Resolving Centre-State Relations Notes | Study Polity for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains) - UPSC

UPSC: Resolving Centre-State Relations Notes | Study Polity for UPSC 2022 (Pre & Mains) - UPSC

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 Page 1


 
Reforms in Centre-State Relations
committees: 
 
? Administrative Reforms Commission
followed by K. Hanumanthayya
Important Recommendations:
? Establishment of an Inter
Constitution 
? Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non
? Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states
? Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre
? Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise
No action taken 
? Rajmannar Committee
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar
1971 
Important Recommendations:
? Inter-State Council should be set up immediately; 
? Finance Commission should be made a permanent body; 
? Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body; 
? Articles 356, 357 and 
totally omitted;  
? The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted; 
? Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
transferred to the State List; 
? the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and 
 
State Relations and recommendations of various 
Administrative Reforms Commission-1966 under Morarji Desai 
followed by K. Hanumanthayya 
Important Recommendations: 
Establishment of an Inter-State Council under Article 263 of th
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non-partisan attitude as governors 
Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise 
Rajmannar Committee-1969 with three-member committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar with the Report coming o
Important Recommendations: 
State Council should be set up immediately;  
Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;  
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body;  
Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted;  
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
he State List;  
the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and  
and recommendations of various 
under Morarji Desai 
State Council under Article 263 of the 
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce their 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
member committee under the 
with the Report coming out in 
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
 
Page 2


 
Reforms in Centre-State Relations
committees: 
 
? Administrative Reforms Commission
followed by K. Hanumanthayya
Important Recommendations:
? Establishment of an Inter
Constitution 
? Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non
? Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states
? Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre
? Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise
No action taken 
? Rajmannar Committee
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar
1971 
Important Recommendations:
? Inter-State Council should be set up immediately; 
? Finance Commission should be made a permanent body; 
? Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body; 
? Articles 356, 357 and 
totally omitted;  
? The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted; 
? Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
transferred to the State List; 
? the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and 
 
State Relations and recommendations of various 
Administrative Reforms Commission-1966 under Morarji Desai 
followed by K. Hanumanthayya 
Important Recommendations: 
Establishment of an Inter-State Council under Article 263 of th
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non-partisan attitude as governors 
Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise 
Rajmannar Committee-1969 with three-member committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar with the Report coming o
Important Recommendations: 
State Council should be set up immediately;  
Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;  
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body;  
Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted;  
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
he State List;  
the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and  
and recommendations of various 
under Morarji Desai 
State Council under Article 263 of the 
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce their 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
member committee under the 
with the Report coming out in 
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
 
 
? All-India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished.
No action taken  
? Anandpur Sahib Resolution
Important Recommendations:
? Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted o
affairs, communications
? Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
? Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
 
? West Bengal Memorandum
Important Recommendations:
? The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
‘federal’;  
? The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economi
the residuary shoul
? Articles 356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
should be repealed;
? State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
or reorganisation of existing
? Of the total revenue raised by
should be allocated to the states; 
? Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with t
? There should be only Central and state services and the all
services should be abolished.
 
? Sarkaria Commission
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987
Important Recommendations: 
 
India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished. 
Anandpur Sahib Resolution- 1973 
Important Recommendations: 
Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted only to defence, foreign 
affairs, communications 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
West Bengal Memorandum- 1977 
Important Recommendations: 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economic co-ordination
the residuary should be vested in the states; 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
repealed; 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
sation of existing states;  
Of the total revenue raised by the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
e allocated to the states;  
Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with that of the Lok Sabha; 
There should be only Central and state services and the all
should be abolished. 
Sarkaria Commission- 1983 with a three member committee under 
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987 
Important Recommendations:  
 
nly to defence, foreign 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states 
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Centre. 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
ordination with 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new states 
the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
hat of the Lok Sabha;  
There should be only Central and state services and the all-India 
1983 with a three member committee under 
Page 3


 
Reforms in Centre-State Relations
committees: 
 
