If there are no wild boars in the sanctuary, then which one of the following is a kind of animal that cannot be in the sanctuary?    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a) Nilgai
(b) Chinkara
(c) Black buck
(d) Jackal

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.13. Given A ÷ B means A is father of B, A x B means A is wife of B, A + B means A is the brother of B, A - B means A is the daughter of B.
If, E ÷ F x G + H, then how is H related to F?    (DU LLB, 2020)
(a)
Brother-in-aw
(b) Brother
(c) Father
(d) Father-in-law

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.14. Choose the odd one out    (DULLB, 2020)
(a)
FCDE
(b) UQRS
(c) KGHI
(d) PLMN

Correct Answer is Option (a)


REASONING AND ASSUMPTION

Directions: Which alternative applies to the following Statement or Assumptions? Choose the most appropriate option.
Q.15. 'Only ignorant people believe in witchcraft' is equivalent to    (CL AT, 2017)
(a) All persons who believe in witchcraft are ignorant
(b) No ignorant persons are those who do not believe in witchcraft
(c) There is no link between ignorance and witchcraft
(d) Some ignorant persons are not those who believe in witchcraft.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.16. 'Some of the valuable books are seldom read', means    (CLAT, 2017)
(a)
All the valuable books are read.
(b) Some of the valuable books are read.
(c) All the valuable books are not read.
(d) Some of the valuable books are not read.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.17. Identify the statement which cannot be accepted.    (CLAT, 2017)
(a)
Almost one-third of the human body is made up of water
(b) The earth revolves around the sun in 366 days
(c) Odyssey is an ancient epic
(d) Human race will become extinct sooner or later.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Directions: Read the following short passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow each passage.

