- Born in 540 B.C. or according to some sources 599 B.C. at Kundagrama near Vaisali
- Siddhartha was his father, Trisala-the mother, Yasoda-the wife and Jameli was the daughter.
- Attained ‘kaivalya’ at Jrimbhikagrama in eastern India at the age of 42.
- Died at the age of 72 in 468 B.C. or 527 B.C. at Pavapuri near Rajagriha.
- He was called Jina or Jitendriya, Nirgrantha, and Mahavira.
- The names of two Jaina tirthankaras, Rishabha and Arishtanemi, are found in the Rig Veda.
- The Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavat Purana describe Rishaba as an incarnation of Narayana.
- The male nude torso discovered from the Indus valley culture has something to do with the itrthankaras.
- There were twently-four tirthankaras, all Kshatriyas and belonging to the royal family. Parsavanath was the 23rd tirthankara.
Court Poets/Scholars and Their Patrons
|Ashvaghosha ||Kanishka |
|Harisena ||Samudra Gupta |
|Kalidasa ||Chandra Gupta II |
|Amarsimha ||Chandra Gupta II |
|Gunadhyay ||Satavahana king Hala |
|Banabhatta ||Harshavardhana |
|Bhatti ||Sridharasena of Vallabhi |
|Ravikirti ||Pulkesin II |
|Bhavabhuti ||Yasovarman of Kannauj |
|Vakapati ||Yasovarman |
|Mahaviracharya ||Amoghavarsha |
|Jinsena ||Amoghavarsha |
|Dandin ||Narsimhavarman |
|Bharair ||Simhavishnu |
|Rajashekhar ||Mahipala |
|Svayambhu ||Rashtrakutas |
|Bilhana ||Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya of Kalyana) |
|Vijnaneshvara ||Vikramaditya VI |
|Kamban ||Chola kings |
|Nanniah ||Chalukya King |
|Samdeva ||Prithviraja III |
|Hema Sarasvati ||Durlabha Narayana |
|Chandrabardai ||Prithviraj Chauhan |
Way to Nirvana (Three Ratnas)
(i) Right faith (Samyak Uishwas)
(ii) Right knowledge (Samyak Jnan)
(iii) Right conduct (Samyak karma)
Parsvanath is considered to be the actual founder of Jainism.
- Makkhali Gosala lived with Mahavira during his mendicancy but subsequently left him and became the leader of another Shramana sect.
- Nirgranthas was the orignial name of the sect led by Mahavira which later came to be popularly known as Jain Nirgranthas.
- Jrimbhikagrama was the name of the village where Mahavira attained the highest spiritual knowledge (kevalyajnana).
- Reasons for the gradual decline of Jainism-(I) The assimilative power of Hinduism (II) The destruction of their temples by the foreign invaders and other (III) The influence and popularity of Shaiva and Vaishnava saints in the South.
- Socio-spiritual difference between Buddhism and Jainism: (I) They differ in their fundamental concept of salvation. (II) Jainism did not oppose the caste system and was more accommodating to Hinduism than Buddhism. (III) Within five hundred years, Buddhism became a world region while Jainism never went outside India.
- Bhadrabahu was the name of the Jain monk under whose leadership, a large Jain community migrated from Magadha (South Bihar) to Shravanabelagola in Karnataka in the fourth century B.C.
- Whether or not the monks should wear clothes was the nature of difference between Bhadrabahu and his followers, which led to the split of Jainism into two sects, namely Digambaras and Shvetambaras.
- The final compilation of Mahavira’s teachings took place during the fifth or sixth century A.D. at Vallabhi.
- Fourteen Purvas are considered to be oldest texts containing Mahavira’s teachings received by Sthulabhadra at the feet of his guru Bhadrabahu.
- Twelve Angas were compiled at first jain Council held at Pataliputra in the third century B.C.
- The followers of Vardhamana Mahavira were known as Nirgranthas, because they had become free from worldly fetters or bonds.
- Hemchandra is considered to be the greatest of Jain scholars.
- The greatest Jain scholar Hemchandra was a court Pandit at the court of chalukya Jayasimha Siddharaja.
- The eleven Gandharas in Jainism were close disciples or apostles of Mahavira.
- A Jain Tirthankara who is supposed to have been the kinsman of Lord Krishna was Neminatha or Aristanemi.
- Jain religious texts and their contents—(I) Angas-explain the Jain doctrines through big ends (II) Chheda sutras—explain the rules of discipline of the monastic order (III) Mula sutrasdeal with the basic doctrines of Jainism.
- The Jains have made important contributions to—(I) Ardha Magadhi (II) Apabhramsha (III) Gujarati and Marathi.
- Jain art and architecture: (I) Huge statues of Bahubali (Gomatesvara) at Sharavanabelagola (II) Tiger cave at Udayairi (Gomatesvara) at Sharavanabelagola (III) Indra Sabha at Ellora.
- Jain cave dwellings: (I) Tiger Cave at Udayagiri (II) Indra Sabha at Ellora (III) Sittannavasala Cave at Padukottai.
