Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

CLAT : Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The document Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev is a part of the CLAT Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
All you need of CLAT at this link: CLAT

Introduction

First of all, you should know some terms as follows:

  • Subject  
  • Predicate
    Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevExamples: Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Identify the type A, E, I, O:

A    ➜   Affirmative Positive

E    ➜   Affirmative Negative

I     ➜    Particular Positive

O   ➜      Particular Negative

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev


Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram

➢ Different Types of Arguments

1. Affirmative Positive - A type 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Example: All ‘A’ are ‘B’.
From this statement, it can be inferred that: 

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’.
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a definite conclusion.

Note:  All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a possibility but  it may not be true in all cases

2. Affirmative Negative - E Type 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevExample: No ‘A’ are ‘B’.
Conclusions which can be drawn from the given statement are:

  • Some ‘A’ are Not ‘B’. 
  • No ‘B’ are ‘A’.  
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.

3. Particular Positive - I Type 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev(i), (ii) and (iii) respectively 

Example: Some ‘A’ are 'B’
From the given statement, we can conclude: 

  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’. (i)
  • However, All ‘A’ are ‘B’. (i) 
  • All ‘B’ are ‘A’. (ii)
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’. (iii)
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’ is not a definite conclusion.

4. Particular Negative - O Type 

Example: Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.
It cannot be explained with a diagram. Moreover, no logical conclusion can be drawn from the given statement.  There can be more than one possibilities in which this argument can be represented.
They are as under:

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows the A, which is not B.

➢ Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types of Arguments are Given Together

1. All ‘A’ are ‘B’,  All ‘B’ are ‘C’    (A & A)                 
This argument is represented below: 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev Conclusions:

  • All ‘A’ are ‘C’, 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’,  
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘B’,
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’
  • (All ‘C’ can be ‘A’, All ‘B’ can be ‘A’ but may not be defiantly true in all the cases.)

Try yourself:Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.
Conclusions:
1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.
View Solution

2. All ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’  (A & E)
This argument is represented below:

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

  • No ‘A’ is ‘C’.
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • All ‘A’ are ‘B’.

3. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 9 as well as figure 10.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely true in both the cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’.

Try yourself:Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are yatches.
Conclusion:

I. Some yatches are boats.

II. Some submarines are boats.

III. Some submarines are ships.

IV. Some yatches are ships

View Solution

Note: All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and vice versa can be a possibility but may not be true in all the cases. The other possibility is as under.

4. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & E)   

This argument can be represented by Figure 11, 12 & 13.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the possible cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘C’. 
  • No ‘C’ is ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows A which are not C.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘C’ as subject and ‘A’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

5. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 14, 15, & 16.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the cases:

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • No ‘B’ is ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows C, which are not A.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

6. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, Some ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & I)
This argument can be represented by Figure 17, 18 & 19.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely possible in all the cases: 

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘B’ not ‘A.’ 

Try yourself:Statements: Most CPUs are keyboards. No keyboard is a Mouse. All Mouses are CPU.
Conclusion:

I. Some keyboards are CPU

II. All CPU’s are Mouse

III. No Mouse is a keyboard

IV. Some Mouse are keyboard

View Solution

Note:  Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

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