? Administrative Reforms Commission
followed by K. Hanumanthayya
Important Recommendations:
? Establishment of an Inter
Constitution 
? Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non
? Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states
? Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre
? Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise
No action taken 
? Rajmannar Committee
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar
1971 
Important Recommendations:
? Inter-State Council should be set up immediately; 
? Finance Commission should be made a permanent body; 
? Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body; 
? Articles 356, 357 and 
totally omitted;  
? The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted; 
? Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
transferred to the State List; 
? the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and 
 
State Relations and recommendations of various 
Administrative Reforms Commission-1966 under Morarji Desai 
followed by K. Hanumanthayya 
Important Recommendations: 
Establishment of an Inter-State Council under Article 263 of th
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non-partisan attitude as governors 
Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise 
Rajmannar Committee-1969 with three-member committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar with the Report coming o
Important Recommendations: 
State Council should be set up immediately;  
Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;  
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body;  
Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted;  
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
he State List;  
the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and  
and recommendations of various 
under Morarji Desai 
State Council under Article 263 of the 
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce their 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
member committee under the 
with the Report coming out in 
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
 
 
? All-India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished.
No action taken  
? Anandpur Sahib Resolution
Important Recommendations:
? Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted o
affairs, communications
? Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
? Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
 
? West Bengal Memorandum
Important Recommendations:
? The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
‘federal’;  
? The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economi
the residuary shoul
? Articles 356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
should be repealed;
? State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
or reorganisation of existing
? Of the total revenue raised by
should be allocated to the states; 
? Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with t
? There should be only Central and state services and the all
services should be abolished.
 
? Sarkaria Commission
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987
Important Recommendations: 
 
India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished. 
Anandpur Sahib Resolution- 1973 
Important Recommendations: 
Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted only to defence, foreign 
affairs, communications 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
West Bengal Memorandum- 1977 
Important Recommendations: 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economic co-ordination
the residuary should be vested in the states; 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
repealed; 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
sation of existing states;  
Of the total revenue raised by the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
e allocated to the states;  
Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with that of the Lok Sabha; 
There should be only Central and state services and the all
should be abolished. 
Sarkaria Commission- 1983 with a three member committee under 
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987 
Important Recommendations:  
 
nly to defence, foreign 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states 
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Centre. 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
ordination with 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new states 
the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
hat of the Lok Sabha;  
There should be only Central and state services and the all-India 
1983 with a three member committee under 
 
? A permanent Inter
Council should be set 
? Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
? The institution of All
and some more such services
? The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
Concurrent List. 
? The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
without the consent
should be consulted.
? The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
? The governor’s term of five years in a state 
except for some extremely compelling reasons.
? Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds:
i. He should be eminent in some walk of life
ii. He should be a person from outside the state
iii. He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states
iv. He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
? Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit
? The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
State Council in 1990.  
? Punchhi Commission/ Second Commission on Centre
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi
Important Recommendations:
 
A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental 
Council should be set up under Article 263. 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
The institution of All-India Services should be further strengthened 
and some more such services should be created. 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
the consent of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
consulted. 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
The governor’s term of five years in a state should not be disturbed 
except for some extremely compelling reasons. 
Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds: 
He should be eminent in some walk of life 
He should be a person from outside the state 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit. 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
ssion/ Second Commission on Centre-state Relations
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi 
Important Recommendations: 
Governmental 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail. 
India Services should be further strengthened 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself. 
should not be disturbed 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past 
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated. 
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-
state Relations- 
Page 4


 
Reforms in Centre-State Relations
committees: 
 
? Administrative Reforms Commission
followed by K. Hanumanthayya
Important Recommendations:
? Establishment of an Inter
Constitution 
? Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non
? Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states
? Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre
? Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise
No action taken 
? Rajmannar Committee
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar
1971 
Important Recommendations:
? Inter-State Council should be set up immediately; 
? Finance Commission should be made a permanent body; 
? Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body; 
? Articles 356, 357 and 
totally omitted;  
? The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted; 
? Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
transferred to the State List; 
? the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and 
 
