Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 10

Class 10 : Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Science Class 10.
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SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

Q.1. Write three types of blood vessels. Give one important feature of each. [Delhi 2019]
Ans. Three types of blood vessels in human circulatory system are -Arteries, Veins and Capillaries. Their functions are tabulated below:

Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
(i) Arteries carry oxygenated blood from heart to various organs of the body.(i) Veins cany deoxygenated blood from various organs to heart.(i) Exchanges of materials between blood and surrounding cells take place in the capillaries.
(ii) They are thick walled.(ii) They are thin walled.(ii) They are thin walled and extremely narrow tubes or blood vessels which connect arteries to veins.


Q.2. How does blood clotting occur?
Ans. Blood clotting is a phenomenon brought about by blood platelets which prevents excessive loss of blood at the time of injury or leakage from a blood vessel.
Platelets rupture to release a substance called thromboplastin
Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Q.3. Enumerate the events that occur during the process of photosynthesis.[CBSE 2017-18 C]
Ans. Photosynthesis is formation of organic food from carbon dioxide and water with the help of sunlight inside chlorophyll containing cells.
The various events that occur during this process are as follows :
(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
(ii) (a) Photolysis of water - Light energy splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. (b) Conversion of light energy into chemical energy i.e., synthesis of ATP from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate takes place.
(iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates takes place. This process is light independent reaction which cam occur in day time as well as night.

Q.4. Name the components of blood which transport:
(i) Food, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes, 
(ii) Oxygen.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. (i) Blood plasma, (ii) EBC.

Q.5. Kings of cartilage are present in trachea. Why?    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. From nostril, the air passes through pharynx into lungs via trachea. Incomplete C-shaped rings of cartilage are present in the trachea which ensure that the air-passage does not collapse when there is no air in it.

Q.6. When a sportsman runs, he gets muscle cramps. Why ?    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. During running, the sportsman requires large amount of energy instantly. In order to release more energy, pyruvate is converted into lactic acid in the absence of oxygen. Accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles causes cramps.

Q.7. (i) Name the respiratory pigment found in human beings. 
(ii) How is carbon dioxide transported in our body ?    [CBSE 2016]
Ans.  (i) Haemoglobin.
(ii) Generally diffused in blood plasma, as carbonate ions and as carbaminohaemoglobin.

Q.8. (i) Name two organisms that obtain food through parasitic nutritive strategy. 
(ii) How do fungi obtain their food ?    [CBSE 2016]
Ans.  (i) Cuscuta, tapeworm obtain food through parasitic nutritive strategy.
(ii) Fungi are saprophytic and obtain food through dead and decaying matter.

Q.9. (a) Name the following :
(i) The three carbon molecule that is formed due to break-down of glucose during respiration.
(ii) The nitrogenous waste that is removed from the blood in our kidneys.
(b) How do unicellular organisms generally remove waste ?    [CBSE 2016]

Ans.  (a) (i) Pyruvic Acid/Pyruvate
(ii) Urea
(b) The undigested food material in the vacuole reaches the rear end of the organism and is thrown out by the process of exocytosis. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the surface membrane.

Q.10. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. 

Aerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration
(1) A type of respiration that occurs in presence of oxygen.(1) A type of respiration that occurs in absence of oxygen.
(2) Complete oxidation of food takes place.(2) Incomplete oxidation of food takes place.
(3) End-products are C02, H20 and energy.(3) End -products are C02 lactic acid or alcohol and energy.
(4) More amount of energy is released (36-38 ATP molecules).(4) Less amount of energy is released (i.e., 2 ATP molecules).
(5) It occurs partly in cytoplasm, and partly in mitochondria.(5) It occurs in cytoplasm.


Q.11. Explain how are the fats digested in our bodies ? Where does this process take place?    [CBSE 2011,2016]
Ans.  Fats are digested in small intestine. When food enters small intestine bile juice secreted by liver emulsifies fat and then the enzyme lipase which is secreted by pancreas converts fat into fatty acid and glycerol.

Q.12. Explain why is transportation of materials necessary in animals ?   [CBSE 2016] 
Ans. The transport of substances like oxygen, food, water, enzymes, hormones inside the body of organisms is called internal transport. Blood transports many substances like salts, vitamins, hormones, waste products. We thus need a pumping organ to push blood around the body. The transport system in human beings consist of heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) and circulatory fluid (blood and lymph).
Kidneys perform two main vital functions : (i) filtering the nitrogenous waste from the blood, (ii) osmoregulation i.e., maintaining the right amount of water and ionic balance in the body.
All these substances are either required by various body cells or should be removed from body cells. Hence, transportation of materials is necessary.

Q.13. Mention the three kinds of cells present in blood. Write one function of each.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Blood is made up of plasma and corpuscles. Three kind of cells are:
WBC, RBC and Blood platelets.
Red Blood cells (RBC) are small, biconvex cells that contain haemoglobin to transport O2 from the lungs to the body cells and CO2 from body cells to the lungs.
White blood cells (WBC) main function is defence of the body against diseases and other infection. Blood platelets are responsible for the clotting of blood during injuries.

