Q1. Define the term 'Carding'. 
Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spinning.
Q2. Name the two industrialists of Bombay who built huge industrial empires during the nineteenth century. 
Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata.
Q1. Read the given case and answer the questions that follow. 
Market for Goods
One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements. As you know, advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. Today we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in newspapers, magazines, hoardings, street walls, television screens. But if we look back into history, we find that from the very beginning of the industrial age, advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels 'MADE IN MANCHESTER' on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. The label was also to be a mark of quality. When buyers saw written in bold on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
(i) How was the marketing of goods done in India by the British?
Marketing of goods done in India by the British through advertisements.
(ii) How were the new consumers created through advertisement during colonial India?
Advertisements through newspapers, magazines, hoarding were the most important method used by the producers to expand the market. It played a major role in expanding the markets and shaping a new consumer culture. Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary.
(iii) Identify the messages conveyed through advertisements during industrialization.
During industrialization, advertisements conveyed messages of modernity, convenience, quality, patriotism, and social status of consumers. These messages helped to promote and sell products to a growing consumer market and also shape up minds of people and create new needs in them.
Q2. Why did the elite of Britain prefer hand-made goods in the mid-nineteenth century? Explain. 
The elite of Britain preferred hand-made goods in the mid-nineteenth century for several reasons. Firstly, a range of products could only be produced with hand labor, as machines were primarily oriented towards producing uniform standardized goods for the mass market. Hand-made goods came to symbolize refinement and class, as they were better finished, individually produced, and carefully designed. Additionally, machine-made goods were often exported to the colonies, while hand-made goods were seen as a mark of British craftsmanship. The preference for hand-made goods by the elite reflected their desire for quality and exclusivity.
Q3. Why did the export of Indian textile decline at the beginning of the nineteenth century? Explain any three reasons. 
The export of Indian textiles declined at the beginning of the nineteenth century due to several reasons. Firstly, Britain imposed duties on cotton textiles, making it more expensive for Indian textiles to compete in the export market. Secondly, the exports of British goods to India increased, flooding the Indian markets with Manchester goods. The competition from cheaper machine-made goods from Britain made it difficult for Indian textiles to maintain their market share. Lastly, by the mid-nineteenth century, most weaving regions in India faced a decline in exports as they struggled to compete with the cheaper and more efficient machine-made goods.
Q4. Explain any three causes which led to the decline of Indian cotton textiles in the early nineteenth century. [2019, 2016]
The decline of Indian cotton textiles in the early nineteenth century can be attributed to several causes. Firstly, the introduction of cheaper machine-made cotton goods from Britain made it difficult for hand-made Indian cotton textiles to compete in terms of price. The British goods flooded the Indian markets, leading to a decline in demand for Indian textiles. Secondly, the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States disrupted the supply of raw cotton from the US to Britain. As a result, Britain turned to India as a source of cotton, creating a shortage of raw materials for Indian weavers. Lastly, the establishment of cotton factories in India by the end of the nineteenth century further contributed to the decline of traditional handloom cotton textiles.
Q5. Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move to countryside in seventeenth and eighteenth century? 
Merchants from towns in Europe began to move to the countryside in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries because they wanted to expand their production for the international market. However, they were unable to do so within the towns due to the power of urban crafts and trade guilds, which prevented the entry of merchants. Moving to the countryside allowed them to supply money to peasants and artisans and persuade them to produce goods for the growing demand.
Q6. What is proto-industrialisation? Explain the conditions in 18th century English countryside that created conditions for proto-industrialisation. 
Proto-industrialisation refers to the early phase of industrialisation in Europe, before the establishment of factories. In the eighteenth century English countryside, certain conditions created favorable circumstances for proto-industrialisation. These conditions include the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies, which led to an increased demand for goods. Merchants from towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, providing financial support to peasants and artisans and encouraging them to produce for the international market. This shift allowed for large-scale production and the emergence of a proto-industrial system.
Q7. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers? 
The East India Company procured regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers by implementing certain strategies. Firstly, the company tried to eliminate existing traders and appointed "Gomasthas" as supervisors. These Gomasthas were responsible for overseeing the production of textiles and ensuring regular supplies. Secondly, the system of advances was introduced, where the company provided financial support to the weavers in exchange for their commitment to produce textiles exclusively for the company. This allowed the company to have direct control over the weavers and ensured a steady supply of textiles. Lastly, the weavers were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company, giving the company control over the pricing and production of textiles.
Q8. In the eighteenth century Europe, why did the peasants and artisans in the countryside readily agree to work for the merchants? Explain any three reasons. 
