Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC

UPSC: Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC

The document Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Economic Survey 2021.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
 Page 1


CHAPTER
06
Sustainable Development and 
Climate Change
¬ loZsHkoUrqlqf•u%A loZs lUrq fujke;k%A
loZs Hkækf.k i';UrqA ekdfpr~ nqq%• HkkXHkosRk~AA
May all be happy; May all be without disease;
May all have well-being; May none have misery of any sort
— (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14)
The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 Sustainable Development Goals 
(SDGs) and 169 associated targets encompasses a comprehensive developmental agenda 
integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Several initiatives have 
been taken at both the national and the sub national level to mainstream the SDGs into 
the policies, schemes and programmes of the Government. India has been taking several 
proactive climate actions to fulfill its obligations as per the principles of common but 
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity. As mandated in the 
UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, the climate actions of the developing countries would 
have to be supported by finance flows from the developed to the developing countries. The 
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted by the country has been formulated 
keeping in mind the developmental imperatives of the country and is on a “best effort basis”. 
In its NDC, India has sought to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per 
cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030; achieve 40 per cent of cumulative electric power 
installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030; and enhance forest and tree cover to 
create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030. 
W e need to strive for equity across nations and within a nation, and equity across and within 
the generations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the iniquitous impact of the consequent 
lockdown reemphasizes the fact that sustainable development is the only way forward. 
INTRODUCTION
6.1	 As 	 the 	 official 	 adoption	 of 	 SDGs reached 	 its 	 4
th
	 anniversary ,	 W orld 	 Health 	 Or ganization	
declared 	 the 	 outbreak 	 of 	 the 	 coronavirus 	 disease 	 2019 	 (COVID-19), 	 on 	 30
th
	 January 	 2020. 	 The	
resultant 	 public 	 health 	 emer gency , 	 which 	 was 	 later 	 pronounced 	 to 	 be 	 a 	 pandemic, 	 has 	 led 	 to	
considerable 	 human 	 and 	 economic 	 costs 	 setting 	 countries 	 back 	 on 	 their 	 developmental 	 goals 	 and	
creating 	 serious 	 impediments 	 to 	 the 	 attainment 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs.	
6.2	 The 	 year 	 2020	 was	 supposed 	 to 	 be 	 the 	 year 	 by	 which 	 developed	 country	 Parties 	 were 	 to 	
fulfill 	 the 	 goal 	 of 	 jointly 	 mobilizing 	 US$ 	 100	 billion 	 a 	 year 	 for 	 climate 	 finance, 	 an 	 essential 	
component 	 of 	 the 	 commitments	 made 	 by	 the 	 developed	 countries, 	 which 	 has 	 remained 	 elusive. 	
The	 postponement 	 of 	 COP 	 26	 to 	 2021	 also 	 gives 	 less	 time 	 for 	 negotiations 	 and 	 other	 evidence-
based 	work 	to 	inform 	the 	post-2025	goal. 	
Page 2


CHAPTER
06
Sustainable Development and 
Climate Change
¬ loZsHkoUrqlqf•u%A loZs lUrq fujke;k%A
loZs Hkækf.k i';UrqA ekdfpr~ nqq%• HkkXHkosRk~AA
May all be happy; May all be without disease;
May all have well-being; May none have misery of any sort
— (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14)
The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 Sustainable Development Goals 
(SDGs) and 169 associated targets encompasses a comprehensive developmental agenda 
integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Several initiatives have 
been taken at both the national and the sub national level to mainstream the SDGs into 
the policies, schemes and programmes of the Government. India has been taking several 
proactive climate actions to fulfill its obligations as per the principles of common but 
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity. As mandated in the 
UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, the climate actions of the developing countries would 
have to be supported by finance flows from the developed to the developing countries. The 
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted by the country has been formulated 
keeping in mind the developmental imperatives of the country and is on a “best effort basis”. 
In its NDC, India has sought to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per 
cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030; achieve 40 per cent of cumulative electric power 
installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030; and enhance forest and tree cover to 
create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030. 
W e need to strive for equity across nations and within a nation, and equity across and within 
the generations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the iniquitous impact of the consequent 
lockdown reemphasizes the fact that sustainable development is the only way forward. 
INTRODUCTION
6.1	 As 	 the 	 official 	 adoption	 of 	 SDGs reached 	 its 	 4
th
	 anniversary ,	 W orld 	 Health 	 Or ganization	
declared 	 the 	 outbreak 	 of 	 the 	 coronavirus 	 disease 	 2019 	 (COVID-19), 	 on 	 30
th
	 January 	 2020. 	 The	
resultant 	 public 	 health 	 emer gency , 	 which 	 was 	 later 	 pronounced 	 to 	 be 	 a 	 pandemic, 	 has 	 led 	 to	
considerable 	 human 	 and 	 economic 	 costs 	 setting 	 countries 	 back 	 on 	 their 	 developmental 	 goals 	 and	
creating 	 serious 	 impediments 	 to 	 the 	 attainment 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs.	
6.2	 The 	 year 	 2020	 was	 supposed 	 to 	 be 	 the 	 year 	 by	 which 	 developed	 country	 Parties 	 were 	 to 	
fulfill 	 the 	 goal 	 of 	 jointly 	 mobilizing 	 US$ 	 100	 billion 	 a 	 year 	 for 	 climate 	 finance, 	 an 	 essential 	
component 	 of 	 the 	 commitments	 made 	 by	 the 	 developed	 countries, 	 which 	 has 	 remained 	 elusive. 	
The	 postponement 	 of 	 COP 	 26	 to 	 2021	 also 	 gives 	 less	 time 	 for 	 negotiations 	 and 	 other	 evidence-
based 	work 	to 	inform 	the 	post-2025	goal. 	
205 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
6.3	 India 	 is 	 no	 exception 	 to 	 the 	 unprecedented 	 crisis 	 unleashed 	 by	 the 	 pandemic. 	 It 	 is 	 faced	
with	 remarkab le 	 challenges 	 emer ging 	 from 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 provide	 substantive	 economic 	 stimulus, 	
address	 livelihood 	 losses, 	 introduce 	 and 	 implement 	 wide 	 ranging	 economic 	 reforms. 	 The	 need 	
to	develop 	sustainably , 	however , 	remains 	at 	the 	core 	of 	the 	country’ s 	development 	strategy .
INDIA AND THE SDGs
6.4	 India 	 has 	 taken 	 several 	 proactive 	 steps 	 at 	 both 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 the 	 sub 	 national 	 level 	 to	
mainstream 	 the 	 SDGs 	 into 	 the 	 policies, 	 schemes 	 and 	 programmes 	 of 	 the 	 Government. 	 In 	 2020,	
the 	 highlight 	 of 	 India’ s 	 SDG 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 the 	V oluntary 	 National 	 Review 	 (VNR) 	 presented	
to 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 High-Level 	 Political 	 Forum 	 (HLPF) 	 on 	 Sustainable 	 Development 	 which 	 is	
the 	 highest 	 international 	 platform 	 for 	 review 	 and 	 follow-up 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs 	 under 	 the 	 auspices 	 of 	 the	
United 	 Nations 	 Economic 	 and 	 Social 	 Council. 	 The 	 reviews 	 are 	 voluntary 	 and 	 country 	 -led 	 and	
are 	 aimed 	 at 	 facilitating 	 the 	 sharing 	 of 	 experiences, 	 including 	 successes, 	 challenges 	 and 	 lessons	
learned. 	 NITI 	 Aayog 	 presented 	 India’ s 	 second 	VNR 	 to 	 the 	 HLPF 	 in 	 July 	 2020, 	 which 	 highlighted	
the 	 country’ s 	 accomplishments 	 and 	 the 	 way 	 forward 	 on 	 its 	 journey 	 towards 	 achieving 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 In	
addition 	 to 	 the 	 progress 	 achieved 	 in 	 various 	 sectors, 	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 also 	 presented 	 the 	 Indian 	 model	
of 	 SDG 	 localisation, 	 perspectives 	 from 	 various 	 stakeholder 	 consultations, 	 strategies 	 of 	 integrating	
businesses 	 with 	 the 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 ways 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the 	 means 	 of 	 implementation.
6.5	 Consultations 	 with 	 over 	 1000	 Civil 	 Society	 Or ganisations 	 (CSOs)	 have 	 been 	 the 	 cornerstone	
of	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 preparation 	 process. 	 The 	 consultations 	 involved	 fourteen 	 specific 	 groups 	
(Figure	 1). 	 The	 focus 	 of 	 the 	 consultations 	 was	 the 	 principle 	 of 	 “Leaving 	 No 	 One 	 Behind”, 	 which 	
lies 	at	the 	heart 	of 	SDGs. 	
Figure 1: Stakeholder Consultations Process
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.6	 These 	 stakeholder 	 consultations 	 provided	 a 	 platform 	 for 	 engagement 	 and 	 feedback 	
on	 India’ s 	 progress 	 towards 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 This 	 platform 	 was	 widely 	 acknowledged 	 among 	 the 	
participants 	 as 	 a 	 conduit	 for 	 institutionalised	 dialogue. 	 For 	 state 	 and 	 market 	 action 	 to 	 keep 	 up	
Page 3