- Jainism has derived its metaphysical thoughts from Samkhya Philosophy.
- Jainism was propagated in South India by Bhadrabahu.
- A ruling dynasty of the Deccan, which from the eighth to the tenth century A.D., showed a special leaning to Jainism, was Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta.
- Mahavira attained intuitive knowledge or enlightenment near Parsvanath hills.
- The great pontiff or saint of Jainism after Mahavira was Sumbhutavijaya.
- According to Jainism eleven stages or grades of a householder’s life has a person to pass through before he can enter the life of an ascetic or a monk.
Bhagavatism And Brahmanism
- The term Bhagavatism basically stands for a sect—(I) Related to the worship of Vasudev Krishna; (II) Related to the worship of non-Vedic deity of the cowherds; (III) Which believed in the Upanishadic philosophy of Advaita.
- The Pancharatras were basically the worshippers of Narain-Vishnu.
- The Panch-aratras and Bhagavata sects both ultimately merged into Vaish-navism.
- The earliest known Greek follower of Bhagavatism was Heliodorus.
- The main Bhagavata deity Vasudeva Krishna was a—(I) Warrior God; (II) Philosopher and Preacher; (III) Protector of cattle world.
- The first mention of sage Krishna, son of Devaki, was made in the Chhandogya Upanishad.
- The main Bhagavata deity Vasudeva Krishna was identified with the Vedic deity Vishnu and Narayana or Hari.
- References to Vasudeva Krishna in the Chhandogya Upanishad show that Bhagavatism is as old as Buddhism and Jainism.
- The traces of the Bhagavata cult found in—(I) Epics (II) Upanishads (III) Puranas.
- From Megasthenes’ account we know that Bhagavatism first grew up along the Yamuna in Mathura district.
- Bhagavatism first came into prominence and spread to Western and Central India and the Deccan in Second century B.C.
- Moral virtues of Bhagavatism-(I) Dana (charity) (II) Arjava (piety) (III) Ahimsa (non- injury).
- According to Bhagavatism, salvation (mukti) primarily depends on Prasad (grace of God).
- One obtains the Grace of God through Bhakti.
- According to Bhagavata texts a definition of bhakti (devotion) includes—(I) Intense love for God; (II) Most perfect attachment to God; (III) Observances of one’s duties.
- Unmotivated and selfless devotion is ‘primary devotion’ according to Bhagavatism.
- Preman is the completion and perfection of devotion (bhakti).
- Bhagavatism considers bhakti (devotion) as the best means of salvation, better than jnana (knowledge), karma (action) and yoga because unlike devotion, knowledge and actions are motivated by egoism and pride, and cannot activate God’s compassion or grace.
- Bhagavatism’s attitude towards action—(I) We should not give up action, but we should do our duty without any attachment. (II) We should surrender the fruits of action to God (III) we should live an active life completely dedicated to God.
Points To Be Remembered
- The earliest example in India of a mosque built wholly in accordance with Muslim ideas was Jammat Khana Masjid.
- The Indian decorative motifs, eschwed in the Indo-Islamic architecture for being un-Islamic, were human and animal figures.
- Hindustani music was largely influenced by Arbo-Persian music.
- The Sultan who was a noted musician and is said to have invented the Khayal was Husain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur.
- Hindu astronomers borrowed calculations of lattitude and longitude, some items of calender (zich) and a branch of horoscopy called tazik from Islam.
- Surdas employed Brijbhasa for his devotional song.
- Shankardeva popularised the Assamese language.
- The earliest Vaishnava Bhakti saints from the South were Alvars.
- Vallabhacharya preached monism (suddha-advaita).
- “Abide pure admist the impurities of the world; thus shall thou find the way of religion”.—Nanak
- “Make kindness thy mosque, sincerity thy prayer-carpet, what is just and lawful thy Quran”—Nanak
- The Chisti order was popular in and around Delhi and the Suhrawardi order was popular in Sind and the Firdausi order was popular in Bihar.
- “God knows man’s virtues and inquires not his caste; in the next world there is no caste” —Guru Nanak.
- Chaitanya was born and died respectively at Navadipa and Puri.
- The greatest religious reformer and Bhakti saint of medieval Assam was Shankardev.
- Kabir lived during the reign of Sultan Sikander Lodi.
- The greatest figure in the history of Sufism in India, who settled in India during the reign of Prithviraj, was Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti.
- The most lasting and interesitng fusion of the Indo-Islamic culture could be seen in the medival Indian literature.
- The greatest saint of the Pandharpur movement of Maharashtra (which centers around the shrine of Vithoba—a manifestation of Lord Krishna was Namdev.
- Guru Nanak did not believe in the regular spiritual exercise.
Bahmani Succession States
(a) Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar (1490-1633)
- Founded by Malik Ahmad Bahri.
- Later conquered and annexed by Shah Jahan (1633).