Q.18. Columnist: Senators who are not firmly committed to a core set of beliefs will formulate new campaign strategies and moot points before each upcoming election. Senators are elected to serve multiple terms in office only if they formulate new campaign strategies and moot points before each upcoming election. Therefore, senators who are not firmly committed to a core set of beliefs are elected to serve multiple terms in office.
Which one of the following displays a flawed pattern of reasoning most closely parallel to that in the columnist's argument?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) Nuclear proliferation will accelerate only if there is widespread access to fissile material. Widespread access to fissile material goes hand in glove with increased regional instability. Therefore, nuclear proliferation will not accelerate unless there is an increase in regional instability.
(b) If health care costs continue to rise, foreign currency markets will devalue the Euro. But health care costs will not continue to rise. Therefore, foreign currency markets will not devalue the Euro.
(c) A loyal person is a likeable person, for a loyal person always stands by her friends and a likeable person also always stands by her friends.
(d) A well-constructed house includes code- compliant framing, wiring, and insulation. A house is marketable only if it is well- constructed. Therefore, a marketable house includes code-compliant framing, wiring, and insulation.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.19. Cuisine from the north of China is one of the most popular kinds of food in India. But this is not the case for Southern Chinese cuisine. In fact, in a recent survey, Southern Chinese cuisine was voted one of the least popular styles of cooking in the country.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent paradox described above?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a)
Southern Chinese cuisine frequently incorporates obscure ingredients that are difficult to locate, while the ingredients necessary to prepare Northern Chinese cuisine are easily found in most Indian grocery stores
(b) Immigrants from all parts of China brought their local cuisines with them when they came to India in great numbers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
(c) Northern Chinese cuisine has recently become more popular in India than the Italian cuisine, which for many years was this country's favourite international food
(d) Northern Chinese cuisine is more time consuming and labour intensive to prepare than Southern Chinese cuisine.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.20. A growing number of ecologists have begun to recommend lifting the ban on the hunting of leopards, which are not an endangered species, and on the international trade of leopard's skin. Why, then, do I continue to support the protection of leopards? For the same reason, that I oppose the hunting of people. Admittedly, there are far too many human beings on this planet to qualify us for inclusion on the list of endangered species. Still, I doubt the same ecologists endorsing the resumption of leopard hunting would use that fact to recommend the hunting of human beings.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the author's argument?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) 
Human being might, in fact, be placed on the list of endangered species.
(b) Despite the growing number of ecologists supporting a repeal of the ban on leopard hunting, most will still support it.
(c) The international ban on leopard hunting was instituted before leopards became an endangered species.
(d) Leopards, now dangerously overpopulated, cannot be supported by their ecosystems.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.21. Experts musicologists believe that Beethoven wrote his last piano sonata in 1824, three years before his death. However, the manuscript of a piano sonata was recently discovered that bears Beethoven's name and dates from 1825. Clearly, the experts are mistaken because not every piece that Beethoven wrote was catalogued in his lifetime, and it is known that Beethoven continued to compose until just weeks before his death.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a)
That either of two things could have occurred independently is taken to show that those two things could not have occurred simultaneously.
(b) An inconsistency that, as presented, has more than one possible resolution is treated as though only one resolution is possible.
(c) Establishing that a certain event occurred is confused with having established the cause of that event.
(d) A claim that has a very general application is based entirely on evidence from a narrowly restricted range of cases.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.22. Some people fear that our first extra-terrestrial visitors will not be the friendly aliens envisaged in popular science fiction movies, but rather hostile invaders bent on global domination. This fear is groundless. Any alien civilisation that makes it to our planet must have acquired the wisdom to control war, or it would have destroyed itself long before contacting us.
The author bases the argument above on which of the following assumptions?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) Our planet will have contact with extraterrestrial visitors at some time in the future
(b) Interstellar travel is unworkable except in a society much more technologically advanced than ours
(c) A civilisation that has learned to control war on its own planet will not wage war on another
(d) Alien civilisations are more morally advanced than those on Earth.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer, that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous or incompatible with the passage.
Q.23. Information that is published is part of the public record. But information that a reporter collects and sources that he contacts, must be protected in order for our free press to function free of fear
The above argument is most severely weakened by which one of the following statements?    (NLU Delhi, 2013)
(a) Public information is usually reliable
(b) Undocumented evidence may be used to convict an innocent person
(c) Members of the press act ethically in most cases
(d) The sources that a reporter contacts are usually willing to divulge their identity.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.24. Psychological novels are superior to novels of adventure. Immature readers prefer novels of adventure to novels with less action and greater psychological depth. The immature reader, who prefers James Bond's exploits to the subtleties of Henry James., can be identified easily by his choice of inferior reading matter.
A criticism of the logic of this argument would be likely to find fault with the author's    (NLU Delhi, 2013)
(a) Presupposing the conclusions he wishes to prove
(b) Failure to define "adventure" dearly
(c) Failure to cite possible exceptions to this rule
(d) Hasty generalisation on the basis of a limited specific case.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.25. Many very effective prescription drugs are available to patients on a "one time only" basis. Suspicious of drug abuse, physicians will not renew a prescription for a medicine that has worked effectively for a patient. This practice denies a patient her right to health.
Which one of the following is a basic assumption made by the author?    (NLU Delhi, 2013)
(a) 
A new type of medicine is likely to be more expensive
(b) Physicians are not concerned with a patient's health
(c) Most physicians prescribe inadequate amounts of medicine
(d) Patients are liable to suffer the same ailment repeatedly.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.26. Vijay claimed that the large dent in the fender of the company-owned vehicle he had borrowed was caused by the careless act of another motorist, who backed into the car when it was parked in a public garage. Yet Vijay's own car has several dents in its fenders, all of which he acknowledges as having caused by his own careless driving. Therefore, Vijay's contention that the dent in the formerly undented company- owned vehicle was caused by the careless act of another person is not true.
The reasoning in this argument is vulnerable because it    (NLU Delhi, 2013)
(a)
Fails to recognise that Vijay could be lying about the dents in his own vehicle
(b) Fails to recognise that the motorist who backed into him simply did not see him
(c) Fails to acknowledge that many such accidents occur in parking garages
(d) Presumes, without justification, that because Vijay has caused similar dents to his own car, he caused the dent in the company car.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.27.  It takes a good telescope to see the moons of Neptune. I can't see the moons of Neptune with my telescope. Therefore, I do not have a good telescope.
Which one of the following most closely parallels the logic of this statement?    (NLU Delhi, 2013)
(a) It takes two to tango. You are doing the tango. Therefore, you have a partner
(b) If you have a surfboard, you can surf. You do not have a surfboard. Therefore, you cannot surf
(c) You can write a letter to your friend with a pencil. You do not have a pencil. Therefore, you cannot write the letter
(d) If you know the area of a circle, you can find its circumference. You cannot figure out the circumference. Therefore, you do not know the area.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