Q.14. Write one function of each of the following components of the transport system in human beings:    [CBSE 2016]
(a) Blood vessels 
(b) Lymph 
(c) Heart 
Ans. Function of the following components of the transport system in human beings are as follows:
(a) Blood vessels: There are three types of blood vessels of different sizes involved in blood circulation viz. arteries, veins and capillaries, which are all connected to form a continuous closed system.
(b) Lymph: It carries digested and absorbed fat from intestine and drains excess fluid from extra cellular space back into the blood.
(c) Heart: It is a pumping organ that receives blood from the veins and pumps it into the arteries.

Q.15. Give reason : 
(l) Fine hair and mucus are present in the nasal passage. 
(ii) Rings o f cartilage are present in the throat.    [CBSE 2015]
Ans. (i) Fine hair and mucus are present in the nasal passage so that any dust particles, pathogens etc., can be trapped in here and only clean air will enter the lungs. This is one of the defence mechanism of our body.
(ii) Rings of cartilage are present in the throat so that the trachea does not collapse on respiration.

Q.16. Define the term parasite. Name one plant parasite and one animal parasite. Some organisms break down the food material outside the body and then absorb it. Give two examples.    [CBSE 2015]
Ans. Parasites are the organisms which obtain nutrients from the body of other living organisms and harm them as a result.
Plant parasite - cuscuta
Animal parasite — Tape worm.
Organisms that breakdown food outside the body and then absorb it are saprophytes; for example, fungi, bacteria.

Q.17. What do the following transport ?     [CBSE 2015]
(i) Xylem
(ii) Phloem
(iii) Pulmonary vein
(iv) Venacava
(v) Pulmonary artery
(vi) Aorta. 

Ans. Material transported by :
(i) Xylem — Water and minerals.
(ii) Phloem — Organic molecules like sucrose.
(iii) Pulmonary vein - Oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.
(iv) Venacava - Impure and deoxygenated blood from body to heart.
(v) Pulmonary artery - Deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.
(vi) Aorta, - Oxygenated blood from heart to body parts.

Q.18. In single celled organisms diffusion is sufficient to meet all their requirements of food, exchange of gases or removal of wastes but it is not in case of multicellular organisms. Explain the reason for this difference.    [CBSE 2015]
Ans. In case of single celled organism, the entire surface of the organism is in contact with the environment and hence no specific organ for taking in food, exchange of gases or removal of waste may be needed. In multicellular organisms, only the cells of skin are in direct contact with the environment. Diffusion is a very slow process and it will take very long time to reach all the cells of the body parts. Diffusion is insufficient to melt oxygen requirement.

Q.19. State the role of the following in human digestive system:    [CBSE 2015]
(a) Digestive enzymes 
(b) Hydrochloric acid 
(c) Villi 
Ans. (a) Digestive enzymes digest the food we eat.
(b) Hydrochloric acid creates an acidic medium to facilitate the action of enzyme pepsin.
(c) Villi increases the surface area inside the small intestine to facilitate absorption of food.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION

Q.1. (a) Write the reaction that occurs w hen glucose breaks down anaerobically in yeast. 
(b) Write the mechanism by which fishes breath in water. 
(c) Name the balloon likes structures present in lungs. List its two functions. 
(d) Name the respiratory pigment and write its role in human beings.    [CBSE 2017-18 C]
Ans.  (a) Glucose breaks down anaerobically i.e., in absence o f O2; in yeast in the following manner :
Glucose Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev  Pyruvate Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev Ethanol + CO2 + Energy
(b) Since fishes are aquatic, they take in O2 dissolved in water. They take water through their mouth which goes to their gills where the dissolved oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported. The CO2 is given out through the same passage.
(c) The balloon-like structures in ou r lungs are the alveoli. Their functions are :
(i) They are very thin-walled and hence help in gaseous exchange.
(ii) They contain extensive network of blood vessels which help in transport of respiratory gases.
(iii) They increase the surface area for absorption of gases.
(d) The respiratory pigment is Haemoglobin. Its role is :
(i) It has affinity for oxygen and hence helps in transport of oxygen from alveoli to body tissues.
(ii) It also has affinity for CO2 and hence helps in transport of CO2 from body tissues to alveoli.

Q.2. (a) Name the process and explain the type o f nutrition found in green plants. List the raw materials required for this process. Give chemical equation for the mentioned process. 
(b) Write three events that occur during this process.     [CBSE 2017-18 C]
Ans. (a) The process of nutrition in green plants is Photosynthesis. The type of nutrition is autotrophic nutrition. Autotrophic nutrition requires sunlight, chlorophyll, water and carbon dioxide.
Plants prepare their own food in the form of glucose which gets converted to starch. This is done using COand H2O which gets fixed using energy from sunlight by the chlorophyll molecule present in green plants.
Equation - Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev
(b) The three events involved are
(i) Absorption of sunlight by chlorophyll.
(ii) Conversion of this light energy into chemical energy and splitting of water into H+ and OH- using this energy.
(iii) Reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate by using H+ produced due to splitting of water.

