SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. “Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange.” Support your answer with three examples. [CBSE 2016-17,2018]
Ans: (i) Travellers and traders introduced new crops to the lands they travelled. For example, noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
(ii) Arab traders took pasta to fifth century Sicily (Italy). Similar foods were known to the Indians and Japanese people. Thus, there was long distance cultural contact even the premodern world.
(iii) Potatoes, maize, tomatoes, chillies etc., were not known in India until about five centuries ago. These were introduced in Europe and Asia after the discovery of Americas by Christopher Columbus.
Q.2. Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and local economy in Africa in the 1890s. [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (i) The Rinderpest was a disease which was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers in East Africa.
(ii) On its way it killed 90 per cent of the cattle, which destroyed African livelihoods.
(iii) Planters, mine owners and colonial governments monopolised the remaining cattle resources and strengthened their power. They forced the Africans into the labour market.
(iv) Control over the remaining cattle resource enabled European colonisers to conquer and sub-due Africa.
Q.3. Describe the main features of the pre-modem world before the sixteenth century. How did it change with the discovery of new sea routes to America ? Give any three examples to explain the statement. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (a) Features of the pre-modem world :
(i) The Indian Ocean was known for a bustling trade with goods, people, knowledge etc., criss-crossing its waters.
(ii) America was cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world. Rather silk routes linked vast regions of Asia with Europe and Northern Africa.
(b) Changes after the discovery of new sea routes:
(i) With the discovery of America, its vast lands, abundant crops and minerals transformed trade and lives everywhere in the world.
(ii) Precious metals, particularly silver, from mines located in present day Peru and Mexico enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia.
(iii) Legends spread in seventeenth-century Europe about South America’s abundant wealth. Thus, many expeditions were sent in search of El Dorado, the fabled city of gold. The Portuguese and Spanish began conquering and colonising America by the mid sixteenth century.
Q.4. How did the smallpox prove as the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors in the early modern phase ? Explain. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (i) The colonisation of Americas took place in the mid-sixteenth century.
(ii) It was primarily due to the global transfer of disease that helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
(iii) The Spaniards carried the germs of smallpox into the Americas. The local inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases due to their long isolation. Thus smallpox killed and decimated many communities and paved the way for colonisation of the Americas.
Q.5. Mention any three sources of interlinkage between nations in ancient times. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (i) From ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunities and spiritual fulfilment or to escape persecution.
(ii) They carried goods, money, values, skills, ideas, inventions and even germs and diseases.
(iii) As early as 3000 bce an active coastal trade linked the Indus Valley civilisation with present-day West Asia.
(iv) For more than a millenia, cowries (in Hindi cowdi or sea-shells) were used as a form of currency. From the Maldives they found their way to China and East Africa.
Q.6. Describe any three dramatic changes that occurred in west Punjab in the 19th century, in the Held of agriculture. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. When the global agricultural economy was taking place, some dramatic changes occurred in west Punjab in the 19th century as mentioned below :
(i) The British government in India built a network of irrigation canals to transform semi-desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands for production of wheat and cotton for export.
(ii) The Canal Colonies came into existence.
(iii) These colonies were settled by peasants from other parts of Punjab.
Q.7. What attracted the Europeans to Africa in the late nineteenth century ? Give any three reasons. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: In the late nineteenth century the main reasons for the attraction of Europeans to Africa were as mentioned below:
(i) There were vast resources of land and minerals.
(ii) Europeans hoped to establish plantations to produce crops.
(iii) They wanted to control mines to produce minerals for export to Europe.
Q.8. Describe various methods employed by the Europeans to recruit and retain labour in Africa. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: The following methods were used by the Europeans to recruit and retain labour in Africa:
(i) Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.
(ii) Inheritance laws were changed which displaced the peasants from land. Only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land. As a result the other family members were pushed into the labour market.
(iii) Mine workers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
Q.9. Explain the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the Indian economy. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: The effects of the Great Depression on the Indian economy :
(i) The exports and imports decreased to half between 1928 and 1934.
(ii) Prices in India fell sharply. For example, between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices fell by 50 per cent.
(iii) The peasants suffered more than the urban people. In spite of fall in the agricultural prices, the government did not reduce the land revenue.
(iv) In general peasant’s indebtedness increased. They used their savings, mortgaged lands and sold their jewellery and precious metals to meet their expenses.
(v) India, however, became exporter of gold. The famous economist John Maynard Keynes thought that Indian gold exports promoted global economic recovery.
(vi) In urban India, the condition of people was, however, better because prices had fallen and they with their fixed incomes could purchase more.
Q.10. Why did developing countries organise G-77 ? Give three reasons. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (i) The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries.
(ii) They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty etc. of the developing countries.
(iii) The former colonial powers still controlled and exploited vital natural resources of former colonies or developing countries.
(iv) Thus, the developing countries formed the Group of 77 to demand a new international economic order (NIEO) to control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fair prices for raw materials etc.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. How Britain had a trade surplus in India over the 19th century ? How did it play a crucial role in the late 19th century world economy. Explain. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (i) (a) Britain had a trade surplus with India because over the 19th century exports from India to Britain and the rest of the world increased. The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Thus, Britain had "Trade Surplus’ with India. (b) Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficits with other countries.
(ii) In this way, India helped not only Britain to maintain balance but also played a crucial role in the late nineteenth century world economy.
(iii) Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India.
Q.2. Describe the effects of the Great Depression on the US. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: Major effects of the Great Depression on the US were as given below :
(i) There was fall in prices.
(ii) US banks reduced domestic lending and asked people to return their loans. People, however, could not repay the loans due to lesser incomes. They were forced to give up their homes, cars and other consumer durables.
(iii) Unemployment increased. People trudged long distances looking for any work they could find.
(iv) US banking system collapsed as it could not recover loans and repay depositors. Thousands of banks went bankrupt and were closed. By 1933, over 4,000 banks had closed. Between 1929 and 1932 about 1,10,000 companies had collapsed.