Q.51 Name one anionic detergent used in home.
Answer: Sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate.
Q.52 What is the chemical composition of cationic detergents?
Answer: Cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetate, chlorides or bromides as anions.
Q.53 Among the straight chain and branched chain synthetic detergents which one is more likely to cause pollution?
Answer: Branched chain synthetic detergents cause more pollution.
Q.54 How do detergents cause water pollution. What remedy is suggested to prevent this pollution?
Answer: If detergent is highly branched, bacteria cannot degrade it easily. Slow degradation of detergents lead to their accumulation and causes water pollution. Straight chain detergents are biodegradable and hence pollution is prevented by using more and more straight chain hydrocarbon containing detergents.
Q.55 What are drugs?
Answer: Chemicals with molecular mass of 10000 u which interact with macromolecules to produce a biological response are called drugs.
Q.56 What are medicines?
Answer: Drugs whose biological responses are therapeutic and useful they are called medicines.
Q.57 What is chemotherapy?
Answer: Use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy.
Q.58 What are enzymes?
Answer: Proteins which play an important role of biological catalyst in the body are called enzymes.
Q.59 What are competitive enzyme inhibitors?
Answer: Drugs which compete with natural substances for their attachment on the active sites of enzyme are called competitive enzyme inhibitors.
Q.60 What are enzyme inhibitors?
Answer: Drugs which block the binding site of the enzyme and prevent the binding of substrate are called enzyme inhibitors.
Q.61 What are chemical messengers?
Answer: Inside our body messages between two neurons and that between neurons to muscles are communicated through certain chemicals called chemical messengers.
Q.62 What are antagonists?
Answer: Drugs that bind to the receptor site and inhibit its natural function are called antagonists.
Q.63 What are agonists?
Answer: Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor are called agonists.
Q.64 What is the effect of excessive use of hydrogen carbonate as antacid ?
Answer: Excessive use of hydrogen carbonates makes the stomach alkaline and trigger the production of even more acid.
Q.65 Why metal hydroxides are better antacid than hydrogen carbonate?
Answer: Metal hydroxides are better alternatives because of being insoluble they do not increase the pH above neutrality.
Q.66 What are antacids?
Answer: Antacids are chemicals which control the over production of acid in stomach which causes burning sensation and irritation.
Q.67 What are histamines?
Answer: Histamines are potent vasodilators. They contract the smooth muscles in bronchi and gut and relax other muscles such as those in the walls of blood vessels. They are also responsible for nasal congestion. Histamines are chemicals which stimulate the secretion of pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Q.68 What are antihistamines?
Answer: Antihistamines are the drugs which are used for the treatment of hyperacidity and allergy.
Q.69 Why do anti-allergic and antacid anti-histamine do not interfere with each other?
Answer: The reason is that anti-allergic and antacid drugs work on different receptors.
Q.70 What are analgesics?
Answer: Analgesics are drugs that reduce pain without causing impairment of consciousness, mental confusion, in coordination or paralysis or some other disturbances of nervous system.
Q.71 What are tranquillizers?
Answer: Tranquillizer is a class of chemical compound. the treatment of stress irritability or excitement by inducing sense of well-being,
Q.72 What is noradrenaline?
Answer: Noradrenaline is a type of neurotransmitter that plays a role in mood change.
Q.73 What are barbiturates?
Answer: Derivatives of barbituric acid are known as barbiturates. They are hypnotic i.e. sleep inducing agents.
Q.74 What are non-narcotic analgesics?
Answer: Non narcotic analgesics are used as pain killers and in reducing fever. Aspirin and paracetamol belong to this class.
Q.75 What are narcotic analgesics?
Answer: Narcotic analgesics are pain killers and induce sleep. If taken in high amount they produce coma, convulsions and ultimately death e.g. Morphine.
Q.76 What are microbes?
Answer: Micro-organisms which cause diseases in human beings and animals are called microbes e.g. Bacteria.
Q.77 What are anti-microbials?
Answer: An anti-microbial tends to destroy, prevent, or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes.
Q.78 What are antibiotics?
Answer: Antibiotics are the drugs used for the treatment of infection. They inhibit the growth or even destroy microorganisms.
Q.79 What is spectrum of antibiotics?
Answer: The range of bacteria or other microorganisms that are affected by a certain antibiotics is expressed in terms of spectrum of antibiotics.
Q.80 What are different types of spectrum of antibiotics? Give one example.
Answer: (i) Broad spectrum antibiotics : They kill or inhibit a wide range of gram-positive and gram-positive and gram negative bacteria e.g. Ampicillin, amoxycillin.