CHAPTER
06
Sustainable Development and 
Climate Change
¬ loZsHkoUrqlqf•u%A loZs lUrq fujke;k%A
loZs Hkækf.k i';UrqA ekdfpr~ nqq%• HkkXHkosRk~AA
May all be happy; May all be without disease;
May all have well-being; May none have misery of any sort
— (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14)
The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 Sustainable Development Goals 
(SDGs) and 169 associated targets encompasses a comprehensive developmental agenda 
integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Several initiatives have 
been taken at both the national and the sub national level to mainstream the SDGs into 
the policies, schemes and programmes of the Government. India has been taking several 
proactive climate actions to fulfill its obligations as per the principles of common but 
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity. As mandated in the 
UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, the climate actions of the developing countries would 
have to be supported by finance flows from the developed to the developing countries. The 
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted by the country has been formulated 
keeping in mind the developmental imperatives of the country and is on a “best effort basis”. 
In its NDC, India has sought to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per 
cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030; achieve 40 per cent of cumulative electric power 
installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030; and enhance forest and tree cover to 
create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030. 
W e need to strive for equity across nations and within a nation, and equity across and within 
the generations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the iniquitous impact of the consequent 
lockdown reemphasizes the fact that sustainable development is the only way forward. 
INTRODUCTION
6.1	 As 	 the 	 official 	 adoption	 of 	 SDGs reached 	 its 	 4
th
	 anniversary ,	 W orld 	 Health 	 Or ganization	
declared 	 the 	 outbreak 	 of 	 the 	 coronavirus 	 disease 	 2019 	 (COVID-19), 	 on 	 30
th
	 January 	 2020. 	 The	
resultant 	 public 	 health 	 emer gency , 	 which 	 was 	 later 	 pronounced 	 to 	 be 	 a 	 pandemic, 	 has 	 led 	 to	
considerable 	 human 	 and 	 economic 	 costs 	 setting 	 countries 	 back 	 on 	 their 	 developmental 	 goals 	 and	
creating 	 serious 	 impediments 	 to 	 the 	 attainment 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs.	
6.2	 The 	 year 	 2020	 was	 supposed 	 to 	 be 	 the 	 year 	 by	 which 	 developed	 country	 Parties 	 were 	 to 	
fulfill 	 the 	 goal 	 of 	 jointly 	 mobilizing 	 US$ 	 100	 billion 	 a 	 year 	 for 	 climate 	 finance, 	 an 	 essential 	
component 	 of 	 the 	 commitments	 made 	 by	 the 	 developed	 countries, 	 which 	 has 	 remained 	 elusive. 	
The	 postponement 	 of 	 COP 	 26	 to 	 2021	 also 	 gives 	 less	 time 	 for 	 negotiations 	 and 	 other	 evidence-
based 	work 	to 	inform 	the 	post-2025	goal. 	
205 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
6.3	 India 	 is 	 no	 exception 	 to 	 the 	 unprecedented 	 crisis 	 unleashed 	 by	 the 	 pandemic. 	 It 	 is 	 faced	
with	 remarkab le 	 challenges 	 emer ging 	 from 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 provide	 substantive	 economic 	 stimulus, 	
address	 livelihood 	 losses, 	 introduce 	 and 	 implement 	 wide 	 ranging	 economic 	 reforms. 	 The	 need 	
to	develop 	sustainably , 	however , 	remains 	at 	the 	core 	of 	the 	country’ s 	development 	strategy .
INDIA AND THE SDGs
6.4	 India 	 has 	 taken 	 several 	 proactive 	 steps 	 at 	 both 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 the 	 sub 	 national 	 level 	 to	
mainstream 	 the 	 SDGs 	 into 	 the 	 policies, 	 schemes 	 and 	 programmes 	 of 	 the 	 Government. 	 In 	 2020,	
the 	 highlight 	 of 	 India’ s 	 SDG 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 the 	V oluntary 	 National 	 Review 	 (VNR) 	 presented	
to 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 High-Level 	 Political 	 Forum 	 (HLPF) 	 on 	 Sustainable 	 Development 	 which 	 is	
the 	 highest 	 international 	 platform 	 for 	 review 	 and 	 follow-up 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs 	 under 	 the 	 auspices 	 of 	 the	
United 	 Nations 	 Economic 	 and 	 Social 	 Council. 	 The 	 reviews 	 are 	 voluntary 	 and 	 country 	 -led 	 and	
are 	 aimed 	 at 	 facilitating 	 the 	 sharing 	 of 	 experiences, 	 including 	 successes, 	 challenges 	 and 	 lessons	
learned. 	 NITI 	 Aayog 	 presented 	 India’ s 	 second 	VNR 	 to 	 the 	 HLPF 	 in 	 July 	 2020, 	 which 	 highlighted	
the 	 country’ s 	 accomplishments 	 and 	 the 	 way 	 forward 	 on 	 its 	 journey 	 towards 	 achieving 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 In	
addition 	 to 	 the 	 progress 	 achieved 	 in 	 various 	 sectors, 	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 also 	 presented 	 the 	 Indian 	 model	