In the eighteenth century Europe, peasants and artisans in the countryside readily agreed to work for merchants for several reasons. Firstly, the disappearance of open fields and the enclosure of commons left them with limited alternative sources of income. The offer of work from merchants provided them with an additional source of income that supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. Secondly, many peasants had small plots of land that could not provide work for all family members. Working for merchants allowed them to utilize their skills and labor to earn a living. Lastly, merchants offered advances to the peasants and artisans, providing them with the necessary capital to produce goods. This financial support was appealing to the peasants and artisans who lacked the resources to expand their production on their own.
Q9. Describe any three conditions that were favorable for the continuing growth of industries in 18th-century India. 
Three conditions that were favorable for the continuing growth of industries in 18th-century India are as follows: Firstly, India had abundant coal and iron-ore deposits, providing essential resources for industrial production. Secondly, the presence of numerous perennial rivers facilitated transportation and irrigation, supporting industrial activities. Thirdly, India had access to abundant raw materials, such as cotton, silk, and spices, which were in high demand in both domestic and international markets. These favorable conditions, along with the vast network of roads and railways and the presence of a large market, contributed to the growth of industries in 18th-century India.
Q10. Industrialization gave birth to imperialism. Justify the statement with three arguments. 
The statement that industrialization gave birth to imperialism can be justified with the following arguments: Firstly, industrialization created a need for a constant supply of raw materials to sustain the production of goods. Industrialized nations, such as Britain, sought new sources of raw materials to meet this demand, leading to the colonization of resource-rich regions. Secondly, industrialized countries implemented heavy import duties as protective tariffs to safeguard their domestic industries. As a result, they needed to find new markets for their products, which led to the colonization of areas where industrialization had not yet occurred. Lastly, colonies served as both suppliers of cheap raw materials and easy markets for the finished goods of industrialized nations. The race for colonies among industrialized nations was driven by economic motives, making imperialism a direct result of industrialization.
Q11. How was foreign trade from India conducted before the age of machine industries? Explain. 
Before the age of machine industries, foreign trade from India was conducted through various means. Firstly, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. While coarser cotton was produced in many countries, the finer varieties often came from India. Merchants, including Armenian and Persian traders, would transport these goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, Eastern Persia, and Central Asia. Secondly, bales of fine textiles were carried on camelback through mountain passes and across deserts, connecting different regions. Lastly, a vibrant sea trade operated through major precolonial ports such as Surat, Masulipatnam, and Hooghly, which were connected to Gulf, Red Sea, and Southeast Asian ports, respectively. These trade routes and networks facilitated the exchange of goods and the establishment of commercial ties with various regions.
Q12. Explain any three reasons for the clashes between the weavers and the gomasthas. 
Clashes between the weavers and the gomasthas, who were appointed supervisors by the East India Company, were primarily caused by the following reasons: Firstly, the weavers had previously dealt with local supply merchants who belonged to the same villages and had established relationships with them. The sudden introduction of gomasthas, who were outsiders with no long-term social connections, led to conflicts and resistance. Secondly, the gomasthas acted arrogantly and often marched into villages with sepoys and peons, intimidating and punishing weavers for any delays or discrepancies. This authoritarian behavior further fueled the clashes. Lastly, the weavers' freedom to bargain for prices or sell to other buyers was restricted by the company. The low wages offered by the company and the lack of alternative options led to discontent among the weavers, resulting in clashes and revolts in some places.
Q1. Explain the impact of Industrialisation on the Indian weavers during the eighteenth century. [2020 C]
The impact of industrialisation on Indian weavers during the eighteenth century was primarily negative and led to significant changes in their lives and livelihoods:
- Loss of bargaining power: With the advent of industrialisation, weavers lost their ability to negotiate prices for their goods and were compelled to sell to different buyers at lower rates. This resulted in a decline in their income and economic conditions.
- Clashes with gomasthas: Gomasthas, who were appointed servants responsible for hiring weavers, often exploited them and engaged in unfair practices. This led to conflicts and clashes between weavers and gomasthas.
- Protests and punishment: Weavers in many villages protested against the British government's policies and actions that were detrimental to their interests. As a result, they were often punished for delays in the supply of materials or for other reasons.
- Migration and desertion: In some regions like Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted their villages and migrated to other areas. Some weavers even closed down their workshops and refused to work for the British government.
- Overall decline: The Indian weavers faced a steep decline in their industry as a result of industrialisation, leading to economic hardships and a loss of traditional livelihoods.
Q2. Explain the ways through which British manufacturers attempted to take over the Indian market. 
Ans: British manufacturers made several attempts to take over the Indian market during the colonial period. Some of the methods they employed include:
- Imposition of import duties: British manufacturers pressured the government to impose import duties on Indian cotton textiles. This made Indian products relatively more expensive in comparison to British goods.