Q.3. (a) Write the name of different components of transport system in human beings and state their functions in brief. 
(b) How is blood clot form, if a leak develops in the system o f blood vessels?   [CBSE 2017-18 C]
Ans. (a) Various components of transport system and their functions:

ComponentFunctions
(i) HeartHeart is a muscular organ which helps in pumping o f blood to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, drugs, CO2, waste materials etc., from heart to body parts and back.
(ii) BloodBlood as a fluid medium through which various nutrients, CO2, wastes, oxygen, salts etc., are transported.
(iii) Blood vessels : Arteries Veins Camllaries

Carry oxygen-rich blood from heart to different; body parts.

Bring back CO2 and wastes rich blood from body parts to the heart. Due to their thin walls and proximity to the body tissues, help in exchange of materials between blood and surrounding cells.

(b) If there is a leak in the blood vessels due to injury, then the blood platelets help plug these leaks. The platelets make the clot by forming a mesh like structure over the leak in which other blood cells get entangled ultimately plugging the leak.

Q.4. (a) Name the process and explain the type of nutrition found in green plants. List the raw materials required for this process. Give Chemical equation for the mentioned process.
(b) Write three events that occur during this process.    [CBSE 2018C]

Ans. (a) — Photosynthesis is the process.
- Green plants show autotrophic nutrition.
- The raw materials required for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water and energy in the form of sunlight.
- The equation is as follows:
Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev
(b) The three events in photosynthesis are
(i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
(ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
(iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

Q.5. (a) Write the reaction that occurs when glucose breaks down anaerobically in yeast. 
(b) Write the mechanism by which fishes breath in water. 
(c) Name the balloon likes structures present in lungs. List its two functions. 
(d) Name the respiratory pigment and write its role in human beings.    [CBSE 2018C]
Ans. (a) Glucose Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev  Pyruvate Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev Ethanol + carbon dioxide + Energy.
(b) Fishes breathe with the gills by diffusion.
(c) Alveoli are the balloon-like structures.
- They provide a surface for exchange of gases.
- They contains a residual volume of air so that there is sufficient time for exchange of gases.
(d) Haemoglobin is the respiratory pigment in humans. It transports a major part of oxygen and some amount of carbon dioxide through blood.

Q.6. (a) Mention any two components of blood.

(b) Trace the movement of oxygenated blood in the body.

(c) Write the function of valves present in between atria and ventricles.

(d) Write one structural difference between the composition of artery and veins.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans. (а) Blood is composed of plasma and three types of cells-Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
(b) - Oxygenated blood from the lungs is brought

to the left atrium by pulmonary veins.

- When the atrium contracts, blood is transferred to left ventricle.

- When the ventricle contracts, blood is pushed into the aorta and through arteries to all parts of the body.

(c) The valves prevent the backflow of blood from ventricles into atria.

(d) 

ArteriesVeins
(i) They have thick elastic walls.(i) They are th in walled.
(ii) They have no internal valves.(ii) They have valves internally.


Q.7. (а) Define excretion.

(b) Name the basic filtration unit present in the kidney.

(c) Draw excretory system in human beings and label the following organs of the excretory system which perform following functions:
(i) form urine.
(ii) is a long tube which collects urine from kidney.

(iii) store urine until it is passed out.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans. (a) Excretion is the biological process of removal of harmful metabolic wastes from the body.
(b) Nephrons
(c) (i) Kidney
Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev
Excretory system in human beings
(ii) Ureter
(iii) Urinary bladder

Q.8. Draw diagram of human alimentary canal and label the following:
(i) Part in which starch digestion is initiated.
(ii) Organ in which bile is stored.
(iii) The gland that secretes digestive enzymes as well as hormones.
(iv) Part of alimentary canal where water is reabsorbed.
(v) Part of gut where finger like projections are present to facilitate absorption of digested food.     [CBSE 2016]

Ans. (i) Mouth (ii) Gall Bladder (iii) Pancreas (iv) Large Intestine (v) Small intestine.
Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev,
Q.9. (a) State the form in which the following are stored : 
(i) Unused carbohydrates in plants. 
(ii) Energy derived from food in humans. 
(b) Describe the process of nutrition in amoeba with the help of diagram.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans. (a) (i) As starch in fruits/storage roots tubers etc.
(ii) As glycogen.
(b) Amoeba is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that exhibits holozoic mode of nutrition. Five steps are involved in this mode of nutrition namely ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.
Ingestion - Amoeba feeds on microscopic organisms. It takes in food using finger like projections called pseudopodia. It encircles the food and engulfs or ingests it by a process called phagocytosis. The food comes to lie in a vesicle called phagosome or food vacuole.
Digestion - A lysosome fuses with phagosome and complex substances are broken down into simpler ones. Such type of digestion which occurs within a cell is referred as Intra cellular digestion. The digested food then diffuses into cytoplasm.
Previous Year Questions - Life Processes Class 10 Notes | EduRev
Absorption and Assimilation - The digested food which has diffused into the cytoplasm are quickly absorbed by the organism and converted into various constituents of protoplasm.

Egestion - The undigested food material reaches the rear end of the organism and is thrown out by the process of exocytosis. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the surface membrane.

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