of 	 SDG 	 localisation, 	 perspectives 	 from 	 various 	 stakeholder 	 consultations, 	 strategies 	 of 	 integrating	
businesses 	 with 	 the 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 ways 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the 	 means 	 of 	 implementation.
6.5	 Consultations 	 with 	 over 	 1000	 Civil 	 Society	 Or ganisations 	 (CSOs)	 have 	 been 	 the 	 cornerstone	
of	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 preparation 	 process. 	 The 	 consultations 	 involved	 fourteen 	 specific 	 groups 	
(Figure	 1). 	 The	 focus 	 of 	 the 	 consultations 	 was	 the 	 principle 	 of 	 “Leaving 	 No 	 One 	 Behind”, 	 which 	
lies 	at	the 	heart 	of 	SDGs. 	
Figure 1: Stakeholder Consultations Process
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.6	 These 	 stakeholder 	 consultations 	 provided	 a 	 platform 	 for 	 engagement 	 and 	 feedback 	
on	 India’ s 	 progress 	 towards 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 This 	 platform 	 was	 widely 	 acknowledged 	 among 	 the 	
participants 	 as 	 a 	 conduit	 for 	 institutionalised	 dialogue. 	 For 	 state 	 and 	 market 	 action 	 to 	 keep 	 up	
206 Economic Survey 2020-21   V olume 1
with	 the	 myriad 	 manifesta tions 	 of 	 these	 challenges, 	 the 	 nature 	 of 	 engagement 	 will 	 have 	 to 	 be 	
adaptive, 	iterative 	and 	based 	on	feedback, 	which 	institutionalised 	dialogue 	can 	provide.
6.7	 The 	 preparation 	 of 	 the 	 VNR 	 also 	 provided 	 an 	 excellent 	 opportunity 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the	
engagement 	 with 	 the 	 private 	 sector 	 on 	 SDGs. 	 In 	 the 	 recent 	 past, 	 private 	 sector 	 spending 	 under	
Corporate 	 Social 	 Responsibility 	 (CSR) 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 a 	 major 	 avenue 	 for 	 private 	 sector	
involvement 	 in 	 the 	 SDG 	 framework. 	 The 	 VNR 	 process 	 enhanced 	 the 	 uptake 	 in 	 adoption 	 of 	 business	
responsibility 	 and 	 sustainability 	 frameworks 	 and 	 created 	 greater 	 consciousness 	 among 	 industry	
leaders 	for 	the 	same. 	 This 	 is 	 echoed 	 in 	 the 	 ‘Report 	of 	 the 	 Committee 	 on 	 Business 	Responsibility	
Reporting’ 	 which 	 was 	 released 	 in 	 2020. 	 Business 	 Responsibility 	 and 	 Sustainability 	 Report	
(BRSR) 	 frameworks 	 outlined 	 in 	 this 	 report 	 emanate 	 from 	 the 	 National 	 Guidelines 	 on 	 Responsible	
Business 	 Conduct 	 (NGRBC) 	 which 	 are 	 aligned 	 to 	 the 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 Guiding	
Principles 	 on 	 Business 	 & 	 Human 	 Rights 	 (UNGPs). 	 BRSR 	 formats 	 incorporate 	 the 	 growing	
salience 	 of 	 non-financial 	 disclosures 	 along 	 with 	 the 	 annual 	 financial 	 disclosures 	 ensuring 	 the	
recognition 	 of 	 environmental 	 and 	 social 	 responsibilities.
Localization of the SDGs
6.8	 Localisation 	 of 	 SDGs 	 is 	 crucial 	 to 	 any 	 strategy 	 aimed 	 at 	 achieving 	 the 	 goals 	 under 	 the 	 2030	
Agenda. 	 Essentially , 	 localis ing 	 SDGs 	 involves 	 the 	 process 	 of 	 adapting, 	 planning,	 implementing 	
and	 monitoring 	 the 	 SDGs 	 from 	 national 	 to 	 local 	 levels 	 by	 relevant 	 institutions 	 and 	 stakeholders. 	
In	 terms 	 of 	 engagement 	 and 	 collaboration 	 of 	 institutions, 	 it 	 is 	 consequential 	 how 	 the 	 Centre, 	
State 	 and 	 Local 	 Governments 	 work	 together 	 to 	 achiev e 	 the 	 SDGs 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 level; 	 and 	 how 	
SDGs	 provide 	 a 	 framework 	 for 	 subnational 	 and 	 local 	 policy ,	 planning	 and 	 action 	 for 	 realisation 	
of	 the	 SDG 	 tar gets 	 at 	 local 	 levels. 	 T o 	 accelerate 	 SDG	 achievements, 	 the 	 country 	 has 	 adopted 	 the 	
approach 	 of 	 cooperative	 and 	 competitive 	 federalism 	 which 	 is 	 based 	 on	 Centre-State 	 collaboration 	
in	 natio n 	 building 	 and 	 heal thy 	 competition 	 among 	 the 	 States 	 in 	 various 	 development 	 outcomes. 	
The	 SDG 	 India	 Index 	 and 	 Dashboard, 	 designed	 and 	 developed	 by	 NITI 	 Aayog, 	 is 	 the 	 principal	
tool 	 to	 measure 	 and 	 monitor 	 SDG	 performance 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 sub-national 	 levels. 	 The	
states	 are 	 institutionally 	 empowered	 and 	 positioned 	 to 	 achieve 	 the 	 SDGs 	 with 	 the 	 support	 of 	 the 	
Central	 Government 	 and 	 allied 	 institutions. 	 Hence, 	 the 	 States 	 are 	 the 	 key 	 actors 	 in 	 the 	 process 	
of 	localisation 	of 	SDGs 	with 	the 	Central 	Government 	playing	an 	enabling 	role.
Figure 2: SDG Localisation
A. From Global to Local to Meet the Goals
Mapping of SDG targets to schemes/
programmes/policies
Coordination with central ministries
Coordination with State Planning
Departments
National level 
leadership
National level 
leadership
Developing monitoring framework and 
capacities
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
Page 4