- Influence on the East India Company: British manufacturers convinced the East India Company to sell British manufactured goods in the Indian market. This gave them a significant advantage over Indian producers.
- Advertisement: British manufacturers used advertisements to create interest in their products among Indian consumers. They employed various strategies to promote their goods and establish their brands.
- Use of labels: When Manchester industrialists started selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. These labels helped in branding and marketing their products as well as differentiating them from Indian textiles.
- Cultural appropriation: British manufacturers sometimes used images of Indian Gods and Goddesses in their advertisements and packaging to appeal to the religious sentiments of Indian consumers.
Q3. "Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialisation in India by the early twentieth century.” Analyse the statement. [Delhi 2019]
The statement highlights that a series of changes influenced the pattern of industrialisation in India by the early twentieth century. These changes can be analyzed as follows:
- Shift towards heavy industries: During this period, there was a noticeable shift towards the development of heavy industries in India. Industries such as steel, chemicals, and machinery saw significant growth and investment.
- Infrastructure development: The early twentieth century witnessed the development of infrastructure, such as railways, ports, and power plants. These developments played a crucial role in facilitating industrial growth and expanding the reach of industries.
- Impact of World War I: The outbreak of World War I had a significant impact on industrialisation in India. The war created new demands for industrial products and led to increased production and expansion of industries.
- Role of Indian entrepreneurs: Indian entrepreneurs played a crucial role in the development of industries during this period. They ventured into various sectors and established successful businesses, contributing to the growth of industrialisation in India.
- Rise of national movements: The early twentieth century also saw the rise of national movements and the demand for self-rule in India. These movements had an impact on industrialisation by influencing policies and creating a sense of national identity, which furthered industrial growth.
Q4. Explain any five factors responsible for the decline of the cotton textile industry in India in the mid-nineteenth century. [2019 C]
The cotton textile industry in India witnessed a decline in the mid-nineteenth century due to the following factors:
- Imposition of duties: The British government imposed duties on Indian exports to Britain under pressure from British manufacturers. This made Indian textiles relatively more expensive and less competitive in the international market.
- East India Company's influence: The East India Company was influenced by British manufacturers and started selling British manufactured goods in the Indian market. This led to a decrease in demand for Indian textiles.
- Competition from machine-made textiles: Machine-made cotton textiles from Britain were cheaper compared to hand-made Indian textiles. This resulted in a significant loss of market share for Indian weavers.
- Raw cotton shortage: As the Civil War broke out in the United States in the 1860s, the supply of cotton from the US to Britain was cut off. Britain started sourcing cotton from India, leading to a shortage of raw cotton for Indian weavers.
- Rise of Indian cotton factories: By the end of the nineteenth century, cotton factories started emerging in India. This further weakened the traditional handloom industry, as machine-made textiles gained prominence.
Q5. Describe the role of early entrepreneurs of India in the development of industries. 
Early entrepreneurs in India played a significant role in the development of industries. Some examples of their contributions include:
- Dwarkanath Tagore: Dwarkanath Tagore was one of the pioneers who started industries in the 1830s and 1840s. Although his enterprise faced closure during the business crises of the 1840s, he laid the foundation for future industrial development.
- Parsi industrialists: In the later nineteenth century, Parsi businessmen like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata became successful industrialists. They built huge industrial empires and accumulated wealth through exports to China and raw cotton shipments to England.
- Seth Hukumchand: Seth Hukumchand, a Marwari businessman, set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917. This marked the beginning of the jute industry in India.
- Birla Group: The Birla Group, started by successful traders from China, also played a significant role in the development of industries in India. They ventured into various sectors and established themselves as prominent industrialists.
Q6. Describe the conditions of workers in Europe after the Industrial Revolution. [Al 2019]
The conditions of workers in Europe after the Industrial Revolution were generally poor and marked by several challenges:
- Long working hours: Workers typically worked for 12 to 16 hours per day, six days a week. They had limited leisure time and were often exhausted due to the demanding work schedule.
- Low wages: Wages for women and children were significantly lower than those of men. This created economic disparities and perpetuated inequality within the workforce.
- Lack of job security: Finding employment was often difficult, and workers without jobs had to spend nights on bridges or in night shelters. The seasonal nature of many industries led to periods of unemployment and economic instability.
- Poor working conditions: Factories were often dusty, dirty, and poorly lit. The only source of light was sunlight, which came in through few windows. The machines ran on steam, resulting in smoke-filled air and posing health hazards to workers.
- Lack of safety regulations: There were no safety norms or regulations in place, and accidents were frequent. Workers faced risks of injuries and illnesses due to the lack of protective measures.
