Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Logical Reasoning for CLAT

CLAT : Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The document Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev is a part of the CLAT Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
All you need of CLAT at this link: CLAT

What is Syllogism?

The word syllogism is derived from the Greek word “syllogismos” which means “conclusion, inference”. Syllogisms are a logical argument of statements using deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. The major contribution to the filed of syllogisms is attributed to Aristotle.

Statements of syllogisms

The questions of syllogisms of three main parts.

  • Major premise
  • Minor premise
  • Conclusion
    The central premise is a statement in general, believed to be true by the author.
    Try yourself: Observe the following statements and select if the conclusion is

    Correct/ Incorrect

    Example 1:

    Major premise: All Actors are right-handed.

    Minor premise: All right-handed are Artists.

    The conclusion is: Some Artists are Actors.

    View Solution


Example: All women are smart.

The minor premise is a specific example of the major premise.

Example: Amanda is a woman.

The conclusion is a specific statement which logically follows both major and minor statement.

Example: Amanda is smart.

Steps to solve syllogism questions:

1. Note the number of variables present in the given statements

Ex: Man, doctor, pilot, etc.

2. Draw a Venn diagram corresponding to each variable; several Venn diagrams is equal to the number of variables.

3. Deduce the logical level by reading the statements and draw the corresponding Venn diagram

4. Check the conclusions given by comparing it with the Venn diagram obtained

5. Select the correct conclusion.

Identify the type A, E, I, O: 

A ➜ Affirmative Positive

E ➜ Affirmative Negative

I ➜ Particular Positive

O ➜ Particular Negative

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev


Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram:

Different Types of Arguments

1. Affirmative Positive - A type 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Example: All ‘A’ are ‘B’.
From this statement, it can be inferred that:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’.
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a definite conclusion.

Note:  All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a possibility but  it may not be true in all cases

2. Affirmative Negative - E Type 

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Example: No ‘A’ are ‘B’.
Conclusions which can be drawn from the given statement are:

  • Some ‘A’ are Not ‘B’. 
  • No ‘B’ are ‘A’.  
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.

3. Particular Positive - I Type Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

(i), (ii) and (iii) respectively 


Example: Some ‘A’ are 'B’
From the given statement, we can conclude: 

  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’. (i)
  • However, All ‘A’ are ‘B’. (i) 
  • All ‘B’ are ‘A’. (ii)
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’. (iii)
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’ is not a definite conclusion.

4. Particular Negative - O Type 

Example: Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.
It cannot be explained with a diagram. Moreover, no logical conclusion can be drawn from the given statement.  There can be more than one possibilities in which this argument can be represented.
They are as under:

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows the A, which is not B.

Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together

1. All ‘A’ are ‘B’,  All ‘B’ are ‘C’    (A & A)                 
This argument is represented below:

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev Conclusions:

  • All ‘A’ are ‘C’, 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’,  
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘B’,
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’
  • (All ‘C’ can be ‘A’, All ‘B’ can be ‘A’ but may not be defiantly true in all the cases.)

Try yourself:Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.
Conclusions:
1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.
View Solution

2. All ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’  (A & E)
This argument is represented below:

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

  • No ‘A’ is ‘C’.
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • All ‘A’ are ‘B’.

3. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 9 as well as figure 10.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely true in both the cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’.

Try yourself:Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are yatches.
Conclusion:

I. Some yatches are boats.

II. Some submarines are boats.

III. Some submarines are ships.

IV. Some yatches are ships

View Solution

Note: All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and vice versa can be a possibility but may not be true in all the cases. The other possibility is as under.

4. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & E)   

This argument can be represented by Figure 11, 12 & 13.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the possible cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘C’. 
  • No ‘C’ is ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows A which are not C.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘C’ as subject and ‘A’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

5. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 14, 15, & 16.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the cases:

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • No ‘B’ is ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

The shaded portion shows C, which are not A.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

6. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, Some ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & I)
This argument can be represented by Figure 17, 18 & 19.

 Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRevSyllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

Conclusions which are definitely possible in all the cases: 

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘B’ not ‘A.’ 

Try yourself:Statements: Most CPUs are keyboards. No keyboard is a Mouse. All Mouses are CPU.
Conclusion:

I. Some keyboards are CPU

II. All CPU’s are Mouse

III. No Mouse is a keyboard

IV. Some Mouse are keyboard

View Solution

Note:  Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

Try yourself: 

Statements:

I. All fans are cylinders.

II. Some cylinders are basins.

Conclusions:

I. Some basins are cylinders.

II. No fan is a basin.

View Solution

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

,

Sample Paper

,

ppt

,

video lectures

,

Exam

,

Free

,

mock tests for examination

,

Objective type Questions

,

Important questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Extra Questions

,

study material

,

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

,

Viva Questions

,

MCQs

,

Summary

,

pdf

,

past year papers

,

Syllogism CLAT Notes | EduRev

;