Pronouns are words used to replace nouns already mentioned.
Nominative/ vocative case (Pronouns come before verb)
Accusative /objective case (Pronouns come after verb)
Reflexive pronoun (Action done by the subject reflects upon the subject itself.)
Yourself / yourselves
1. The complement of verb ‘to be’ (is/am/are/was/were) is always in the nominative case. If the complement is a Personal Pronoun, we should always use its nominative case.
E.g. It was he who did it.
If I were he, I would not go there.
2. The case of the pronoun following ‘than’ and ‘as’ is decided by mentally supplying the verb and completing the sentence.
She is taller than I (am).
I love you more than he (loves you).
He is as good a player as I (am).
I can sing as well as she (can).
I have no liking for such a man as he.
3. When a pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition, it should be in the objective case.
E.g. These books are for you and I
These books are for you and me
(Between him and me there is an understanding).
4. ‘Let’, ‘But’ and ‘Except’ is followed by pronoun in the objective case.
Let him go.
Let you and me solve this puzzle.
Everyone attended the party except him.
No friend will come to your party but me.
None of the students were interested but him.
5. The case of the pronoun following ‘to’ and ‘like’ should be objective.
He is senior to me.
We want good people like him.
6. When the same person is the subject and object, it is necessary to use reflexive pronouns.
I cut me shaving this morning
I cut myself shaving this morning
7. Verbs like ‘enjoy’, ‘avail’, ‘pride’, ‘resign’, ‘apply’, ‘acquit’, ‘assert’, ‘absent’, ‘reconcile’, ‘amuse’, ‘exert’, ‘avenge’ are followed by reflexive pronouns.
He absented himself from the class.
They enjoyed themselves at the party.
She prides herself on her wealth and beauty.
He resigned himself to fate.
The officers acquitted themselves well during the crisis.
She has reconciled herself to the demands of her in-laws.
The students exert themselves a lot at the time of examination.
8. Verbs like ‘keep’, ‘conceal’, ‘qualify’, ‘spread’, ‘rest’, ‘stop’,’ ‘turn’ and ‘stay’, ‘bathe’, ‘move’ are not followed by reflexive pronouns.
I stayed away from my class.
He qualified in the test
She kept away from the show.
9. The possessive pronoun of the indefinite pronoun ‘One’ is ‘one’s’.
One must do one’s duty to one’s country.
The possessive pronoun of the indefinite pronoun ‘Each’, ‘every’, ‘anyone’, ‘anybody’, is used the possessive pronoun of their person.
Everyone must do his duty.
10. Never use possessive case with the words like ‘Separation’, ‘leave’ , ‘excuse’, ‘mention’, ‘report’, ‘pardon’, ‘sight’ and ‘favour’.
I need your favour, please. (X)
I need favour of you or I need favour from you.
She did make mention of you.
At the sight of him the robbers fled.
11. When first, second and third person singular pronouns (I, you, and he) are used together, they are placed in the order you, he and I. In negative order, it should be first person, second person and third person(I, you and he).
You, he and I are neighbors.
I,you and he will be punished.
12. Reciprocal Pronoun ‘each other’ is used for two, ‘one another’ for more than two.
Rahul and Renu love each other.
They help one another.
A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are ‘who’ “whom,” “that” and “which”.
The relative pronoun should be placed as near as possible to the antecedent.
Here is the book that you lent me.
I have read the works of Shakespeare who was a great dramatist.
Who is used in the nominative case only for persons, both in the singular and plural numbers. Who is not used for inanimate things and animals.
An architect is someone who designs buildings.
What was the name of the man who lent you the money?
Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.
Whom is used only for persons in the objective/accusative case both in singular and plural numbers.
The girl whom I gave the notes has secured first division.
Which is used for animals and non living.
The house which has a high gate is mine always used before which.
The post for which I applied is permanent.
Whose is used in possessive case both for persons and animals.
The girl whose hair is long is my sister.
That is used both for living and non living things both in singular and plural numbers.
‘Only’, ‘any’, ‘it is’, ‘all’, ‘superlatives’ usually take ‘that’
as relative pronoun in place of ‘who’ or ‘which’ .
He is the only man that can do it.
It is the same watch that was stolen by him.
All that glitters is not gold.
This is the best that we can do.
The man that lives next door is very friendly.
These are the boys that can be trusted.
This is the horse that I want to buy.
These are the only horses that neigh.
This is the ring that I lost yesterday.
These are the books that I have read.