(b) Adilshahis of Bijapur (1490-1686)
- Founded by Yusuf Adil Shah.
- Gol Gumbaj, a tomb with the world’s second largest dome (St. Paul’s church in Rome has the world’s largest dome) was built by one of the Adil Shahi rulers, Muhammad Adil Shah, at Bijapur. It is also famous for the so-called “Wispering Gallery”.
- It was later conquered and annexed by Aurangzeb (1686).
(c) Imadshahis of Berar (1490-1574)
- Founded by Fatullah Khan Imad-ul-Mulk.
- Later it was conquered and annexed by one of the Nizam Shahi rulers of Ahmadnagar.
(d) Qutbshahis of Golconda (1518-1687)
- Founded by Quli Qutbshah (1518-43) who built the famous Golconda fort and made it his capital.
- Another Qutbshahi ruler, Muhammad Quli Qutbshah, was the greatest of all, and it was he who founded the city of Hyderabad (originally known as “Bhagyanagar” after the name of the Sultan’s favourite, Bhagyamati) and also built the famous Charminar in it.
- The kingdom was later annexed by Aurangzeb (1687).
(e) Barid Shahis of Bidar (1528-1619)
- Founded by Ali Barid.
- It was later annexed by the Adil Shahis of Bijapur.
|Diwan-i-Khalisa ||Incharge of crown lands |
|Diwan-i-Tan ||Incharge of jagirs |
|Daroga-i-Dak Chauki ||Postmaster-General |
|Mir-i-Arz ||Incharge of petitions |
|Mir-i-Mal ||Incharge of Privy Purse |
|Mir-i-Tozak ||Incharge of Ceremonies |
|Mir Bahri ||Incharge of ships and boats |
|Mir Manzil ||Incharge of quarters |
|Mir Atish ||Head of artillery (He is also called ‘Daroga-i-Topkhana’) |
- According to Bhagavatism the cause of all human sins is Avidya (ignorance).
- Bhagavatism has been regarded as a completely democratic religion because it opened the portals of salvation to all irrespective of caste, creed or sex.
- Vishishtadvaita philosophy was the main offshoot of Bhagavatism.
- Bhagavatism merged with the Vaishnavism when Vasudeva Krishna was identified with Vedic deity Vishnu.
- Panchratrikas were those who worshipped Vasudeva in his four-fold uyuha form.
- The practice of image worship started among the followers of Brahmanism with the emergence of Bhagavatism.
- After the rise of the heterodox sects like Jainism and Buddhism, Pushyamitra Sunga was the first staunch
- supporter of orthodox Brahmanical faith and is alleged to have persecuted Buddhists.
- Features which Bhagavatism shared in common with Buddhism and Jainism: (I) All the three constituted a revolt against the accepted religious creeds of the day; (II) All of them originated in the free atmosphere of independent republican clans, the Shakyas the lichhavis, and the Satvatas; (III) All the three believed in the concept of ahimsa.
- Heterodox Assertions of Bhagavatism was supported by Buddhism—(I) An open denial of the efficacy of sacrifices and austerities; (II) stopping of the slaughter of animals; (III) One’s caste or occupation was no hindrance to spiritual progress.
- Siva was non-Vedic or non-Aryan deity because (I) Siva as a deity was unkown to Vedic Aryans; (II) Worship of linga, the chief emblem of Saivism was condemned in the Rigveda; (III) The worship of linga was prevalent in the Harappan period.
- The non-Aryan god Siva was identified with Maruta.
- Saivism spread to various Hindi states of South-East Asia, from South India.
- Saktism centered around the worship of Durga in one of her nine forms.
- In the Tamil Country Durga was identified with the Tamil goddess Korravai, who was a Tamil Goddess of War and victory.
- The concept of Trimurti—the Supreme God manifested in the form of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva—was the expression of; (I) The spirit of reconciliation and harmony between orthodox and sectarian forms; (II) Adoption of Vedic and non-Vedic deities into a unified deity.
- The foreigners, particularly Greeks, were most attracted to Bhagavatism because (I) it opened its portals of bhakti to all (II) Its appeal was catholic and universal (III) It was truly a democratic religion.
- The main rivals of the Buddhists were the ajivikas, a body of ascetics who were under a rigorous discipline similar to that of the Jainas, and who also practised complete nudity.
- Like Mahavira, Gosala Maskariputra looked back to earlier teachers and ascetic groups, whose doctrines he refurbished and developed.
- According to both Buddhist and Jaina tradition he was of a humble birth; and he died before the Buddha about 487 B.C., after a fierce altercation with Mahavira in the city of Sravasti.
- One of the sects born in the sixth century B.C., which discarded the theory of karma and argued that ‘man is subject to the laws of nature,’ was Ajivika.
- The Propounder of the Ajivika sect was Makkhali gosala.
- The Vaisheshika school of philosophy believed to have originated from Anuvad (of Pakudha Kaccayana).
- The followers of ajivika sects worshipped the Asoka tree as God and carried in their hands a bunch of peacock feather.