CHAPTER
06
Sustainable Development and 
Climate Change
¬ loZsHkoUrqlqf•u%A loZs lUrq fujke;k%A
loZs Hkækf.k i';UrqA ekdfpr~ nqq%• HkkXHkosRk~AA
May all be happy; May all be without disease;
May all have well-being; May none have misery of any sort
— (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14)
The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 Sustainable Development Goals 
(SDGs) and 169 associated targets encompasses a comprehensive developmental agenda 
integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Several initiatives have 
been taken at both the national and the sub national level to mainstream the SDGs into 
the policies, schemes and programmes of the Government. India has been taking several 
proactive climate actions to fulfill its obligations as per the principles of common but 
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity. As mandated in the 
UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, the climate actions of the developing countries would 
have to be supported by finance flows from the developed to the developing countries. The 
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted by the country has been formulated 
keeping in mind the developmental imperatives of the country and is on a “best effort basis”. 
In its NDC, India has sought to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per 
cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030; achieve 40 per cent of cumulative electric power 
installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030; and enhance forest and tree cover to 
create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030. 
W e need to strive for equity across nations and within a nation, and equity across and within 
the generations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the iniquitous impact of the consequent 
lockdown reemphasizes the fact that sustainable development is the only way forward. 
INTRODUCTION
6.1	 As 	 the 	 official 	 adoption	 of 	 SDGs reached 	 its 	 4
th
	 anniversary ,	 W orld 	 Health 	 Or ganization	
declared 	 the 	 outbreak 	 of 	 the 	 coronavirus 	 disease 	 2019 	 (COVID-19), 	 on 	 30
th
	 January 	 2020. 	 The	
resultant 	 public 	 health 	 emer gency , 	 which 	 was 	 later 	 pronounced 	 to 	 be 	 a 	 pandemic, 	 has 	 led 	 to	
considerable 	 human 	 and 	 economic 	 costs 	 setting 	 countries 	 back 	 on 	 their 	 developmental 	 goals 	 and	
creating 	 serious 	 impediments 	 to 	 the 	 attainment 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs.	
6.2	 The 	 year 	 2020	 was	 supposed 	 to 	 be 	 the 	 year 	 by	 which 	 developed	 country	 Parties 	 were 	 to 	
fulfill 	 the 	 goal 	 of 	 jointly 	 mobilizing 	 US$ 	 100	 billion 	 a 	 year 	 for 	 climate 	 finance, 	 an 	 essential 	
component 	 of 	 the 	 commitments	 made 	 by	 the 	 developed	 countries, 	 which 	 has 	 remained 	 elusive. 	
The	 postponement 	 of 	 COP 	 26	 to 	 2021	 also 	 gives 	 less	 time 	 for 	 negotiations 	 and 	 other	 evidence-
based 	work 	to 	inform 	the 	post-2025	goal. 	
205 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
6.3	 India 	 is 	 no	 exception 	 to 	 the 	 unprecedented 	 crisis 	 unleashed 	 by	 the 	 pandemic. 	 It 	 is 	 faced	
with	 remarkab le 	 challenges 	 emer ging 	 from 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 provide	 substantive	 economic 	 stimulus, 	
address	 livelihood 	 losses, 	 introduce 	 and 	 implement 	 wide 	 ranging	 economic 	 reforms. 	 The	 need 	
to	develop 	sustainably , 	however , 	remains 	at 	the 	core 	of 	the 	country’ s 	development 	strategy .
INDIA AND THE SDGs
6.4	 India 	 has 	 taken 	 several 	 proactive 	 steps 	 at 	 both 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 the 	 sub 	 national 	 level 	 to	
mainstream 	 the 	 SDGs 	 into 	 the 	 policies, 	 schemes 	 and 	 programmes 	 of 	 the 	 Government. 	 In 	 2020,	
the 	 highlight 	 of 	 India’ s 	 SDG 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 the 	V oluntary 	 National 	 Review 	 (VNR) 	 presented	
to 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 High-Level 	 Political 	 Forum 	 (HLPF) 	 on 	 Sustainable 	 Development 	 which 	 is	
the 	 highest 	 international 	 platform 	 for 	 review 	 and 	 follow-up 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs 	 under 	 the 	 auspices 	 of 	 the	
United 	 Nations 	 Economic 	 and 	 Social 	 Council. 	 The 	 reviews 	 are 	 voluntary 	 and 	 country 	 -led 	 and	
are 	 aimed 	 at 	 facilitating 	 the 	 sharing 	 of 	 experiences, 	 including 	 successes, 	 challenges 	 and 	 lessons	
learned. 	 NITI 	 Aayog 	 presented 	 India’ s 	 second 	VNR 	 to 	 the 	 HLPF 	 in 	 July 	 2020, 	 which 	 highlighted	
the 	 country’ s 	 accomplishments 	 and 	 the 	 way 	 forward 	 on 	 its 	 journey 	 towards 	 achieving 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 In	
addition 	 to 	 the 	 progress 	 achieved 	 in 	 various 	 sectors, 	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 also 	 presented 	 the 	 Indian 	 model	
of 	 SDG 	 localisation, 	 perspectives 	 from 	 various 	 stakeholder 	 consultations, 	 strategies 	 of 	 integrating	
businesses 	 with 	 the 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 ways 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the 	 means 	 of 	 implementation.
6.5	 Consultations 	 with 	 over 	 1000	 Civil 	 Society	 Or ganisations 	 (CSOs)	 have 	 been 	 the 	 cornerstone	
of	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 preparation 	 process. 	 The 	 consultations 	 involved	 fourteen 	 specific 	 groups 	
(Figure	 1). 	 The	 focus 	 of 	 the 	 consultations 	 was	 the 	 principle 	 of 	 “Leaving 	 No 	 One 	 Behind”, 	 which 	
lies 	at	the 	heart 	of 	SDGs. 	
Figure 1: Stakeholder Consultations Process
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.6	 These 	 stakeholder 	 consultations 	 provided	 a 	 platform 	 for 	 engagement 	 and 	 feedback 	
on	 India’ s 	 progress 	 towards 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 This 	 platform 	 was	 widely 	 acknowledged 	 among 	 the 	
participants 	 as 	 a 	 conduit	 for 	 institutionalised	 dialogue. 	 For 	 state 	 and 	 market 	 action 	 to 	 keep 	 up	
206 Economic Survey 2020-21   V olume 1
with	 the	 myriad 	 manifesta tions 	 of 	 these	 challenges, 	 the 	 nature 	 of 	 engagement 	 will 	 have 	 to 	 be 	
adaptive, 	iterative 	and 	based 	on	feedback, 	which 	institutionalised 	dialogue 	can 	provide.
6.7	 The 	 preparation 	 of 	 the 	 VNR 	 also 	 provided 	 an 	 excellent 	 opportunity 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the	
engagement 	 with 	 the 	 private 	 sector 	 on 	 SDGs. 	 In 	 the 	 recent 	 past, 	 private 	 sector 	 spending 	 under	
