Reports - Government Schemes UPSC Notes | EduRev

Environment and Additional Topics for UPSC Prelims

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A report by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation




Ø Both the share and size of elderly population is increasing over time. From 5.6% in 1961 the proportion has increased to 8.6% in 2011

Ø Rural – urban:

 71 per cent of elderly population resides in villages while 29 per cent is in cities.

 66 per cent of elderly men and 28 per cent of elderly women were working, while in urban areas only 46 per cent of elderly men about 11 per cent of elderly women were working.

 Disease susceptibility/ disabilities:

ü Prevalence of heart diseases among elderly population was much higher in urban areas than in rural parts

ü Urinary problems were more common among aged men while more aged women reported to suffer from problem of joints

ü Most common disability among the aged persons was locomotor disability and visual disability as per census 2011.

Ø Sex ratio among elderly people was as high as is 1033 in 2011.

Ø Old-age dependency ratio climbed from 10.9 per cent in 1961 to 14.2 per cent in 2011 for India as a whole

Ø The life expectancy at birth during 2009-13 was 69.3 for females as against 65.8 years for males.

Ø The percent of literates among elderly persons increased from 27% in 1991 to 44% in 2011.the literacy rates among elderly females (28%) is less than half of the literacy rate among elderly males (59%).





  •  Gender parity index usually designed to measure the relative access to education of males and females. this index is released by UNESCO.
  • For education: it is calculated as the quotient of the number of females by the number of males enrolled in a given stage of education (primary, secondary, etc.). The same methodology can be used for calculating any value.
  • In McKinsey global institute’s report, the Power Of Parity: Advancing Women’s Equality in India or India’s global gender parity score or GPS is 0.48, where a score of 1 would be ideal.
  • India’s score represents an “extremely high” level of gender inequality, which compares poorly with 0.71 for western EUROPE and 0.74 for north AMERICA and OCEANIA.
  • “India could boost its GDP by $ 0.7 trillion in 2025, i.e., GDP can incrementally increase by 1.4%.
  • At 0.67, even the average FEMDEX of the five best states in India in terms of gender parity — Mizoram, Kerala, Meghalaya, Goa, And Sikkim - is comparable with the GPS for only china and Indonesia.


Reports - Government Schemes UPSC Notes | EduRev





 GII is introduced in the 2010 human development report 20th anniversary edition by the united nations development programme (UNDP).

Gender inequality index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity

 GII is a composite measure which captures the loss of achievement within a country due to gender inequality.

 It uses three dimensions to do so:

o Reproductive health for women (maternal mortality rate + adolescent birth rate),

o Empowerment (based on the share of parliamentary seats held by them + the per cent of 25 year plus population with secondary education) and

o Economic status (labour force participation).

 To remedy the shortcomings of the previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).

 In the entire south Asia, only war-torn Afghanistan has a worse ranking than India.

 India ranks 130 of 155 countries on GII.

 In India, merely 12.2 percent of the seats are held by women as against 27.6 percent in Afghanistan with a record of violations against women’s rights.

 In India work participation rate is at a dismal figure of 27 percent for women versus 79.9 percent for men.




What is it?

It is an international measure of acute poverty covering over 100 developing countries

The MPI assesses poverty at the individual level.

Reports - Government Schemes UPSC Notes | EduRev

Who is MPI poor?

If someone is deprived in a third or more of ten (weighted) indicators, the global index identifies them as ‘MPI poor’, and the extent – or intensity - of their poverty is measured by the number of deprivations they are experiencing.


What is it?
HDI is a composite statistic of used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

 It is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development - a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.

Reports - Government Schemes UPSC Notes | EduRev


How is INDIA faring?
 India is ranked in the medium human development category. The country continued to rank low in the HDI, but has climbed five notches to the 130th rank in the latest UNDP report on account of rise in life expectancy and per capita income.

 Between 1980 and 2014, India’s HDI value increased from 0.362 to 0.609, an increase of 68.1 percent

 However expected years of schooling is stagnant at 11.7 since 2011. Also, mean years of schooling at 5.4 has not changed since 2010.

 Life expectancy at birth: it increased to 68 years in 2014 from 67.6 in the previous year and 53.9 in 1980.

 Gross national income (GNI) per capita: it was 5,497 us dollars in 2014.

 Gender development index (GDI): female HDI value/ male HDI value:

 On India’s GDI, the report said the 2014 female HDI value for India is 0.525 in contrast to 0.660 for males, resulting in a GDI value of 0.795 in the year 2014.

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