Q.1. Fill in the blanks of the following table with suitable information: 
Resource on the basis of exhaustibility
Types of Resources
Solar and Wind energy
Mineral and Fossil fuels
Ans. (A) - Renewable (B) - Non-renewable
Q.2. Fill in the blanks. [Delhi 2020]
Types of Resources
Biotic and abiotic
Renewable and non-renewable
Ans. (A) - Fishery, Water (B) - Water, Fossil fuels
Q.3. Fill in the blanks of the following table with suitable information. 
Type of resources: On the basis of ownership
Types of Resources
Grazing grounds, ponds etc.
Cultivated land of farmer.
Ans. (A) - Community owned resources (B) - Individual resource
Q.4. How much percentage of forest area is desired in a geographical area to maintain ecological balance as outlined in the National Forest Policy? [2020 C]
Q.5. Read the following features of a soil and name the related soil: 
(a) Develops in high rainfall area
(b) Intense leaching process takes place.
(c) Humus content is low.
Ans. Laterite soil
Q.6. Give one example of the main commercial crop cultivable in laterite soil. 
Ans. Tea, coffee and Cashew nut
Q.7. Favourable conditions for wind energy exist in Western Rajasthan and Gujarat, but they have not been utilised and developed to the maximum. It falls in which category of resources? [2019 C]
Ans. Potential resources or stock.
Q.8. How is over irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab? [Delhi 2019]
Ans. Over irrigation in Punjab causes the lowering in fertility rate of the soil because of water logging leading to increased salinity and alkalinity of the soil.
Q.9. How is cement industry responsible for land, degradation? [Delhi 2019]
Ans. Grinding and crushing of limestone for the cement industry generate a large amount of dust. As the dust settles down on the soil it reduces the process of infiltration of water into the soil.
Q.10. Highlight the importance of contour ploughing. [AI2019]
Ans. Contour ploughing, the practice of tilling sloped land along lines of consistent elevation in order to conserve rainwater and to reduce soil losses from surface erosion.
Q.11. Which type of soil is most suitable for growing the crop of cashew nut? 
Ans. Laterite soil
Q.12. Which soil type is the most widely spread and important soil in India? [2019,2015]
Ans. Alluvial soil
Q.13. Classify resources based on origin. [2018,2015,2014]
Ans. Resources can be categorised on the basis of origin:
(i) Abiotic resources comprise non-living things (e.g., land, water, air and minerals).
(ii) Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere. These have life such as humans, flora and fauna.
Q.14. Give one difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources. 
Ans. Renewable: Replenished by nature e.g., crops and plants.
Non-renewable: Resources which get exhausted after years of use, e.g., crude oil.
Q.1. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: [2021 C]
Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of overburdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial eflluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option:
(i) In which one of the following states is over grazing the main reason for 'land degradation'?
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Ans. (a) Gujarat
(ii) Which one of the following is a major source of water pollution?
(d) Industrial waste
Ans. (d) Industrial waste
(iii) Why is 'over-irrigation' responsible for land degradation?
(a) Increases the salinity of soil
(b) Decreases the water absorption capacity of soil
(c) Increases landslides
(d) Decreases the fertility of soil
Ans. (d) Decreases the fertility of soil
(iv) Which one of the following is the main reason of 'land degradation' in Jharkhand?
(c) Industrial waste
Ans. (d) Mining
Q.2. Describe the importance of judicious use of resources. (2020)
Ans. The importance of judicious use of resources are:
(i) It maintains the sustainability of the resources.
(ii) Resources are available only in limited quantity.
(iii) Resources are vital for any developmental activity.
Q.3. Describe the different steps of 'resource planning". (2020,2017,2014)
Ans. The different steps of resource planning are:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set-up.
(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Q.4. “Resource Planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.” Support the statement with examples. (2020 C)
Ans. Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life. It is so, because of following reasons.
(a) It helps to identify the various resources present in different regions of the country.
(b) It helps to reducing wastage of resources.
(c) It helps in equal distribution of resources among the regions that have acute shortage of it.
Q.5. Explain with examples, the ways to solve the problem of land degradation in the Himalayan region. (2020 C)
Ans. Ways to solve the problem of land degradation in Himalayan region.
(i) Afforestation is the solution for any kind of land degradation.
(ii) Proper management of grazing. It is the one of the main reasons of land degradation in hilly areas.
(iii) Adopting terrace farming in hilly areas, as it increase water retention capacity of soil.
Q.6. Describe any three main features of 'Alluvial soil’ found in India. 
Ans. (i) This soil type Is most important and widely spread.
(ii) The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops,
(iii) Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.