Corporate 	 Social 	 Responsibility 	 (CSR) 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 a 	 major 	 avenue 	 for 	 private 	 sector	
involvement 	 in 	 the 	 SDG 	 framework. 	 The 	 VNR 	 process 	 enhanced 	 the 	 uptake 	 in 	 adoption 	 of 	 business	
responsibility 	 and 	 sustainability 	 frameworks 	 and 	 created 	 greater 	 consciousness 	 among 	 industry	
leaders 	for 	the 	same. 	 This 	 is 	 echoed 	 in 	 the 	 ‘Report 	of 	 the 	 Committee 	 on 	 Business 	Responsibility	
Reporting’ 	 which 	 was 	 released 	 in 	 2020. 	 Business 	 Responsibility 	 and 	 Sustainability 	 Report	
(BRSR) 	 frameworks 	 outlined 	 in 	 this 	 report 	 emanate 	 from 	 the 	 National 	 Guidelines 	 on 	 Responsible	
Business 	 Conduct 	 (NGRBC) 	 which 	 are 	 aligned 	 to 	 the 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 Guiding	
Principles 	 on 	 Business 	 & 	 Human 	 Rights 	 (UNGPs). 	 BRSR 	 formats 	 incorporate 	 the 	 growing	
salience 	 of 	 non-financial 	 disclosures 	 along 	 with 	 the 	 annual 	 financial 	 disclosures 	 ensuring 	 the	
recognition 	 of 	 environmental 	 and 	 social 	 responsibilities.
Localization of the SDGs
6.8	 Localisation 	 of 	 SDGs 	 is 	 crucial 	 to 	 any 	 strategy 	 aimed 	 at 	 achieving 	 the 	 goals 	 under 	 the 	 2030	
Agenda. 	 Essentially , 	 localis ing 	 SDGs 	 involves 	 the 	 process 	 of 	 adapting, 	 planning,	 implementing 	
and	 monitoring 	 the 	 SDGs 	 from 	 national 	 to 	 local 	 levels 	 by	 relevant 	 institutions 	 and 	 stakeholders. 	
In	 terms 	 of 	 engagement 	 and 	 collaboration 	 of 	 institutions, 	 it 	 is 	 consequential 	 how 	 the 	 Centre, 	
State 	 and 	 Local 	 Governments 	 work	 together 	 to 	 achiev e 	 the 	 SDGs 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 level; 	 and 	 how 	
SDGs	 provide 	 a 	 framework 	 for 	 subnational 	 and 	 local 	 policy ,	 planning	 and 	 action 	 for 	 realisation 	
of	 the	 SDG 	 tar gets 	 at 	 local 	 levels. 	 T o 	 accelerate 	 SDG	 achievements, 	 the 	 country 	 has 	 adopted 	 the 	
approach 	 of 	 cooperative	 and 	 competitive 	 federalism 	 which 	 is 	 based 	 on	 Centre-State 	 collaboration 	
in	 natio n 	 building 	 and 	 heal thy 	 competition 	 among 	 the 	 States 	 in 	 various 	 development 	 outcomes. 	
The	 SDG 	 India	 Index 	 and 	 Dashboard, 	 designed	 and 	 developed	 by	 NITI 	 Aayog, 	 is 	 the 	 principal	
tool 	 to	 measure 	 and 	 monitor 	 SDG	 performance 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 sub-national 	 levels. 	 The	
states	 are 	 institutionally 	 empowered	 and 	 positioned 	 to 	 achieve 	 the 	 SDGs 	 with 	 the 	 support	 of 	 the 	
Central	 Government 	 and 	 allied 	 institutions. 	 Hence, 	 the 	 States 	 are 	 the 	 key 	 actors 	 in 	 the 	 process 	
of 	localisation 	of 	SDGs 	with 	the 	Central 	Government 	playing	an 	enabling 	role.
Figure 2: SDG Localisation
A. From Global to Local to Meet the Goals
Mapping of SDG targets to schemes/
programmes/policies
Coordination with central ministries
Coordination with State Planning
Departments
National level 
leadership
National level 
leadership
Developing monitoring framework and 
capacities
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
207 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
B. handholding St at es / UT s 	 t hrough	pl anni ng	Depa rt m ent s
• SDG Vision 
d o cu m en t/	
roadmap for the 
state (23 
states/UT s)
• Mapping of 
targets with 
relevant 
departments (25 
states/UT s)	
• Coordinate with 
departments and 
districts.
• SDG 	 Cells	 /	
Coordination 
centers
• Linking of 
Budget with 
SDGs (16 
States/UT s)
• Periodic SDG 
reviews
• Capacity building 
of state and 
district level 
officials (23 
States/UT s)
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.9	 States 	 and 	 UT s 	 have 	 created 	 discrete 	 institutional 	 structures 	 for 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs	
in 	 their 	 own 	 specific 	 contexts. 	 Several 	 states 	 have 	 also 	 created 	 nodal 	 mechanisms 	 within 	 every	
department 	 and 	 at 	 the 	 district 	 levels 	 to 	 make 	 coordination, 	 conver gence 	 and 	 data 	 management	
more 	 precise 	 and 	 predictable. 	 Figure 	 2?(A 	 and 	 B) 	 shows 	 the 	 institutional 	 set 	 up 	 for 	 SDG	
localisation.
SDG related intervention of the Centre Governments during the pandemic 
6.10	 The 	 COVID-19 	 pandemic 	 has, 	 further , 	 underscored 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 keep 	 sustainable	
development 	 at 	 the 	 very 	 core 	 of 	 any 	 development 	 strategy . 	 The 	 pandemic 	 has 	 challenged	
the 	 health 	 infrastructure, 	 adversely 	 impacted 	 livelihoods 	 and 	 exacerbated 	 the 	 inequality 	 in	
the 	 food 	 and 	 nutritional 	 availability 	 in 	 the 	 country . 	 This 	 has 	 reemphasized 	 the 	 criticality 	 of	
having 	 institutions 	 and 	 mechanisms 	 that 	 can 	 facilitate 	 the 	 country 	 to 	 absorb 	 exogenous 	 shocks	
well. 	 The 	 period 	 of 	 the 	 pandemic 	 has 	 seen 	 coordinated 	 ef forts 	 of 	 both 	 the 	 Centre 	 and 	 the	
State 	 Governments 	 in 	 preserving 	 and 	 creating 	 livelihoods, 	 ensuring 	 that 	 food 	 and 	 nutritional	
requirements 	 are 	 met 	 and 	 that 	 the 	 health 	 facilities 	 are 	 augmented 	 to 	 cope 	 with 	 the 	 pressure	
c r e a t e d 	 b y 	 t h e 	 c o n t a g i o n . 	 Initiatives	 addressed 	 the 	 immediate 	 impact 	 of 	 COVID-19 	 pandemic 	
and 	 enabled 	 the 	 country	 to 	 progress 	 on	 its 	 SDGs 	 even 	 in 	 these	 very 	 difficult 	 times. 	 In 	 addition 	
several	 reforms 	 measures 	 have 	 been 	 brought 	 in 	 such 	 as 	 in 	 agricultural	 labour	 and 	 MSME	 reforms	
which	 will 	 directly	 or 	 indirectly 	 impact 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 The 	 State	 Governments 	 also 	 responded	 with 	
several	 measures 	 to 	 support	 those 	 af fected 	 by	 the 	 pandemic 	 through 	 various 	 initiatives 	 and 	
reliefs	to 	fight 	this	pandemic. 	
CLIMATE CHANGE
6.1 1	 India 	 has 	 been 	 taking	 several 	 proactive 	 climate 	 actions 	 to 	 fulfil 	 its	 obligations	 as 	 per 	 the 	
principles 	 of 	 common	 but 	 dif ferentiated 	 responsibiliti es	 and 	 respective 	 capabilities	 and 	 equity .	
The 	 Nationall y 	 Determined 	 Contribution 	 (NDC) 	 submitted	 by	 the 	 country	 has 	 been 	 formulated 	
keeping	 i n 	 mind 	 the 	 developmental 	 imperatives 	 of 	 the 	 country	 and 	 is 	 on	 a 	 “best	 ef fort 	 basis”. 	
In	 its	 NDC, 	 India	 has 	 sought 	 t o 	 reduce 	 the 	 emissions	 intensity	 o f 	 its	 GDP 	 by	 33	 t o 	 35	 per 	 cent 	
Page 5