State Relations and recommendations of various 
Administrative Reforms Commission-1966 under Morarji Desai 
followed by K. Hanumanthayya 
Important Recommendations: 
Establishment of an Inter-State Council under Article 263 of th
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non-partisan attitude as governors 
Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise 
Rajmannar Committee-1969 with three-member committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar with the Report coming o
Important Recommendations: 
State Council should be set up immediately;  
Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;  
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body;  
Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted;  
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
he State List;  
the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and  
and recommendations of various 
under Morarji Desai 
State Council under Article 263 of the 
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce their 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
member committee under the 
with the Report coming out in 
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
 
 
? All-India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished.
No action taken  
? Anandpur Sahib Resolution
Important Recommendations:
? Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted o
affairs, communications
? Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
? Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
 
? West Bengal Memorandum
Important Recommendations:
? The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
‘federal’;  
? The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economi
the residuary shoul
? Articles 356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
should be repealed;
? State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
or reorganisation of existing
? Of the total revenue raised by
should be allocated to the states; 
? Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with t
? There should be only Central and state services and the all
services should be abolished.
 
? Sarkaria Commission
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987
Important Recommendations: 
 
India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished. 
Anandpur Sahib Resolution- 1973 
Important Recommendations: 
Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted only to defence, foreign 
affairs, communications 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
West Bengal Memorandum- 1977 
Important Recommendations: 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economic co-ordination
the residuary should be vested in the states; 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
repealed; 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
sation of existing states;  
Of the total revenue raised by the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
e allocated to the states;  
Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with that of the Lok Sabha; 
There should be only Central and state services and the all
should be abolished. 
Sarkaria Commission- 1983 with a three member committee under 
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987 
Important Recommendations:  
 
nly to defence, foreign 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states 
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Centre. 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
ordination with 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new states 
the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
hat of the Lok Sabha;  
There should be only Central and state services and the all-India 
1983 with a three member committee under 
 
? A permanent Inter
Council should be set 
? Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
? The institution of All
and some more such services
? The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
Concurrent List. 
? The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
without the consent
should be consulted.
? The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
? The governor’s term of five years in a state 
except for some extremely compelling reasons.
? Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds:
i. He should be eminent in some walk of life
ii. He should be a person from outside the state
iii. He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states
iv. He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
? Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit
? The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
State Council in 1990.  
? Punchhi Commission/ Second Commission on Centre
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi
Important Recommendations:
 
A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental 
Council should be set up under Article 263. 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
The institution of All-India Services should be further strengthened 
and some more such services should be created. 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
the consent of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
consulted. 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
The governor’s term of five years in a state should not be disturbed 
except for some extremely compelling reasons. 
Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds: 
He should be eminent in some walk of life 
He should be a person from outside the state 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit. 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
ssion/ Second Commission on Centre-state Relations
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi 
Important Recommendations: 
Governmental 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail. 
India Services should be further strengthened 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself. 
should not be disturbed 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past 
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated. 
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-
state Relations- 
 
? It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
development in fut
? The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
the Concurrent List is the key for bett
? There should be a continuing auditing role for the Inter
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
jurisdiction. 
? The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
Legislature to act when t
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
President. 
? Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
(treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
to streamline the procedures involved.
? While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
Commission report and 
a. He should be eminent in some walk of life
b. He should be a person from outside the state
c. He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
connected with the local politics of the states
d. He should be a person who 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past
? Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
Centre. 
? The procedure laid down for i
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
well. 
? Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers.
 
