Short Answer Questions Chapter 3 - Nationalism in India, Class 10, SST (History) | EduRev Notes

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : Short Answer Questions Chapter 3 - Nationalism in India, Class 10, SST (History) | EduRev Notes

The document Short Answer Questions Chapter 3 - Nationalism in India, Class 10, SST (History) | EduRev Notes is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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Q.1. What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
 OR
Gandhiji said ‘Satyagraha’ was active resistance. How?
 OR
Explain the idea of Satyagraha.

Ans. Gandhiji said ‘Satyagraha’ was not passive resistance but it called for intensive activity. Physical force was not used against the oppressor, nor vengeance was sought. Only through the power of truth and non-violence, an appeal was made to the conscience of the oppressor. Persuasion, not force, would make the oppressor realise the truth. This ‘dharma’ of non-violence and truth united people against the oppressor and made them realise the truth.

Q.2. Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act?

Ans. The Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. It was opposed by all its Indian members. The government assumed enormous powers through this Act as they could detain political prisoners without trial for two years. Gandhiji decided to launch a ‘Hartal’ on 6 April against the Rowlatt Act.

Q.3. Give one example to prove that Non-Cooperation Movement was more successful on the economic front.

Ans. One example is boycott of foreign goods. The import of foreign textile cloth became half of what it was, between 1921–1922. It fell from 102 crores to 57 crores.

Q.4. Which party did not support the boycott of council elections during the movement and why.

Ans. The Justice Party of Madras decided not to boycott Council elections. The Justice Party members were non-Brahmins and so far had not been able to win elections, as the Brahman candidates always won. They thought it was a golden opportunity for them to enter the Councils.

Q.5. Why did Gandhiji call off the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Ans. The Chauri Chaura incident near Gorakhpur made him to do so. A peaceful procession turned violent and burnt a police chowki at Chauri Chaura and 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhiji, an apostle of non-violence, was shocked and immediately called off the movement.

Q.6. What was the cause of disagreement between the Congress-led Non-Cooperation Movement and the peasants’ and workers’ movements?

Ans. The Congress under Gandhiji believed in achieving ‘Swaraj’ by peaceful means and total non-violence.
The peasants and workers, though believers in Gandhi’s Swaraj, khadi and boycott, did not believe in non-violence. They turned violent to gain their aims, which went against the Congress creed.

Q.7. What was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859?

Ans. The British government had passed this Act to prevent the plantation workers to leave the plantations and go back to their villages in Assam. They were forced to remain at the plantations and not leave them without permission. The permission to leave was seldom granted.

Q.8. Explain the two important factors that shaped Indian politics towards 1920’s. [2011(T-2)]
 OR
 Mention two factors which influenced Indian politics in the late 1920s. [2011(T-2)]

Ans.

(i) The first was the worldwide economic depression which brought the agricultural prices crashing down in India. Farmers could not sell their produces and the whole country-side was in turmoil.

(ii) The British constituted a statutes commission in 1927 under Sir John Simon. The aim was to diffuse nationalism aroused by the Non-Cooperation Movement. The Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India. It was an all-white commission, with not a single Indian member in it. It set the political world in India on fire and led to Gandhiji starting the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Q.9. Explain the difference in the objectives of the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.
 OR
 How was the civil disobedience movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans. Non-Coorporation Movement (1920-22) wanted to bring the Government to a standstill by refusing to cooperate with it; Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) wanted to paralyse the government by performing illegal acts like violating the laws.

Q.10. Why did Gandhiji choose ‘Salt’ as the symbol of his Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans. Salt is consumed by both the poor and the rich, and is one of the most essential items of food everywhere in the world. The British government had the monopoly on the production of salt in India. By imposing a ‘salt tax’ the government hit both the rich and the poor, specially the poor. Gandhiji thought it was the most repressive Act of the British government and chose to defy it by breaking the “Salt Law”.

Q.11. How did the British Government react to the “Salt March” of Gandhiji?

Ans. A frightened and shaken British government responded with a policy of brutal repression. About 100,000 people were arrested. Gandhiji was arrested on 4th May, 1930. The government also tried to diffuse the situation by releasing Gandhiji and making him sign the Gandhi-Irwin Pact (the then Viceroy of India) on 5th March, 1931. But the failure of the Second Round Table Conference in 1931 led the Government to begin its repressive measures in 1932 again. Congress was declared illegal and Nehru and Abdul Ghaffar Khan were arrested. All boycotts, meetings and demonstrations were banned by the British

Q.12. Why did the industrialists and industrial workers lose interest in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
 OR
 Why did the initial enthusiasm of the merchants and industrialists fade away during the later stage of the civil disobedience movement?

Ans. The industrialists were perturbed by the increasing influence of socialism among the younger members of the Congress. They were also worried by the long-drawn militant activities and were worried about the harm done by it to their business interests.

Q.13. How and when nationalism captures the hearts and minds of the people ?

Ans. When people begin to believe strongly that they are part of the same nation. Also, when they discover common bonds that unite them, when they share the same struggles and have a common folklore, history and culture, then nationalism grips their hearts and minds.

Q.14. Give one example to prove that Non-Cooperation Movement was more successful on the economic front.

Ans. One example is boycott of foreign goods. The import of foreign textile cloth became half of what it was, between 1921–1922. It fell from 102 crores to 57 crores.

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