Short Question Answer
Q. 1. Explain the three components of a political party. [CBSE Delhi 2019 (32/1/2)
Ans. (i) The leaders: A political party consists of leaders who contest elections and if they win, perform the administrative job,
(ii) The active members: They are the ones who climb a ladder from being the follower and become the assistants of the leaders to gain knowledge about the politics.
(iii) The followers: They are simply the ardent followers of the leaders and work under the able guidance of the active members.
Q. 2. What is the role of the opposition party in a democracy? [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Explain three functions of opposition political parties.
[(CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans. Those parties th at lose elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power. Role played by opposition is:
(i) It gives its own opinion which may oppose the ruling party.
(ii) Opposition party mobilises opposition to the government.
(iii) It puts its different views in the parliament and criticises the government for its failures or wrong policies.
(iv) By doing this, it can keep a check on the ruling party, which is made to move on the track.
Q. 3. Which organization does recognize ‘Political Parties in India ? [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Ans. Election Commission
Q. 4. Name any two regional political parties of U.P. (Uttar Pradesh), [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Two Regional Political Parties of UP
(i) S. E (Samajvadi Party)
(ii) Rastriya Lok Dal
Q. 5. Assess the importance of political parties in democracy. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Importance of Political Parties:
(i) Parties contest elections to form government.
(ii) Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.
(iii) A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports.
(iv) Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
(v) Parties recruit leaders, trains them and then make them ministers to run the Government.
(vi) Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.
Q. 6. “Political Parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.” Analyse the statement with examples. [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Ans. Political parties are necessary condition for a democracy : If political parties don't exist then -
1. Every candidate in the elections will be independent.
2. No one will be able to make any promise to the people about any major policy changes. 3. The government may be formed, but its utility will remain ever uncertain.
4. Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in the locality.
5. No one will be responsible for how the country will be run.
6. Political parties are importantfor representative democracies as they bring representatives together to form the government.
7. It consists of people seeking to achieve their objectives through constitutional means and aims at promoting national interest.
Q. 7. Why did India choose to have a multi-party system?
Examine the reason to accept multi-party system in India. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. India has evolved a multi-party systems because the social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily absorbed by two or even three parties.
Q. 8. What are the components of a political party? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
(i) The leaders
(ii) The active members
(iii) The followers
Q. 9. Name any one political party that has national level political organisation but not recognised as the national political party. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. The political party that has national level political organization but not recognized as the National Party: Samajwadi Party/Samata Party/Rashtriya Janta Dal.
Q. 10. Why is one party political system not considered a good democratic system? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. One party system has no democratic option
Q. 11. What is meant by a ‘national political party’? State the conditions required to be a national political party. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. National Political Party have units in the various states, they follow the same policies, programmes and strategy that is decided at the national level.
(i) A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in general elections of Lok Sabha or assembly elections in four states.
(ii) Wins at least 4 seats in Lok Sabha.
Q. 12. “Nearly every one of the state parties wants to get an opportunity to he a part of one nr the other national level coalition.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. State parties seeking National level coalition: Before general election of 2014, in three general elections, no one national party was able to secure on its own a majority in Lok Sabha. With the result, the national parties were compelled to form alliances with state or regional parties. Since 1996, nearly every one of the state parties has got an opportunity to be a part of one or the other national level coalition government. This has contributed to the strengthening of federalism and democracy.
Q. 13. What is meant by regional political party? State the conditions required to be recognised as a ‘regional political party’. [CBSE (Al) 2016]
Ans. A regional Party is a party that is present only in some states. Conditions required for a party to be recognised as a regional political party are:
(i) A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the legislative Assembly of a state.
(ii) Party should win atleast two seats in the Legislative Assembly.
Q. 14. What is a political party? State any two points of the ideology of Bhartiya Janata Party. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good ideology of BJP:
(i) Wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
(ii) A uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion.
(iii) Cultural nationalism.
Q 15. Why did India adopt multi-party system ? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. (i) India is a large country and has social and geographical diversities.
(ii) It is easy to absorb different diversities in a multi party system.
Q. 16. “Lack of internal democracy within parties is the major challenge to political parties all over the world.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE 2015]
Or In what way lack of internal democracy is seen in the political parties?
Q.17. What is multi-party system ? Why did India adopt a multi-party system ?
Ans. (a) Multi-party system : If several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a feasoriaLhre chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, it is called multi-party system.
(b) (i) Every country develops a party system that is conditional by its special circumstances.
(ii) India has evolved a multi-party system because the social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily obsorbed by two or even three parties.
Long Question Answer
Q, 1. Why does modem democracies could not exist without political parties?
Explain any five needs to have political parties in a democratic country. [CBSE 2019, 82/2/3]
Ans. (i) We can understand the necessity of political parties by imagining a situation without parties. Every candidate in the elections will be independent. So no one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
(ii) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituencies for what they do in the locality. But no one will be responsible for how the country runs.
