CLAT  >  Syllogism

# Syllogism | Logical Reasoning for CLAT

 Table of contents What is Syllogism? Statements of syllogisms Steps to solve syllogism questions: Identify the type A, E, I, O: Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram: Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together
 1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

What is Syllogism?

The word syllogism is derived from the Greek word “syllogismos” which means “conclusion, inference”. Syllogisms are a logical argument of statements using deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. The major contribution to the filed of syllogisms is attributed to Aristotle.

Statements of syllogisms

The questions of syllogisms of three main parts.

• Major premise
• Minor premise
• Conclusion
The central premise is a statement in general, believed to be true by the author.
Question for Syllogism
Try yourself: Observe the following statements and select if the conclusion is

Correct/ Incorrect

Example 1:

Major premise: All Actors are right-handed.

Minor premise: All right-handed are Artists.

The conclusion is: Some Artists are Actors.

Example: All women are smart.

The minor premise is a specific example of the major premise.

Example: Amanda is a woman.

The conclusion is a specific statement which logically follows both major and minor statement.

Example: Amanda is smart.

Steps to solve syllogism questions:

1. Note the number of variables present in the given statements

Ex: Man, doctor, pilot, etc.

2. Draw a Venn diagram corresponding to each variable; several Venn diagrams is equal to the number of variables.

3. Deduce the logical level by reading the statements and draw the corresponding Venn diagram

4. Check the conclusions given by comparing it with the Venn diagram obtained

5. Select the correct conclusion.

Identify the type A, E, I, O:

A ➜ Affirmative Positive

E ➜ Affirmative Negative

I ➜ Particular Positive

O ➜ Particular Negative

Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram:

Different Types of Arguments

1. Affirmative Positive - A type

Example: All ‘A’ are ‘B’.
From this statement, it can be inferred that:

• Some ‘A’ are ‘B’.
• Some ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a definite conclusion.

Note:  All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a possibility but  it may not be true in all cases

2. Affirmative Negative - E Type

Example: No ‘A’ are ‘B’.
Conclusions which can be drawn from the given statement are:

• Some ‘A’ are Not ‘B’.
• No ‘B’ are ‘A’.
• Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.

3. Particular Positive - I Type

(i), (ii) and (iii) respectively

Example: Some ‘A’ are 'B’
From the given statement, we can conclude:

• Some ‘B’ are ‘A’. (i)
• However, All ‘A’ are ‘B’. (i)
• All ‘B’ are ‘A’. (ii)
• Some ‘A’ are ‘B’. (iii)
• Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’ is not a definite conclusion.

4. Particular Negative - O Type

Example: Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.
It cannot be explained with a diagram. Moreover, no logical conclusion can be drawn from the given statement.  There can be more than one possibilities in which this argument can be represented.
They are as under:

The shaded portion shows the A, which is not B.

Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together

1. All ‘A’ are ‘B’,  All ‘B’ are ‘C’    (A & A)
This argument is represented below:

Conclusions:

• All ‘A’ are ‘C’,
• Some ‘C’ are ‘A’,
• Some ‘C’ are ‘B’,
• Some ‘A’ are ‘C’
• (All ‘C’ can be ‘A’, All ‘B’ can be ‘A’ but may not be defiantly true in all the cases.)

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.
Conclusions:
1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.

2. All ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’  (A & E)
This argument is represented below:

• No ‘A’ is ‘C’.
• Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’.
• Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’.
• All ‘A’ are ‘B’.

3. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 9 as well as figure 10.

Conclusions which are definitely true in both the cases:

• Some ‘A’ are ‘C’.
• Some ‘C’ are ‘A’.
• Some ‘B’ are ‘A’.

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are yatches.
Conclusion:

I. Some yatches are boats.

II. Some submarines are boats.

III. Some submarines are ships.

IV. Some yatches are ships

Note: All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and vice versa can be a possibility but may not be true in all the cases. The other possibility is as under.

4. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & E)

This argument can be represented by Figure 11, 12 & 13.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the possible cases:

• Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’.
• Some ‘B’ are not ‘C’.
• No ‘C’ is ‘B’.
• Some ‘C’ are not ‘B’.

The shaded portion shows A which are not C.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘C’ as subject and ‘A’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

5. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 14, 15, & 16.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the cases:

• Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’.
• No ‘B’ is ‘A’.
• Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.
• Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.

The shaded portion shows C, which are not A.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

6. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, Some ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & I)
This argument can be represented by Figure 17, 18 & 19.

Conclusions which are definitely possible in all the cases:

• Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’.
• Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.
• Some ‘B’ not ‘A.’

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: Most CPUs are keyboards. No keyboard is a Mouse. All Mouses are CPU.
Conclusion:

I. Some keyboards are CPU

II. All CPU’s are Mouse

III. No Mouse is a keyboard

IV. Some Mouse are keyboard

Note:  Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:

Statements:

I. All fans are cylinders.

II. Some cylinders are basins.

Conclusions:

I. Some basins are cylinders.

II. No fan is a basin.

The document Syllogism | Logical Reasoning for CLAT is a part of the CLAT Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
All you need of CLAT at this link: CLAT
FAQs on Syllogism | Logical Reasoning for CLAT
 1. What is Syllogism?
Ans. Syllogism is a type of logical reasoning based on deductive reasoning, which involves drawing conclusions from given premises. It consists of two premises and a conclusion, where the conclusion is derived from the premises using a specific set of rules.
 2. What are the steps to solve syllogism questions?
Ans. The steps to solve syllogism questions are as follows: 1. Identify the type A, E, I, O 2. Draw Venn diagrams for the given statements 3. Check for common terms and overlapping regions 4. Derive logical conclusions based on the given premises
 3. How can Venn diagrams be used to understand syllogism?
Ans. Venn diagrams can be used to understand syllogism by visually representing the given statements and their relationships. The circles in the Venn diagram represent the categories or sets of terms, and the overlapping regions indicate the presence of common terms. By using Venn diagrams, we can easily identify the logical conclusions that can be derived from the given premises.
 4. What are the different types of syllogisms?
Ans. The different types of syllogisms are: 1. Type A: All A are B 2. Type E: No A is B 3. Type I: Some A are B 4. Type O: Some A are not B
 5. How can syllogisms be useful for CLAT exam preparation?
Ans. Syllogism questions are a common feature in the CLAT exam, and practicing them can help students improve their logical reasoning skills. By understanding the rules of syllogism and using Venn diagrams, students can quickly derive logical conclusions from the given premises. Regular practice of syllogism questions can also help students to improve their speed and accuracy, which are essential for success in the CLAT exam.

## Logical Reasoning for CLAT

19 videos|27 docs|67 tests

## Logical Reasoning for CLAT

19 videos|27 docs|67 tests

### Up next

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!
 (Scan QR code)

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

;