S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

Chemistry Class 11

JEE : S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS :

It is based on the type of orbitals which receives the differentiating electron (i.e., last electron).

s-block elements

When shells upto (n - 1) are completely filled and the last electron enters the s-orbital of the outermost (nth) shell, the elements of this class are called s-block elements.

Group 1 & 2 elements constitute the s-block.

General electronic configuration is [inert gas] ns1-2

s-block elements lie on the extreme left of the periodic table.

This block includes metals.


Group - IA or 1 Alkali metals :

 

S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

 


Group - II A or 2 , Alkaline earth metals :

S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes


p-block elements

When shells upto (n -1) are completely filled and differentiating electron enters the p-orbital of the nth orbit, elements of this class are called p-block elements.

  • Group 13 to 18 elements constitute the p-block.
  • General electronic configuration is [inert gas] ns2np1-6
  • p-block elements lie on the extreme right of the periodic table.
  • This block includes some metals, all non-metals and metalloids.
  • s-block and p-block elements are collectively called normal or representative elements.

Group - III A or 13 , boron family :


S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

 

Group - IV A or 14 , carbon family :


S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

 

Group - V A or 15 , nitrogen family :


S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

 

 Group - VI A or 16 , Oxygen family :


S, p, d and f-block elements - Classification of Elements and Periodicity, CBSE, Class 11, Chemistry | EduRev Notes

 

d-block elements

When outermost (nth) and penultimate shells (n - 1)th shells are incompletely filled and differentiating electon enters the (n -1) d orbitals (i.e., d-orbital of penultimate shell) then elements of this class are called d-block elements.

  • Group 3 to 12 elements constitute the d-block.
  • General electronic configuration is [inert gas] (n - 1)d1-10 ns0-2
  • d-block elements are classified into four series
  • Series Elements (n-1)d being filled

3d 21Sc -30Zn 3d

4d 39Y - 48 Cd 4d

5d 57La, 72 Hf-80Hg 5d

6d 89Ac, 104Rf - 112Uub 6d (incomplete series)

Those elements which have partially filled d-orbits in neutral state or in any stable oxidation state are called s transition elements.


f-block elements

When n, (n-1) and (n -2) shells are incompletely filled and last electron enters into f-orbital of antepenultimate i.e., (n-2)th shell, elements of this class are called f-block elements., General electronic configuration is (n - 2)f1-14 (n - 1)d0-1 ns2

All f-block elements belong to 3rd group.

They are metals

Within each series, the properties of the elements are quite similar.

They are also called as inner-transition elements as they contain three outer most shell incomplete and were also referred to as rare earth elements since their oxides were rare in earlier days.

The elements of f-block have been classified into two series:

The actinides and lanthanides have been placed at the bottom of the periodic table to avoid the undue expansion of the periodic table.

1. Ist inner transition or 4 f-series, contains 14 elements 58Ce to 70Lu. Filling of electrons takes place in 4f subshell.

2. IInd inner transition or 5 f-series, contains 14 elements 90Th to 103Lr. Filling of electrons takes placed in 5f subshell.


PREDICTION OF PERIOD, GROUP AND BLOCK:

  • The block of an element corresponds to the type of subshell which receives the last electron.
  • The group is predicted from the number of electrons in the valence shell or/and penultimate shell as follows.

(a) For s-block elements Group number = the no. of valence electrons.

(b) For p-block elements Group number = 10+ no. of valence electrons .

(c) For d-block elements Group number = no. of electrons in (n - 1) d sub shell + no. of electrons in valence shell.

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