(iii) India also has non-party based elections to the panchayats in many states. Although parties do not contest formally, it is generally noticed that the village splits into more than one faction, uadi of which puts up a ‘panel’ of its candidates. This is exactly what the party does. That is why, we have political parties in almost all the countries in the world.
(iv) The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. Large-scale societies need representative democracy. Large societies need some way to bring various representatives together so that a responsible government can be formed.
Thus we can say that parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.
Q. 2. How are Political parties recognised as regional and National parties in India? [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans: India has a multi-party system, where political parties are classified as national, state or regional level parties. All parties are registered with the Election Commission.
Criterion for Recognition by The Election Commission as national or state level parties.
A party has to live up to at least one of the following qualifications to be recognised as a national party:
A party has to live up to at least one of the following qualifications to be acknowledged as a state party.
Examples : Janta Dal, Asom Gan Parishad etc.
National Parties in India
Despite the large number of political parties operating in India, very few are able to make their presence felt at the national level except when it comes to alliances.
Q.3. Political parties fill political offices and exercise political power. But they do this by performing a series of important functions. Describe any five of them. [CBSE 2018]
Describe the role of political parties in a democratic state. [CBSE 2017-18]
Ans. (i) In democracies elections are contested by the political parties by putting up their candidates.
(ii) Political parties put forward their programmes before the voters at the time of elections in the form of manifesto.
(iii) Laws are passed according to the directions of the ruling party.
(iv) Political party or a group o f parties th a t gets m ajority in the legislature, form the government. Iol Parliamentary democracy that government is known by the name of the party i.e., BJP govercciment.
(a) The parties that lose elections, play the role of opposition to the government. They criticise the government for its failure and w rong policies.
(vi) Political parties raise and h igh ligh t different issues o f public importance. Thus, they help in shaping- public opinion.
(vii) Ordinary citizens approach party leaders to get their grievances redressed. For them it is easy to approach a party leader than a government officer.
Q. 4. Elucidate some of the recent efforts taken in our country to reform political parties and its leaders. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Examine any two institutional amendments made by different institutions to reform political parties and their leaders. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Q.5. Describe in brief the recent efforts that have been made in India to reform political parties and its leaders. [CBSE 2016-17C]
Ans. Recent efforts to reform political parties and its leaders are as given below :
(i) Anti-defection law : In India, many elected representatives started indulging in changing party allegiance from the party to which a person had got elected to a different party in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. So in order to curb this tendency antidefection la w was passed. According to it, if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she w ill lo se the seat in the legislature. Now MPs and MLAs have to obey the decisions of the party.
(ii) Filing of an affidavit: The Supreme Court has made it mandatory for every candidate who contests an election to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. This has been done to reduce the influence of money and criminals.
(iii) Hold organisational elections : The Election Commission has made it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
Q. 6. “All over the world, people express their dissatisfaction with the failure of political parties to perform their functions well.” Analyse the statement with arguments. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Popular dissatisfaction and criticism: It has focused on four areas in the working of political parties, need to face and overcome these challenges in order to remain effective instruments of democracy. Lack of internal democracy within parties.
(i) Dynastic succession: Since most political parties do not practice open a transparent procedures for their functioning, there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Those who happen to be leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family member.
(ii) Growing role of money and muscle power in parties: Since parties are focused only on mining elections, they land to use short cuts to win elections. They feed to nominate those considers who have or can raise lot of mercy. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. In some cases parties support climates who can win election.
(iii) There is not a meaningful choice to the voters: In recent years there has been a decline in the ideological parties of the world. Sometimes different leaders either because shifting from one party to another.
Q. 7. What suggestions are often made to reform political parties?
Suggest any five effective measures to reform political parties. [CBSE (A I) 2016]
Q. 8. “Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy”. Analyse the statement with examples. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
“About hundred years ago there were a few countries that had hardly any political party. Now, there are a few countries that do not have political parties .” Examine this statement.
Ans. Political parties are necessary condition for a democracy.
(i) Without political parties democracies cannot exist.
(ii) If we do not have political parties - in such a situation every candidate in elections will be independent.
(iii) No one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
(iv) The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. As we have seen, large societies need representative’s democracy.
(v) The government may be formed but its utility will remain uncertain. They needed same ways to bring various representatives together so that a responsible government could be formed. (vi) They needed some mechanisms to support or restrain the government, make policies, justify or oppose them.
(vii) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in their locality.
(viii) Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally laws are debated and passed in the legislature in which ruling party plays a major role.
(ix) Parties form and run governments. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.
(x) Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticising for its failure or wrong policies.
(xi) Parties shape public opinions. They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Parties sometimes also launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by people.
(xii) But no one will be responsible for how the country will run.
(xiii) The role of opposition party in a democracy necessiates the existence of political parties,
(xiv) As societies become large and complex, they also needed some agencies to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government, that is why political parties are needed.