Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

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LR : Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The document Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev is a part of the LR Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
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Syllogism

First of all you should know some terms as follows:-

Subject and Predicate

For example: Some ships are cargos. Therefore, in this statement ship is the subject and cargos are the predicate.

Identify the type A, E, I, O

A          Affirmative Positive

E          Affirmative Negative

I           Particular Positive

O          Particular Negative


Affirmative Positive(A)All, Every, Each, Everyone, Particular Name, One

Affirmative Negative

(E)No one, None, Never, Nothing

Particular Positive

(I)Some, Many, Several, Few, Very few, Most, at least

Particular Negative

(O)Some-not


UNDERSTANDING SYLLOGISM WITH HELP OF VENN DIAGRAM

Different Types of arguments:

1. Affirmative Positive -A type :

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev


Eg. All ‘A’ are ‘B’

From this statement it can be inferred that, 

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’.
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a definite conclusion.

Note:  All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a possibility but  it may not be true in all cases

 

2. Affirmative Negative -E Type :

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevEg. No ‘A’ are ‘B’

Conclusions which can be drawn from given statement are:

  • Some ‘A’ are Not ‘B’  
  • No ‘B’ are ‘A’  
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.

3. Particular Positive - I Type :

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Fig (i), (ii) and (iii) respectively

Eg. Some ‘A’ are B’

From given statement we can conclude 

  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’. (i)
  • However All ‘A’ are ‘B’ (i) 
  • All ‘B’ are ‘A’, (ii)
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’ (iii)
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’ is not a definite conclusion.

4. Particular Negative - O Type :

Eg. Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.

It cannot be explained with diagram. Moreover no logical conclusion can be drawn from given statement.  There can be more than one possibilities in which this argument can be represented. They are as under:

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows the A which is not B.


Deriving logical conclusions when various types of arguments are given together:

  1. All ‘A’ are ‘B’ ,  All ‘B’ are ‘C’    (A & A)                  

This argument is represented below.  

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev    

Conclusions:

  • All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’ ,  
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘B’ ,
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’
  • (All ‘C’ can be ‘A’ , All ‘B’ can be ‘A’ but may not be defiantly true in all the cases.)

2. All ‘A’ are ‘B’ , No ‘B’ are ‘C’  (A & E)

This argument is represented by Figure 8.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

  • No ‘A’ is ‘C’ , 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’ , 
  • All ‘A’ are ‘B’.

3. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’ , All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & A)

This argument can be  represented by Figure 9 as well as figure 10.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely true in both the cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’, 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’, 
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’.

Note:      All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and vice versa can be a possibility but may not be true in all the cases. The other possibility is as under:

  1. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’ , No ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & E)   

This argument can be represented by Figure 11, 12 & 13.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the possible cases:

Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’, Some ‘B’ are not ‘C’, No ‘C’ is ‘B’, Some ‘C’ are not ‘B’

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows A which are not C.

Note:      Any conclusion with ‘C’ as subject and ‘A’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

  1. No ‘A’ are ‘B’ , All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 14, 15, & 16.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the cases:

Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’, No ‘B’ is ‘A’, Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’, Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows C which are not A.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

  1. No ‘A’ are ‘B’ , Some ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & I)

This argument can be represented by Figure 17, 18 & 19.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely possible in all the cases:  Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’, Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’, Some ‘B’ not ‘A’ 

Note:  Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

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