- Housing and living conditions: Workers often lived in cramped and overcrowded housing, with poor sanitation and hygiene. They faced challenges in accessing basic amenities and had limited access to decent living conditions.
Q7. How did the abundance of labor in the market affect the lives of the workers in the nineteenth century? Explain with examples. 
The abundance of labor in the market during the nineteenth century had significant effects on the lives of workers:
- Lower wages: With a surplus of labor, workers were often paid lower wages as employers could easily find replacements. This led to a decrease in their purchasing power and worsened their economic conditions.
- Unemployment and job insecurity: The abundance of labor resulted in high competition for jobs, leading to unemployment and job insecurity. Workers had to wait for weeks or even longer to find employment, and many had to resort to odd jobs to make ends meet.
- Increased exploitation: Employers took advantage of the surplus labor to exploit workers, paying them less and making them work longer hours. This further worsened the living conditions and quality of life for workers.
- Social unrest and protests: The abundance of labor often led to social unrest and protests among workers who demanded better wages and working conditions. Strikes and labor movements became widespread as workers sought to improve their situation.
- Migration and displacement: Some workers migrated from rural areas to cities in search of employment opportunities. However, the abundance of labor meant that many ended up without jobs and had to return to their villages or continue searching for work elsewhere.
Q8. What was 'Proto-industrialisation'? Explain the importance of proto-industrialisation. 
Proto-industrialisation refers to the system of industries that existed in Europe before the arrival of modern machine-run factories. It involved large-scale production for an international market and was based in the countryside rather than in factories. The importance of proto-industrialisation can be seen in its effects on the economy and society:
- It provided an alternative source of income for rural populations who were facing shrinking incomes from agriculture. People could engage in cottage industries and supplement their livelihoods.
- Proto-industrialisation played a crucial role in the transition to industrialisation by creating a skilled workforce and a culture of entrepreneurship. It laid the foundation for the later industrial revolution.
- It led to the development of new technologies and innovations in production methods. This helped in the growth and diversification of industries.
- Proto-industrialisation contributed to the growth of trade and commerce, both domestically and internationally. It created a network of merchants, traders, and producers involved in the production and distribution of goods.
- It also led to changes in the social structure and division of labor. The system of proto-industrialisation allowed women and children to participate in production, challenging the traditional gender roles.
Q9. Why were the British industrialists not keen to introduce modern machinery in the nineteenth century? Explain any five reasons. 
British industrialists in the nineteenth century were not enthusiastic about introducing modern machinery due to the following reasons:
- Seasonal demand for labor: Many industries had a seasonal demand for labor, and using modern machinery would require a constant workforce, which would be costly during periods of low demand.
- Range of products: Certain products could only be produced using traditional handlooms and techniques. Modern machinery would limit the variety and quality of products that could be manufactured.
- Skill requirement: Some products required specific human skills that could not be replicated by machines. Handmade products were considered to be of higher quality and craftsmanship.
- Upper-class preference: The upper-class society preferred products that were handmade, as they symbolized refinement and class. Machine-made goods were associated with cheapness and mass production.
- Cultural resistance: There was resistance to the adoption of modern machinery due to the fear of unemployment and the displacement of traditional craftspeople. Many workers were opposed to the introduction of machines as it threatened their livelihoods.
Q10. Explain with examples the importance of advertisement in the marketing of goods. 
Advertisement plays a crucial role in the marketing of goods. Some examples highlighting its importance include:
- Creating awareness: Advertisement helps in creating awareness about products or services among potential consumers. It provides information about the features, benefits, and availability of the goods, attracting the attention of the target audience.
- Brand promotion: Advertisement plays a vital role in promoting brands and establishing their identity in the market. Companies use various advertising techniques to differentiate their products from competitors and build brand recognition.
- Influencing consumer behavior: Effective advertisement campaigns can influence consumer behavior and generate demand for specific products. By highlighting the unique selling points and benefits, advertisements can persuade consumers to make a purchase.
- Expanding market reach: Advertisement enables companies to reach a wider audience and expand their market reach. Through various media channels, companies can target different demographics and geographical areas, increasing their customer base.
- Enhancing sales: Well-executed advertisement campaigns can lead to increased sales and revenue. By attracting customers and persuading them to buy products, advertisements contribute to the overall success of businesses.
|1. What is the significance of the Age of Industrialisation in Class 10?|
|2. What were the major industries that emerged during the Age of Industrialisation?|
|3. How did industrialisation impact society during the 18th and 19th centuries?|
|4. What were the working conditions like for laborers during the Age of Industrialisation?|
|5. How did the Age of Industrialisation contribute to the growth of imperialism?|