CHAPTER
06
Sustainable Development and 
Climate Change
¬ loZsHkoUrqlqf•u%A loZs lUrq fujke;k%A
loZs Hkækf.k i';UrqA ekdfpr~ nqq%• HkkXHkosRk~AA
May all be happy; May all be without disease;
May all have well-being; May none have misery of any sort
— (Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.14)
The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development with 17 Sustainable Development Goals 
(SDGs) and 169 associated targets encompasses a comprehensive developmental agenda 
integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Several initiatives have 
been taken at both the national and the sub national level to mainstream the SDGs into 
the policies, schemes and programmes of the Government. India has been taking several 
proactive climate actions to fulfill its obligations as per the principles of common but 
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and equity. As mandated in the 
UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, the climate actions of the developing countries would 
have to be supported by finance flows from the developed to the developing countries. The 
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted by the country has been formulated 
keeping in mind the developmental imperatives of the country and is on a “best effort basis”. 
In its NDC, India has sought to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per 
cent below 2005 levels by the year 2030; achieve 40 per cent of cumulative electric power 
installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030; and enhance forest and tree cover to 
create additional carbon sink equivalent to 2.5 to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030. 
W e need to strive for equity across nations and within a nation, and equity across and within 
the generations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the iniquitous impact of the consequent 
lockdown reemphasizes the fact that sustainable development is the only way forward. 
INTRODUCTION
6.1	 As 	 the 	 official 	 adoption	 of 	 SDGs reached 	 its 	 4
th
	 anniversary ,	 W orld 	 Health 	 Or ganization	
declared 	 the 	 outbreak 	 of 	 the 	 coronavirus 	 disease 	 2019 	 (COVID-19), 	 on 	 30
th
	 January 	 2020. 	 The	
resultant 	 public 	 health 	 emer gency , 	 which 	 was 	 later 	 pronounced 	 to 	 be 	 a 	 pandemic, 	 has 	 led 	 to	
considerable 	 human 	 and 	 economic 	 costs 	 setting 	 countries 	 back 	 on 	 their 	 developmental 	 goals 	 and	
creating 	 serious 	 impediments 	 to 	 the 	 attainment 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs.	
6.2	 The 	 year 	 2020	 was	 supposed 	 to 	 be 	 the 	 year 	 by	 which 	 developed	 country	 Parties 	 were 	 to 	
fulfill 	 the 	 goal 	 of 	 jointly 	 mobilizing 	 US$ 	 100	 billion 	 a 	 year 	 for 	 climate 	 finance, 	 an 	 essential 	
component 	 of 	 the 	 commitments	 made 	 by	 the 	 developed	 countries, 	 which 	 has 	 remained 	 elusive. 	
The	 postponement 	 of 	 COP 	 26	 to 	 2021	 also 	 gives 	 less	 time 	 for 	 negotiations 	 and 	 other	 evidence-
based 	work 	to 	inform 	the 	post-2025	goal. 	
205 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
6.3	 India 	 is 	 no	 exception 	 to 	 the 	 unprecedented 	 crisis 	 unleashed 	 by	 the 	 pandemic. 	 It 	 is 	 faced	
with	 remarkab le 	 challenges 	 emer ging 	 from 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 provide	 substantive	 economic 	 stimulus, 	
address	 livelihood 	 losses, 	 introduce 	 and 	 implement 	 wide 	 ranging	 economic 	 reforms. 	 The	 need 	
to	develop 	sustainably , 	however , 	remains 	at 	the 	core 	of 	the 	country’ s 	development 	strategy .
INDIA AND THE SDGs
6.4	 India 	 has 	 taken 	 several 	 proactive 	 steps 	 at 	 both 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 the 	 sub 	 national 	 level 	 to	
mainstream 	 the 	 SDGs 	 into 	 the 	 policies, 	 schemes 	 and 	 programmes 	 of 	 the 	 Government. 	 In 	 2020,	
the 	 highlight 	 of 	 India’ s 	 SDG 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 the 	V oluntary 	 National 	 Review 	 (VNR) 	 presented	
to 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 High-Level 	 Political 	 Forum 	 (HLPF) 	 on 	 Sustainable 	 Development 	 which 	 is	
the 	 highest 	 international 	 platform 	 for 	 review 	 and 	 follow-up 	 of 	 the 	 SDGs 	 under 	 the 	 auspices 	 of 	 the	
United 	 Nations 	 Economic 	 and 	 Social 	 Council. 	 The 	 reviews 	 are 	 voluntary 	 and 	 country 	 -led 	 and	
are 	 aimed 	 at 	 facilitating 	 the 	 sharing 	 of 	 experiences, 	 including 	 successes, 	 challenges 	 and 	 lessons	
learned. 	 NITI 	 Aayog 	 presented 	 India’ s 	 second 	VNR 	 to 	 the 	 HLPF 	 in 	 July 	 2020, 	 which 	 highlighted	
the 	 country’ s 	 accomplishments 	 and 	 the 	 way 	 forward 	 on 	 its 	 journey 	 towards 	 achieving 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 In	
addition 	 to 	 the 	 progress 	 achieved 	 in 	 various 	 sectors, 	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 also 	 presented 	 the 	 Indian 	 model	
of 	 SDG 	 localisation, 	 perspectives 	 from 	 various 	 stakeholder 	 consultations, 	 strategies 	 of 	 integrating	
businesses 	 with 	 the 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 ways 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the 	 means 	 of 	 implementation.
6.5	 Consultations 	 with 	 over 	 1000	 Civil 	 Society	 Or ganisations 	 (CSOs)	 have 	 been 	 the 	 cornerstone	
of	 the 	 VNR 	 Report 	 preparation 	 process. 	 The 	 consultations 	 involved	 fourteen 	 specific 	 groups 	