STATEMENT AND CONCLUSION
STATEMENT AND COURSE OF ACTION

Directions: Each question contains one statement and two courses of action I and IT. Assuming the statements to be true decide which of the two courses of action most logically follows.    (CLAT, 2013)

Q.28. Statement: Indian children are very talented but are instead weak in science and mathematics.
I: Teaching and textbooks are not available in mother language.
II: Education based on experiments in both the subjects is lacking.    (CLAT, 2013)

(a) If only I follows
(b) 
If only II follows
(c) 
If either I or II follows
(d) 
If neither I nor II follows.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.29. Statement: Despite child labour laws, children can be seen working in hotels, shops, houses very frequently.
I: The Government should not make such laws which cannot be enforced.
II: A proper education system for the primary level particularly for lower caste community may eradicate this problem.    (CLAT, 2013)

(a) If only I follows
(b) 
If only II follows
(c) 
If either I or II follows
(d) 
If neither I nor II follows.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.30. Statement: Kyoto protocol on environment is signed by almost every country of the world.
I: As a result air, water and soil pollution have come down.
II: Increasing production of automobiles, refrigerators and fertilisers do not affect our environment.    (CLAT, 2013)

(a) If only I follows
(b) If only II follows
(c) If either I or II follows
(d) If neither I nor II follows.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.31. Statement: School dropout rate is very high in the rural areas as children support their parents in income earning activities.
I: Public awareness programme on primary education should be expanded immediately to educate parents. 
II: Compensation is not a remedy.    (CLAT, 2013)
(a) If only I follows
(b) 
If only II follows
(c) 
If either I or II follows
(d)
If neither I nor II follows.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.32. Statement: Smoking is one of those human weaknesses which tend to test the will power of the smoker of the edge.
I: It is very difficult for the smoker to give up smoking even if they want to do so.
II: Human beings have other weaknesses as well.     (CLAT, 2013)

(a) If only I follows
(b) If only II follows
(c) If either I or II follows
(d) If neither I nor II follows.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


STATEMENT AND ASSUMPTION 

Directions: In each question below is a given statement followed by two assumptions numbered 1 and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. 

Q.33. Statement: As poor people in India prefer and use jaggery rather than sugar, the government has decided to decontrol and scrap sugar distribution through Public Distribution System (PDS).
Assumption I: Jaggery is freely available at reasonable price to all poor people.
Assumption II: PDS has lost its utility.    (NLU, Delhi, 2013)

(a) If only I assumption is implicit
(b) If only assumption II is implicit
(c) If neither I nor II is implicit; and
(d) If both I and II are implicit

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.34. Statement; Unless country ‘X achieves total literacy, it cannot achieve its mission of development.
Assumption I: It is possible to achieve total literacy in country 'X .
Assumption II: No development is possible without a proper mission.    (NLU, Delhi, 2013)

(a) If only I assumption is implicit
(b) If only assumption II is implicit
(c) If neither I nor II is implicit; and
(d) If both I and II are implicit

