Q.1. What are the various social indicators of development?
- Although the level of income is important indicator of development, it is an inadequate measure of the level of development.
- Other social indicators are:
Health and Education: People become human resource when investments are made in their health and education.
Fig. Education as a segment of health
- Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males. An ideal sex ratio should be more or less equal number of males and females. Sex ratio in favor of males indicates sex discrimination which goes against development.
Q.2. How are economic development and human development related to each other?
- Human development refers to the process of improvement in human beings. People become human resource when investments in them are made in form of health and education.
Fig. Human development
- Life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, per capita GDP are important indicators of human development.
- Economic development will be sustainable if resources are managed in such a way that future generations do not suffer and have at least the same which present generations have.
Q.3.What is the main concern with regard to sustainable development?
- The main concern of the sustainable development is to save the resources from its depletion.
- Development should take place but not at the cost of environment.
- Resources should be reserved for future generations.
Q.4. What is environment degradation? Give a few examples?
- Environment degradation refers to the degradation of natural resources and pollution.
- Global warming is the result of environment degradation.
- Depletion of resources is also an example of environment degradation.
- Extinction of flora and fauna is also an example of environment degradation.
- Degradation of land resources.
Q.5. Mention in brief the factors which are important goals in our life.
- People desire regular work, good salary structure and decent prices for crops or other products that they produce.
- We can say that the desired for more income.
- People also want equal treatment in the society.
- People want freedom, security and respect for others.
- They don’t expect discrimination.
Q.6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
- Different countries have a different population, so calculating the average helps in getting an estimated answer which can be used to compare different things at different levels.
- There are limitations of calculating averages because we cannot know the difference in the income of the people and the unfair distribution of income in a country or state.
- For example, if we calculate the per capita income of two countries A and B with 5 people each, the salary of five people in country A is Rs.23,000, Rs.22,000, Rs.23,500, Rs.28,000 and Rs.25,000 and the income of people living in country B are Rs.1,50,000, Rs. 22,000, Rs.50,000, Rs.4000, Rs.2500.
- The average income of country A will be Rs.24,300, and that of country B will be Rs.45,700. This proves that the average of country B is higher than that of country A, and yet there is a disparity in the income distribution of country B and the income is evenly distributed in country A.
7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
- Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Haryana.
- Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states.
- This is true because the literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare facilities, etc. are better in Kerala in comparison to Haryana.
- The per capita income is only calculated by calculating the average income of the state, irrespective of any other factor.
8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
- The present sources of energy used by people in India include firewood, coal, petroleum, crude oil and natural gas.
- The other possibilities fifty years from now can be using solar energy and wind energy as a source for various energy forms.
- This is because the current usage of sources of energy may result in the loss of these resources for future generations.
9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
- Sustainable development refers to using natural resources in a manner so that they can be used by the present and future generations.
- The issue of sustainability is important for development because if the natural resources are not used carefully, they may not be available for future generations.
- The depleting resources of a country may ultimately result in a lack of development of the country.
10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
- Development not just depends on the economic factors of a country, but is also dependent on resources that are available for the people of a country to use.
- The statement: “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” is completely relevant in terms of the development of a country because natural resources are non-renewable resources.
- It is the responsibility of the people to use them only to meet their needs and not to satisfy their greed.
- If natural resources are not used wisely now, the future generations may not be able to use them for their needs, which will result in the downfall of development of a country.
11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Answer: A few examples of environmental degradation that we can observe around us are:
- Pollution caused by vehicles and the excess use of fuels in vehicles.
- Industrial waste collected in residential areas and discarded into water bodies
- Soil Erosion
The increased pollution in the environment has resulted in global warming and depletion of glaciers and the atmospheric conditions.