(Figure	 1). 	 The	 focus 	 of 	 the 	 consultations 	 was	 the 	 principle 	 of 	 “Leaving 	 No 	 One 	 Behind”, 	 which 	
lies 	at	the 	heart 	of 	SDGs. 	
Figure 1: Stakeholder Consultations Process
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.6	 These 	 stakeholder 	 consultations 	 provided	 a 	 platform 	 for 	 engagement 	 and 	 feedback 	
on	 India’ s 	 progress 	 towards 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 This 	 platform 	 was	 widely 	 acknowledged 	 among 	 the 	
participants 	 as 	 a 	 conduit	 for 	 institutionalised	 dialogue. 	 For 	 state 	 and 	 market 	 action 	 to 	 keep 	 up	
206 Economic Survey 2020-21   V olume 1
with	 the	 myriad 	 manifesta tions 	 of 	 these	 challenges, 	 the 	 nature 	 of 	 engagement 	 will 	 have 	 to 	 be 	
adaptive, 	iterative 	and 	based 	on	feedback, 	which 	institutionalised 	dialogue 	can 	provide.
6.7	 The 	 preparation 	 of 	 the 	 VNR 	 also 	 provided 	 an 	 excellent 	 opportunity 	 to 	 strengthen 	 the	
engagement 	 with 	 the 	 private 	 sector 	 on 	 SDGs. 	 In 	 the 	 recent 	 past, 	 private 	 sector 	 spending 	 under	
Corporate 	 Social 	 Responsibility 	 (CSR) 	 initiatives 	 has 	 been 	 a 	 major 	 avenue 	 for 	 private 	 sector	
involvement 	 in 	 the 	 SDG 	 framework. 	 The 	 VNR 	 process 	 enhanced 	 the 	 uptake 	 in 	 adoption 	 of 	 business	
responsibility 	 and 	 sustainability 	 frameworks 	 and 	 created 	 greater 	 consciousness 	 among 	 industry	
leaders 	for 	the 	same. 	 This 	 is 	 echoed 	 in 	 the 	 ‘Report 	of 	 the 	 Committee 	 on 	 Business 	Responsibility	
Reporting’ 	 which 	 was 	 released 	 in 	 2020. 	 Business 	 Responsibility 	 and 	 Sustainability 	 Report	
(BRSR) 	 frameworks 	 outlined 	 in 	 this 	 report 	 emanate 	 from 	 the 	 National 	 Guidelines 	 on 	 Responsible	
Business 	 Conduct 	 (NGRBC) 	 which 	 are 	 aligned 	 to 	 the 	 SDGs, 	 and 	 the 	 United 	 Nations 	 Guiding	
Principles 	 on 	 Business 	 & 	 Human 	 Rights 	 (UNGPs). 	 BRSR 	 formats 	 incorporate 	 the 	 growing	
salience 	 of 	 non-financial 	 disclosures 	 along 	 with 	 the 	 annual 	 financial 	 disclosures 	 ensuring 	 the	
recognition 	 of 	 environmental 	 and 	 social 	 responsibilities.
Localization of the SDGs
6.8	 Localisation 	 of 	 SDGs 	 is 	 crucial 	 to 	 any 	 strategy 	 aimed 	 at 	 achieving 	 the 	 goals 	 under 	 the 	 2030	
Agenda. 	 Essentially , 	 localis ing 	 SDGs 	 involves 	 the 	 process 	 of 	 adapting, 	 planning,	 implementing 	
and	 monitoring 	 the 	 SDGs 	 from 	 national 	 to 	 local 	 levels 	 by	 relevant 	 institutions 	 and 	 stakeholders. 	
In	 terms 	 of 	 engagement 	 and 	 collaboration 	 of 	 institutions, 	 it 	 is 	 consequential 	 how 	 the 	 Centre, 	
State 	 and 	 Local 	 Governments 	 work	 together 	 to 	 achiev e 	 the 	 SDGs 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 level; 	 and 	 how 	
SDGs	 provide 	 a 	 framework 	 for 	 subnational 	 and 	 local 	 policy ,	 planning	 and 	 action 	 for 	 realisation 	
of	 the	 SDG 	 tar gets 	 at 	 local 	 levels. 	 T o 	 accelerate 	 SDG	 achievements, 	 the 	 country 	 has 	 adopted 	 the 	
approach 	 of 	 cooperative	 and 	 competitive 	 federalism 	 which 	 is 	 based 	 on	 Centre-State 	 collaboration 	
in	 natio n 	 building 	 and 	 heal thy 	 competition 	 among 	 the 	 States 	 in 	 various 	 development 	 outcomes. 	
The	 SDG 	 India	 Index 	 and 	 Dashboard, 	 designed	 and 	 developed	 by	 NITI 	 Aayog, 	 is 	 the 	 principal	
tool 	 to	 measure 	 and 	 monitor 	 SDG	 performance 	 at 	 the 	 national 	 and 	 sub-national 	 levels. 	 The	
states	 are 	 institutionally 	 empowered	 and 	 positioned 	 to 	 achieve 	 the 	 SDGs 	 with 	 the 	 support	 of 	 the 	
Central	 Government 	 and 	 allied 	 institutions. 	 Hence, 	 the 	 States 	 are 	 the 	 key 	 actors 	 in 	 the 	 process 	
of 	localisation 	of 	SDGs 	with 	the 	Central 	Government 	playing	an 	enabling 	role.
Figure 2: SDG Localisation
A. From Global to Local to Meet the Goals
Mapping of SDG targets to schemes/
programmes/policies
Coordination with central ministries
Coordination with State Planning
Departments
National level 
leadership
National level 
leadership
Developing monitoring framework and 
capacities
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
207 Sustainable Development and Climate Change
B. handholding St at es / UT s 	 t hrough	pl anni ng	Depa rt m ent s
• SDG Vision 
d o cu m en t/	
roadmap for the 
state (23 
states/UT s)
• Mapping of 
targets with 
relevant 
departments (25 
states/UT s)	
• Coordinate with 
departments and 
districts.
• SDG 	 Cells	 /	
Coordination 
centers
• Linking of 
Budget with 
SDGs (16 
States/UT s)
• Periodic SDG 
reviews
• Capacity building 
of state and 
district level 
officials (23 
States/UT s)
	 Source: 	NITI	 Aayog
6.9	 States 	 and 	 UT s 	 have 	 created 	 discrete 	 institutional 	 structures 	 for 	 implementation 	 of 	 SDGs	
in 	 their 	 own 	 specific 	 contexts. 	 Several 	 states 	 have 	 also 	 created 	 nodal 	 mechanisms 	 within 	 every	
department 	 and 	 at 	 the 	 district 	 levels 	 to 	 make 	 coordination, 	 conver gence 	 and 	 data 	 management	
more 	 precise 	 and 	 predictable. 	 Figure 	 2?(A 	 and 	 B) 	 shows 	 the 	 institutional 	 set 	 up 	 for 	 SDG	
localisation.
SDG related intervention of the Centre Governments during the pandemic 
6.10	 The 	 COVID-19 	 pandemic 	 has, 	 further , 	 underscored 	 the 	 need 	 to 	 keep 	 sustainable	
development 	 at 	 the 	 very 	 core 	 of 	 any 	 development 	 strategy . 	 The 	 pandemic 	 has 	 challenged	