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.35. Statement: Many species of animals on our earth are still not studied scientifically and if we do not do this work urgently, many species will face extinction.
Assumption I: Earth may lose all types of life very shortly.
Assumption II: It is desirable and possible to study scientifically many animal species.    (NLU, Delhi, 2013)

(a) If only I assumption is implicit
(b) If only assumption II is implicit
(c) If neither I nor II is implicit; and
(d) If both I and II are implicit

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.36. Statement: Herbs can safely be used for treating diseases of human beings.
Assumption I: Herbs cannot be used for treating diseases of animals.
Assumption II: Herbal treatment is getting popular.    (NLU, Delhi, 2013)
(a) If only I assumption is implicit
(b) If only assumption II is implicit
(c) If neither I nor II is implicit; and
(d) If both I and II are implicit

Correct Answer is Option (b)


CAUSE AND EFFECT
ASSERTION AND REASON
MISCELLANEOUS

Directions: Read the following case and answer the questions.
Sakshi is the Vice-President in an electrical equipment company in Delhi. One day, her subordinate Bhaskar requested that Kishen, a project manager, be transferred to the Mumbai office from the Delhi office. In Mumbai, Kishen would work alone as a researcher. Bhaskar gave the following reasons for his request “Kishen is known for fighting frequently with colleagues of his team. He cannot accept criticism and feels rejected and get hostile. He is overbearing and is generally a bad influence on the team.
Sakshi called upon Samir, another project manager and sought further information on Kishen. Samir recalled that a former colleague, Lalit (who was also Kishen's former boss) has made few remarks on Kishen in his appraisal report. In his opinion, Kishen was not fit for further promotion as he was emotionally unstable to work in groups in spite of the fact that he had seven years of work experience. Lalit has described Kishen as too authoritative to work under anyone. Lalit has further told Samir that Kishen had an ailing wife and an old mother, who does not want to stay with his wife.

Consider the following solutions to the problem mentioned above: 
I. Sakshi should transfer Kishen to Mumbai office.
II. Sakshi should try and verify the facts from other sources as well.
III. Kishen should be sacked.
IV. Kishen should be demoted.
V. Sakshi should suggest Kishen to visit a family counsellor.

Q.37. Which of the following would be the most appropriate sequence of decisions in terms of immediacy starting from immediate to a long term solution?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) II, V, I
(b) II, III, IV
(c) II, V, IV
(d) II, I, V

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.38. Sakshi sought an appointment with Lalit to find out ways to help Kishen. Lalit is of the view that the company's responsibility is restricted to the workplace and it should not try to address the personal problems of employees. If Sakshi has to agree to Lalit's view, which of the solutions presented in the previous question would be weakened?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) Only III
(b) Only IV
(c) Only V
(d) Only II

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.39. Which of the following statements, if true would weaken the decision to sack Kishen the most?    (NLU Delhi, 2017)
(a) Another article published in the magazine, Caventers Quaterly, highlighted that employee's problem at home affect their performance at work
(b) In the latest issue of a reputed Journal, Xanders Business Review, it was published that most top managers, find it difficult to work in a group
(c) It was published in Santers Management Review, another reputed Journal that individuals who cannot work in teams find if difficult to adjust to a new location
(d) Bhaskar was of the opinion that emotionally unstable persons, find it difficult to get back to normal working life.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The document Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT is a part of the CLAT Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
All you need of CLAT at this link: CLAT
19 videos|27 docs|67 tests
Use Code STAYHOME200 and get INR 200 additional OFF
Use Coupon Code
19 videos|27 docs|67 tests
Download as PDF

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

,

mock tests for examination

,

ppt

,

practice quizzes

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

study material

,

Objective type Questions

,

pdf

,

Summary

,

video lectures

,

Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

,

Sample Paper

,

Exam

,

Previous Year Questions: Critical Reasoning - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

,

past year papers

,

Important questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Free

,

Extra Questions

;