It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
development in future. 
The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
the Concurrent List is the key for better Centre-state relations.
There should be a continuing auditing role for the Inter-state Council 
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
Legislature to act when the bill is returned by the President can be 
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
to streamline the procedures involved. 
While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
Commission report and follow its mandate in letter and spirit:
He should be eminent in some walk of life 
He should be a person from outside the state 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
connected with the local politics of the states 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past
Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
The procedure laid down for impeachment of President, mutatis 
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers.
It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
state relations. 
state Council 
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
he bill is returned by the President can be 
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
follow its mandate in letter and spirit: 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
has not taken too great a part 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past 
Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
mpeachment of President, mutatis 
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers. 
Page 5


 
Reforms in Centre-State Relations
committees: 
 
? Administrative Reforms Commission
followed by K. Hanumanthayya
Important Recommendations:
? Establishment of an Inter
Constitution 
? Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non
? Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states
? Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre
? Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise
No action taken 
? Rajmannar Committee
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar
1971 
Important Recommendations:
? Inter-State Council should be set up immediately; 
? Finance Commission should be made a permanent body; 
? Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body; 
? Articles 356, 357 and 
totally omitted;  
? The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted; 
? Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
transferred to the State List; 
? the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and 
 
State Relations and recommendations of various 
Administrative Reforms Commission-1966 under Morarji Desai 
followed by K. Hanumanthayya 
Important Recommendations: 
Establishment of an Inter-State Council under Article 263 of th
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
administration and non-partisan attitude as governors 
Delegation of powers to the maximum extent to the states 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce 
dependency upon the Centre 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
request or otherwise 
Rajmannar Committee-1969 with three-member committee under the 
chairmanship of Dr P V Rajamannar with the Report coming o
Important Recommendations: 
State Council should be set up immediately;  
Finance Commission should be made a permanent body;  
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
taken by a statutory body;  
Articles 356, 357 and 365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
of the governor should be omitted;  
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
he State List;  
the residuary powers should be allocated to the states; and  
and recommendations of various 
under Morarji Desai 
State Council under Article 263 of the 
Appointment of persons having long experience in public life and 
Transferring of more financial resources to the states to reduce their 
Deployment of Central armed forces in the states either on their 
member committee under the 
with the Report coming out in 
Planning Commission should be disbanded and its place should be 
365 (dealing with President’s Rule) should be 
The provision that the state ministry holds office during the pleasure 
Certain subjects of the Union List and the Concurrent List should be 
 
 
? All-India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished.
No action taken  
? Anandpur Sahib Resolution
Important Recommendations:
? Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted o
affairs, communications
? Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
? Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
 
? West Bengal Memorandum
Important Recommendations:
? The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
‘federal’;  
? The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economi
the residuary shoul
? Articles 356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
should be repealed;
? State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
or reorganisation of existing
? Of the total revenue raised by
should be allocated to the states; 
? Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with t
? There should be only Central and state services and the all
services should be abolished.
 
? Sarkaria Commission
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987
Important Recommendations: 
 
India services (IAS, IPS and IFS) should be abolished. 
Anandpur Sahib Resolution- 1973 
Important Recommendations: 
Centre’s jurisdiction should be restricted only to defence, foreign 
affairs, communications 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Cent
West Bengal Memorandum- 1977 
Important Recommendations: 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
affairs, currency, communications and economic co-ordination
the residuary should be vested in the states; 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
repealed; 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new
sation of existing states;  
Of the total revenue raised by the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
e allocated to the states;  
Rajya Sabha should have equal powers with that of the Lok Sabha; 
There should be only Central and state services and the all
should be abolished. 
Sarkaria Commission- 1983 with a three member committee under 
Justice R.S. Sarkaria which submitted its report in 1987 
Important Recommendations:  
 
nly to defence, foreign 
Currency and the entire residuary powers should be vested in the states 
Constitution should be made federal in the real sense and should 
ensure equal authority and representation to all the states at the Centre. 
The word ‘union’ in the Constitution should be replaced by the word 
The jurisdiction of the Centre should be confined to defence, foreign 
ordination with 
356 and 357 (President’s Rule) and 360 (financial emergency) 
State’s consent should be made obligatory for formation of new states 
the Centre from all sources, 75 per cent 
hat of the Lok Sabha;  
There should be only Central and state services and the all-India 
1983 with a three member committee under 
 
