Rules for the Change of Tenses: Narration Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

Class 8: Rules for the Change of Tenses: Narration Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

The document Rules for the Change of Tenses: Narration Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

Assertive Sentence

1. If the reporting verb is in the present tense or future tense, the tense of the verbs in the reported speech does not change.

Examples:
(i) Direct : He says, “I am playing.”
Indirect : He says that he is playing.

(ii) Direct : Ahmed will say, “I go to the market.”
Indirect : Ahmed will say that he goes to the market.

(iii) Direct : The boy has said, “Coffee is ready.”
Indirect : The boy has said that coffee is ready. 

(iv) Direct : Mother says, “I am washing clothes.”
Indirect : Mother says that she is washing clothes.

 

2. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tenses in the reported speech are changed into the past tense. Look at the following:

Present Indefinite (do/ does)Changes intoPast Indefinite (did)
Present Continuous (is/ are/ am)Changes intoPast Continuous (was/ were)
Present Perfect (has/ have)Changes intoPast Perfect (had)
Past Indefinite (did)Changes intoPast Perfect (had done)
Past Perfect (had done)Changes intoPast Perfect (no change) (had done)
Past ContinuousChanges intoPast Perfect Continuous
shallChanges intoshould
willChanges intowould
mayChanges intomight
canChanges intocould

 

Examples: 

(i) Direct : Father said, “I go to the office.”
 Indirect : Father said that he went to the office. 

(ii) Direct : He said, “Amit does his work.”
 Indirect : He said that Amit did his work.

(iii) Direct : The gardener said, “I am watering plants.”
 Indirect : The gardener said that he was watering plants. 

(iv) Direct : The boy said, “My mother is going to the market.”
Indirect : The boy said that his mother was going to the market. 

(v) Direct : Hari said, “I have lost my pen.”
Indirect : Hari said that he had lost his pen. 

(vi) Direct : The teacher said, “The Principal delivered a speech”.
Indirect : The teacher said that the Principal had delivered a speech. 

(vii) Direct : Joya said,“My friend had broken the window.”
Indirect : Joya said that her friend had broken the window.

(viii) Direct : Ruchi said, “My father was driving a car.”
Indirect : Ruchi said that her father had been driving a car. 

(ix) Direct : Divesh said, “Shobhit can lift this box.”
Indirect : Divesh said that Shobhit could lift that box. 

(x) Direct : He said, “I would help my friend.”
Indirect : He said that he would have helped his friend.

 

3. If the reported speech expresses a universal truth, a habitual action, a historical fact, a geographical fact or a scientific fact, its tense is not changed. These are exceptions to the above rule.

Examples:
 (i) Direct 
: Father said, “The earth revolves round the sun.”
Indirect : Father said that the earth revolves round the sun. 

(ii) Direct : The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect : The teacher said that the sun rises in the east. 

(iii) Direct : Grandfather said, “I go for a morning walk daily.”
Indirect : Grandfather said that he goes for a morning walk daily. 

(iv) Direct : He said, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect : He said that honesty is the best policy.

 

The document Rules for the Change of Tenses: Narration Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

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