(ii) Narrow spectrum antibiotics: Those effective mainly against gram positive or gram-negative bacteria are narrow spectrum, e.g. Penicillin G. (iii) Limited spectrum : Antibiotics which are effective against a single organism or disease are referred to as limited spectrum.
Q.81 What are antiseptics?
Answer: Antiseptics are those chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are applied to living tissues such as wound, cuts. e.g. Furacin, soframycin.
Q.82 What are disinfectants?
Answer: Disinfectants are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms but not safe for living tissues. They are applied on floors, drainage system etc.
Q.83 What are anti fertility drugs?
Answer: Anti-fertility drugs are those drugs which control the birth of child.
Q.84 Medicines should not be taken without the recommendation of doctors, why?
Answer: Most of drugs taken in doses higher than recommended may produce harmful effects and act as poison and cause even death. Therefore a doctor must always be consulted
Q.85 Give name of two mild tranquillizers suitable for relieving tension?
Answer: before taking the drugs. (i) Chlordiazepoxide. (ii) Meprobamate.
Q.86 Give name of one substance used in controlling depression and hypertension?
Q.87 Which type of compound is present in anti-fertility?
Answer: Synthetic estrogen and progesterone derivative.
Q.88 drugs Give two names of chemicals used as anti-fertility drugs.
Answer: (i) Norethisterone (ii) Ethinylestradiol (novestrol).
Q.89 Aspirin is a good analgesic but supposed to be toxic to liver. Why?
Answer: Aspirin is a good analgesic but in the stomach it is hydrolysed to salicylic acid which is toxic to liver.
Q.90 Give name of some common drugs used as antihistamines.
Answer: Cimetidine (tegamet), ranitidine (zantac), chlorpheniramine maleate (avil), cetrizine .
Q.91 Give name of two modern antacids.
Answer: (i) Omeprazole. (ii) Lansoprazole.
Q.92 Write the application of aspirin other than analgesics and antipyretics.
Answer: Used to prevent heart attack due to its anti blood escorting action.
Q.93 Explain the term: Bactericidal and bacteriostatic.
Answer: Antibiotics which kill microbes are known as bactericidal. e.g. Penicillin, amino glycosides. Antibiotics which inhibit the effect of microbes are known as bacteriostatic e.g. Erythromycin, Tetracycline.
Q.94 Pick out the odd from amongst the following on the basis of their medicinal properties (i) Penicillin, streptomycin, aspirin, chloramphenicol (ii) Chloroxylenol, phenol, chloramphenicol, bithional (iii) Luminal, seconal, equanil, calpol.
Answer: (i) Aspirin. (ii) Chloramphenicol. (iii) Calpol.
Q.95 How does antiseptics and disinfectant differ in their use?
Answer: Antiseptics are chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are applied to the living tissues such as wounds cuts, ulcers etc. e.g. Furacin and soframycin. Disinfectants are also used for killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms. But these are not applied on tissues these are used on floors, drainage system etc. e.g. 1% solution of phenol.
Q.96 Give one example of each.
Answer: Allergic response is produced when smooth muscles in the bronchi and gut contract and relax other muscles present in the walls of fine blood vessels. Histamines are potent vasodilators. They increase acidity as well as cause allergy.
Q.97 Why aspirin should not be taken in empty stomach?
Answer: Aspirin is hydrolysed to produce salicylic acid in the stomach. In empty stomach it can damage the lining of the stomach. Therefore it should not be taken in empty stomach.
Q.98 Why is chlorine added to swimming pools?
Answer: Chlorine in the concentration 0.2 to 0.4 ppm in aqueous solution acts as disinfectant. So, in order to kill the germs it is added to swimming pools.
Q.99 What are consequences of using biodegradable detergents?
Answer: Biodegradable detergents are straight chain detergents. They get readily decomposed hence, they do not pollute water.
Q.100 While antacids and anti-allergic drugs interfere the functions of histamine. Why do not they interfere with the functions of each other?
Answer: These drugs work on different receptors and are highly specific in nature. So, they do not interfere with the function of each other.
Q.101 Sulpha drugs work like antibiotics but they are not antibiotics explain?
Answer: Sulpha drugs can kill or prevent the growth of micro organisms like antibiotics. But they are not antibiotics in the sense that these are not produced by microorganisms.
Q.102 How cimetidine controls acidity of stomach?
Answer: Cimetidine was designed to prevent the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall. This resulted in release of lesser amount of acid and acidity is controlled.
Q.103 What are analgesics? How do they differ from antipyretics?