? A permanent Inter
Council should be set 
? Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
? The institution of All
and some more such services
? The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
Concurrent List. 
? The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
without the consent
should be consulted.
? The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
? The governor’s term of five years in a state 
except for some extremely compelling reasons.
? Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds:
i. He should be eminent in some walk of life
ii. He should be a person from outside the state
iii. He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states
iv. He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
? Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit
? The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
State Council in 1990.  
? Punchhi Commission/ Second Commission on Centre
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi
Important Recommendations:
 
A permanent Inter-State Council called the Inter-Governmental 
Council should be set up under Article 263. 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail.
The institution of All-India Services should be further strengthened 
and some more such services should be created. 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
the consent of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
consulted. 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself.
The governor’s term of five years in a state should not be disturbed 
except for some extremely compelling reasons. 
Selection of Governor on some concrete grounds: 
He should be eminent in some walk of life 
He should be a person from outside the state 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimate
connected with the local politics of the states 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
formula in its true spirit. 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated.
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter
ssion/ Second Commission on Centre-state Relations
2007 under former CJI M.M. Punchhi 
Important Recommendations: 
Governmental 
Article 356 (President’s Rule) should be used very sparingly, in 
extreme cases as a last resort when all the available alternatives fail. 
India Services should be further strengthened 
The residuary powers of taxation should continue to remain with the 
Parliament, while the other residuary powers should be placed in the 
The Centre should have powers to deploy its armed forces, even 
of states. However, it is desirable that the states 
The procedure of consulting the chief minister in the appointment of 
the state governor should be prescribed in the Constitution itself. 
should not be disturbed 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part in 
politics generally and particularly in the recent past 
Steps should be taken to uniformly implement the three language 
The commissioner for linguistic minorities should be activated. 
The Central government has implemented 180 (out of 247) recommendations of 
the Sarkaria Commission. The most important is the establishment of the Inter-
state Relations- 
 
? It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
development in fut
? The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
the Concurrent List is the key for bett
? There should be a continuing auditing role for the Inter
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
jurisdiction. 
? The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
Legislature to act when t
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
President. 
? Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
(treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
to streamline the procedures involved.
? While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
Commission report and 
a. He should be eminent in some walk of life
b. He should be a person from outside the state
c. He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
connected with the local politics of the states
d. He should be a person who 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past
? Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
Centre. 
? The procedure laid down for i
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
well. 
? Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers.
 
It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
development in future. 
The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
the Concurrent List is the key for better Centre-state relations.
There should be a continuing auditing role for the Inter-state Council 
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
Legislature to act when the bill is returned by the President can be 
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
to streamline the procedures involved. 
While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
Commission report and follow its mandate in letter and spirit:
He should be eminent in some walk of life 
He should be a person from outside the state 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
connected with the local politics of the states 
He should be a person who has not taken too great a part 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past
Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
The procedure laid down for impeachment of President, mutatis 
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers.
It underlined that ‘cooperative federalism’ will be the key for 
sustaining India’s unity, integrity and social and economic 
The Union should be extremely restrained in asserting Parliamentary 
supremacy in matters assigned to the states. Greater flexibility to 
states in relation to subjects in the State List and “transferred items” in 
state relations. 
state Council 
in the management of matters in concurrent or overlapping 
The period of six months prescribed in Article 201 for State 
he bill is returned by the President can be 
made applicable for the President also to decide on assenting or 
withholding assent to a state bill reserved for consideration of the 
Parliament should make a law on the subject of Entry 14 of List I 
treaty making and implementing it through Parliamentary legislation) 
While selecting Governors, the Central Government should adopt the 
following strict guidelines as recommended in the Sarkaria 
follow its mandate in letter and spirit: 
He should be a detached figure and not too intimately 
has not taken too great a part 
in politics generally and particularly in the recent past 
Governors should be given a fixed tenure of five years and their 
removal should not be at the sweet will of the Government at the 
mpeachment of President, mutatis 
mutandis can be made applicable for impeachment of Governors as 
Article 163 does not give the Governor a general discretionary power 
to act against or without the advice of his Council of Ministers. 
 