the 	 health 	 infrastructure, 	 adversely 	 impacted 	 livelihoods 	 and 	 exacerbated 	 the 	 inequality 	 in	
the 	 food 	 and 	 nutritional 	 availability 	 in 	 the 	 country . 	 This 	 has 	 reemphasized 	 the 	 criticality 	 of	
having 	 institutions 	 and 	 mechanisms 	 that 	 can 	 facilitate 	 the 	 country 	 to 	 absorb 	 exogenous 	 shocks	
well. 	 The 	 period 	 of 	 the 	 pandemic 	 has 	 seen 	 coordinated 	 ef forts 	 of 	 both 	 the 	 Centre 	 and 	 the	
State 	 Governments 	 in 	 preserving 	 and 	 creating 	 livelihoods, 	 ensuring 	 that 	 food 	 and 	 nutritional	
requirements 	 are 	 met 	 and 	 that 	 the 	 health 	 facilities 	 are 	 augmented 	 to 	 cope 	 with 	 the 	 pressure	
c r e a t e d 	 b y 	 t h e 	 c o n t a g i o n . 	 Initiatives	 addressed 	 the 	 immediate 	 impact 	 of 	 COVID-19 	 pandemic 	
and 	 enabled 	 the 	 country	 to 	 progress 	 on	 its 	 SDGs 	 even 	 in 	 these	 very 	 difficult 	 times. 	 In 	 addition 	
several	 reforms 	 measures 	 have 	 been 	 brought 	 in 	 such 	 as 	 in 	 agricultural	 labour	 and 	 MSME	 reforms	
which	 will 	 directly	 or 	 indirectly 	 impact 	 the 	 SDGs. 	 The 	 State	 Governments 	 also 	 responded	 with 	
several	 measures 	 to 	 support	 those 	 af fected 	 by	 the 	 pandemic 	 through 	 various 	 initiatives 	 and 	
reliefs	to 	fight 	this	pandemic. 	
CLIMATE CHANGE
6.1 1	 India 	 has 	 been 	 taking	 several 	 proactive 	 climate 	 actions 	 to 	 fulfil 	 its	 obligations	 as 	 per 	 the 	
principles 	 of 	 common	 but 	 dif ferentiated 	 responsibiliti es	 and 	 respective 	 capabilities	 and 	 equity .	
The 	 Nationall y 	 Determined 	 Contribution 	 (NDC) 	 submitted	 by	 the 	 country	 has 	 been 	 formulated 	
keeping	 i n 	 mind 	 the 	 developmental 	 imperatives 	 of 	 the 	 country	 and 	 is 	 on	 a 	 “best	 ef fort 	 basis”. 	
In	 its	 NDC, 	 India	 has 	 sought 	 t o 	 reduce 	 the 	 emissions	 intensity	 o f 	 its	 GDP 	 by	 33	 t o 	 35	 per 	 cent 	
208 Economic Survey 2020-21   V olume 1
below	 2005 	 levels 	 by	 the 	 y e a r 	 2030; 	 achieve 	 40	 per 	 cent 	 of 	 cumulative 	 electric 	 power 	 installed 	
capacity 	 from 	 non-fossil 	 fuel	 sources 	 by	 2030; 	 and 	 enhance 	 forest 	 and 	 tree 	 cover 	 to 	 create 	
additional 	 carbon 	 sink 	 equivalent 	 to 	 2.5	 to 	 3	 billion 	 tons 	 of 	 carbon 	 dioxide	 by	 2030.	 The	 other	
g o a l s 	 pertain 	 to 	 adoption	 of 	 sustainable 	 lifestyles 	 based 	 on	 traditional 	 values	 of 	 conservation	
and 	 moderation, 	 adaptation 	 to 	 climate 	 change, 	 clean	 economic 	 development 	 and 	 environment- 	
friendly 	 technology , 	etc.
Prominent Government initiatives on mitigation & adaptation  
actions and their progress
6.12	 India’ s 	 National 	 Action 	 Plan 	 on 	 Climate 	 Change 	 (NAPCC) was 	 launched 	 in 	 2008. 	 It	
has 	 through 	 8 	 National 	 Missions 	 focussed 	 on 	 advancing 	 the 	 country’ s 	 climate 	 change 	 related	
objectives 	 of 	 adaptation, 	 mitigation 	 and 	 preparedness 	 on 	 climate 	 risks. 	 The 	 Government	
has 	 decided 	 t o 	 revise 	 the 	 NAPCC 	 in	 line	 with 	 the 	 NDC 	 submitted 	 by 	 India 	 under 	 the	
Paris 	 Agreement 	 to 	 make	 it	 more 	 comprehensive 	 in	 terms 	 of 	 the 	 priority 	 areas. 	 The 	 major	
developments 	 under 	 the 	 NAPCC 	 are 	 captured 	 in 	T able 	 1 	 below .
Table 1: National Missions under NAPCC
Missions Major objective/Target Progress
1. 	National 	 Solar 	
Mission 	 (NSM)
Achieve 	 100	 GW 	 of 	 solar 	 power 	 in 	
seven 	years 	starting	from 	2014-15.
The 	 cumulative 	 capacity 	 of 	 36.9	 GW 	
was 	 commissioned 	 till 	 November 	 2020.	
Around 	 36	 GW 	 solar 	 ener gy 	 capacity 	 is 	
under 	 installati on, 	 and 	 an 	 additional	 19	
GW 	capacity 	has 	been 	tendered.
2. 	National 	
Mission 	for 	
Enhanced 	Ener gy 	
Efficiency 	
(NMEEE)
•	 T o 	 achieve 	 growth 	 with 	 ecological	
sustainability .
•	 Mandating 	 reduction 	 in 	 ener gy 	
consumption 	 in 	 lar ge 	 ener gy- 
consuming 	industries, 	
•	 Financing 	 for 	 PPP 	 to 	 reduce 	 ener gy 	
consumption 	 through 	 demand-side 	
management	 programs 	 in 	 the 	 mu-
nicipal, 	 buildings, 	 and 	 agricultural 	
sectors, 	
•	 Ener gy 	 incentives, 	 including 	 re-
duced 	 taxes 	 on	 ener gy-efficient 	 ap-
pliances.
•	 The 	 Perform 	 Achieve 	 and 	 T rade 	
(P A T) 	 S c h e m e 	 i s 	 one 	 of 	 the 	 initiatives 	
under 	 the 	 NMEEE, 	 and 	 was 	 initiated 	
i n 	 March	2012.
•	 P A T 	 Cycle 	 I 	 (2012-2015) 	 has 	 over -
achieved 	 the 	 tar get, 	 s a v i n g 	 around 	
31	 milli on 	 tonnes 	 of 	 CO2 	 (Mt	 CO2).
•	 P A T 	 Cycle 	 II 	 (2016-17 	 to 	 2018-19)- 	
emission 	 reduction 	 of 	 61.34	 MtCO2 	
was 	achieved.
•	 P A T 	 Cycle 	 III 	 (2017-18 	 to 	 2019-
20) 	 concluded 	 on	 31	 March	 2020,	
results 	of 	this 	cycle 	are 	awaited.
•	 Currently 	 P A T 	 Cycle 	 IV 	 is 	 under 	
implementation. 	
Read More
10 videos|20 docs|7 tests

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Sample Paper

,

mock tests for examination

,

ppt

,

Extra Questions

,

Important questions

,

Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC

,

Viva Questions

,

Exam

,

Free

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC

,

pdf

,

Semester Notes

,

past year papers

,

Sustainable Development and Climate Change Notes | Study Economic Survey 2021 - UPSC

,

study material

,

practice quizzes

,

MCQs

,

Objective type Questions

,

Summary

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

video lectures

;