Answer: Analgesics are the substances which are given to relieve body pains. These may be both narcotics (habit forming) and non-narcotics (not habit forming). Antipyretics are the substances used to bring body temperature in case of high fever.
Q.104 Give two examples of analgesics and antipyretics.
Answer: Analgesics :Butazolidine, Novalgin Antipyretics : Aspirin, paracetamol.
Q.105 Which substance can act both as analgesic as well as antipyretic?
Answer: Aspirin can act both as analgesic as well as antipyretic.
Q.106 Why should not aspirin be taken empty stomach?
Answer: Aspirin i.e., acetyl salicylic acid when taken empty stomach may undergo hydrolysis to give salicylic acid. The acid can cause ulcers which are quite painful and may even bleed in some cases.
Q.107 How do tranquilizers act? Give two examples.
Answer: Tranquilizers are the substances which are given to the patients suffering from anxiety and mental tension. They can act on the nervous system and reduce tension. These can even result in sleep and are the constituents of many sleeping pills. Tranquilizers are quite effective in case of patients of mental depression. Equanil and Luminal are the commonly used tranquilizers.
Q.108 What is the role of antiseptics? How do they differ from disinfectants?
Answer: Antiseptics are the chemical substances which prevent the growth of micro-organisms causing infection and also kill them. These are applied on living tissues particularly in open wounds and cuts so that bacterial infection may not take place. Antiseptics also constitute certain deodorants and breath purifier. The commonly used antiseptics are phenol, dettol, iodoform. Gentian violet and Methylene blue. Disinfectant can also behave in the same way as antiseptics. However, these are harmful to the living tissues and are therefore, used to disinfect floors, toilets instruments. etc.
Q.109 What are the constituents of dettol?
Answer: The constituents of dettol are chloroxylenol and terpineol dissolved in a suitable solvent.
Q.110 Why is bithionol added to soap?
Answer: Bithionol is added to soap to impart antiseptic properties.
Q.111 How can phenol behave both as antiseptic as well as disinfectant?
Answer: In some cases, the dilute solution of certain substances can act as antiseptics while the concentrated solutions may behave as disinfectants. For example, 0.2 percent solution of phenol is an antiseptic and nearly 1.0 percent which is more concentrated, can act as disinfectant.
Q.112 How is acidity caused? What is the role of antacids?
Answer: The acidity results because of the release of extra gastric acids which tend to decrease the pH level. This may lead to the formation of ulcers in the stomach in most of the patients. The role of the antacids is to neutralise the acidicity and raise the pH level. They may also act as buffers i.e., they may not allow the pH level to fall when extra acids are released. Liquid preparation of the antacids are normally more effective than when these are given in the solid form.
Q.113 Why is it preferable to take up antacids after meals?
Answer: Generally antacids should be taken after meals because their action is then prolonged. These should not be given along with other drugs particularly tetracycline antibiotics since they slow down their absorption by the body.
Q.114 In what way prolonged use of antacids is harmful?
Answer: Prolonged use of antacid should be avoided since it may lead to constipation.
Q.115 Pick out the odd one from the following compounds on the basis of medicinal properties Luminal, seconal, phenacetin, equanil.
Answer: Except for phenacetin which is antipyretic, all others are tranquilizers.
Q.116 Why is use of penicillin generally discouraged?
Answer: The use of penicillin is generally discouraged because these are not broad spectrum in nature and may also cause allergic reactions in many patients.
Q.117 Soap is a generally weak antiseptic. What substances can be added to soap to improve its antiseptic action?
Answer: Bithionol can be added to soap to improve antiseptic action.
Q.118 What is antibiotic? Give the name of the first antibiotic discovered.
Answer: Antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, moulds) that can inhibit the growth or even destroy other micro-organisms which cause disease. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1929.
Q.119 Sulpha drugs work like antibiotics but they are not antibiotics. Is this a valid statement and why?
Answer: This is a valid statement since sulpha drugs like antibiotics kill microorganisms. However, sulpha drugs are purely synthetic but antibiotics may be either wholly or partially obtained from microorganisms. For example, penicillin is wholly obtained from microorganisms while amoxycillin and ampicillin are semi-synthetic.
Q.120 Pick out the odd ones from among the following compounds on the basis of their medicinal properties. (i) Luminal, seconal, phenacetin, equanil (ii) Chloroxylenol, phenol, chloramphenicol, bithional.
Answer: (i) Phenacetin is an antipyretic while the remaining three are tranquillisers. (ii) Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic while the remaining three are antiseptics.