? In respect of bills passed by the Legislative Assembly of a state, the 
Governor should take the decision within six months whether to grant 
assent or to reserve it for consideration of the President.
? On the question of Governor’s role in appointment of Chief Minister 
in the case of a hung assembly, it is necessary to lay down certain 
clear guidelines to be followed as Constitutional conventions. These 
guidelines may be as follows:
a. The party or combination of parties which commands the widest 
support in the Legislative Assemb
form the Government.
b. If there is a pre
one political party and if such coalition obtains a majority, the 
leader of such coalition shall be called by the Governor to form 
the Government. 
c. In case no party or pre
Governor should select the Chief Minister in the order of 
preference indicated here.
i. 
ii. 
iii. 
iv. 
? On the question of dismissal of a Chief Minister, the Governor should
invariably insist on the Chief Minister proving his majority on the 
floor of the House for which he should prescribe a time limit.
? On the question of in
Constitutional machinery in states, suitable amendments are required 
to incorporate the guidelines set forth in the landmark judgement of 
the Supreme Court in S.R. Bommai V. Union of India (1994).
 
s passed by the Legislative Assembly of a state, the 
Governor should take the decision within six months whether to grant 
assent or to reserve it for consideration of the President. 
On the question of Governor’s role in appointment of Chief Minister 
hung assembly, it is necessary to lay down certain 
clear guidelines to be followed as Constitutional conventions. These 
guidelines may be as follows: 
The party or combination of parties which commands the widest 
support in the Legislative Assembly should be called upon to 
form the Government. 
If there is a pre-poll alliance or coalition, it should be treated as 
one political party and if such coalition obtains a majority, the 
leader of such coalition shall be called by the Governor to form 
vernment.  
In case no party or pre-poll coalition has a clear majority, the 
Governor should select the Chief Minister in the order of 
preference indicated here. 
 The group of parties which had pre-poll alliance 
commanding the largest number 
 The largest single party staking a claim to form the 
government with the support of others 
 A post-electoral coalition with all partners joining 
the government 
 A post-electoral alliance with some parties joining 
the government and the remaining including 
independents supporting the government from 
outside 
On the question of dismissal of a Chief Minister, the Governor should
invariably insist on the Chief Minister proving his majority on the 
the House for which he should prescribe a time limit.
On the question of invoking Article 356 in case of failure of
Constitutional machinery in states, suitable amendments are required 
incorporate the guidelines set forth in the landmark judgement of 
Supreme Court in S.R. Bommai V. Union of India (1994).
s passed by the Legislative Assembly of a state, the 
Governor should take the decision within six months whether to grant 
On the question of Governor’s role in appointment of Chief Minister 
hung assembly, it is necessary to lay down certain 
clear guidelines to be followed as Constitutional conventions. These 
The party or combination of parties which commands the widest 
ly should be called upon to 
poll alliance or coalition, it should be treated as 
one political party and if such coalition obtains a majority, the 
leader of such coalition shall be called by the Governor to form 
poll coalition has a clear majority, the 
Governor should select the Chief Minister in the order of 
poll alliance 
le party staking a claim to form the 
electoral coalition with all partners joining 
electoral alliance with some parties joining 
the government and the remaining including 
rting the government from 
On the question of dismissal of a Chief Minister, the Governor should 
invariably insist on the Chief Minister proving his majority on the 
the House for which he should prescribe a time limit. 
voking Article 356 in case of failure of 
Constitutional machinery in states, suitable amendments are required 
incorporate the guidelines set forth in the landmark judgement of 
Supreme Court in S.R. Bommai V. Union of India (1994). 
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