Q.7. Describe any three main features of the black soil. [CBSE 2019, 32/2/3]
(a) Black soil is made up of extremely fine, clayey material.
(b) It is well-known for its capacity to hold moisture.
(c) It is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
(d) It develops deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil.
Q.8. Explain the three stages of Resource Planning in India. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. Three stages of Resource Planning in India are as given below:
(a) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of resources.
(b) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(c) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Q.9. What is Agenda 21? List its two principles. 
Ans. Agenda 21 was adopted at first International Earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The two principles are as follows:
(i) To combat environment damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
(ii) Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.
Q.10. Classify the resources on the basis of exhaustibility. State two characteristics of each. (2016)
Ans. (i) Renewable Resources: Resources that can be replenished after a short period of time are called renewable resources.
For example - agricultural crops, wind energy, water, forest, wildlife, etc.
(ii) Non-renewable Resources: Resources which take million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources.
For example - fossil fuels. We must remember that some resources like metals are recyclable.
Q.11. "In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources". Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples. (2016)
Ans. Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.
(i) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
(iii) Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
(iv) Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.
Q.12. Which is the most wide spread relief feature of India? [CBSE 2015]
Ans. Plains are the most wide spread relief feature of India.
Q.1. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? Why is it essential to have resource planning? [2017,2014]
Ans. Stages of resource planning are: Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources. Evolving a planned structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set-up for implementing resource development plans. Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans. Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilisation of resources.
(i) As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generation.
(ii) Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.
(iii) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over exploitation.
Q.2. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Explain three human activities responsible for soil erosion. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Types of soil erosion:
(i) Gullies: The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called badland or ravines.
(ii) Sheet erosion: Water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away. This process is known as sheet erosion. Three human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion are deforestation over-grazing, mining and construction, etc.
Q.3. Suggest any six measures to solve the problem of land degradation. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. The problem of land degradation can be solved with the help of the following measures:
(a) Afforestation to revive the forest cover
(b) Growing thorny bushes in areas where desert like conditions appear
(c) Proper management of grazing on permanent pastures
(d) Proper disposal of industrial waste
(e) Planting of shelter belts
(f) Control on mining activitiesLand Degradation
Q.4. Discuss the factors responsible for land degradation in India. (2015,2014)
Ans. The important factors responsible for land degradation in India are as follows:
(i) Deforestation: By an estimate over one million hectares of forest is lost every year in India.
(ii) Erosion: Loss of vegetation cover makes land more susceptible to erosion. Wind and water have left vast tracts of land barren. Water erodes top soil to an extent of around 12,000 million tons per annum
(iii) Over-irrigation : Successive cropping and overirrigation, leads to water-logging and consequent salinisation and alkalisation. This situation mainly arises due to poor drainage.
(iv) Floods and Droughts : Drought is both man-made and environment-induced. Man has played a key role in the creation of drought-prone areas by over-exploitation of natural resources like forests, degradation by grazing, excessive withdrawal of ground water, silting of tanks, rivers, etc. Floods, on the other hand, are caused by heavy rains in a very short period. Each situation could have been altered had there been good vegetation cover. Vegetation helps in reducing run-off, increasing infiltration and reducing soil erosion.
(v) Over-grazing : India has the worlds largest cattle population, but not enough pasture land. This has led to serious problems as animals have encroached into forest lands and even agricultural lands. Land degradation due to over-grazing leads to desert like conditions.
(vi) Pollution : Pollution of land is caused by disposal of solid waste, leftover from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. Another major source of land pollution is the creation of derelict land due to mining particularly due to surface and underground mining activities.
Q.5. Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries. Support the statements with examples. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries as they affect all countries equally.
(a) Land degradation affects agricultural production. Thus, shortage of crop production would affect international trade.
(b) Adding of greenhouse gases to the environment due to pollution has led to global warming.
(c) The quality of drinking water has reduced as our rivers get polluted.
(d) Increase in air pollution due to industries.
Q.6. Describe any five distinct characteristics of 'Arid soils. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
(ii) Sandy in texture and saline in nature.
(iii) Evaporation from this soil is faster, soil lacks humus and moisture.
(iv) Soil occupied by Kankar.
(v) Kankar restricts the infiltration of water.
Q.7. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. (i) Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs.
(ii) It is the most important renewable natural resource.
(iii) It is the medium of plant growth. It consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
(iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
(v) It is the base of our life.
|1. What are the different types of resources?|
|2. How can resources be classified based on ownership?|
|3. What is resource planning?|
|4. How does the development of resources affect the environment?|
|5. What are the challenges in resource planning?|