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Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Document Description: Syllogism for CLAT 2022 is part of Syllogism for Logical Reasoning for CLAT preparation. The notes and questions for Syllogism have been prepared according to the CLAT exam syllabus. Information about Syllogism covers topics like What is Syllogism?, Statements of syllogisms, Steps to solve syllogism questions:, Identify the type A, E, I, O: , Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram:, Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together and Syllogism Example, for CLAT 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Syllogism.

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Table of contents
What is Syllogism?
Statements of syllogisms
Steps to solve syllogism questions:
Identify the type A, E, I, O: 
Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram:
Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together
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What is Syllogism?

The word syllogism is derived from the Greek word “syllogismos” which means “conclusion, inference”. Syllogisms are a logical argument of statements using deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion. The major contribution to the filed of syllogisms is attributed to Aristotle.

Statements of syllogisms

The questions of syllogisms of three main parts.

  • Major premise
  • Minor premise
  • Conclusion
    The central premise is a statement in general, believed to be true by the author.
    Question for Syllogism
    Try yourself: Observe the following statements and select if the conclusion is

    Correct/ Incorrect

    Example 1:

    Major premise: All Actors are right-handed.

    Minor premise: All right-handed are Artists.

    The conclusion is: Some Artists are Actors.

    View Solution


Example: All women are smart.

The minor premise is a specific example of the major premise.

Example: Amanda is a woman.

The conclusion is a specific statement which logically follows both major and minor statement.

Example: Amanda is smart.

Steps to solve syllogism questions:

1. Note the number of variables present in the given statements

Ex: Man, doctor, pilot, etc.

2. Draw a Venn diagram corresponding to each variable; several Venn diagrams is equal to the number of variables.

3. Deduce the logical level by reading the statements and draw the corresponding Venn diagram

4. Check the conclusions given by comparing it with the Venn diagram obtained

5. Select the correct conclusion.

Identify the type A, E, I, O: 

A ➜ Affirmative Positive

E ➜ Affirmative Negative

I ➜ Particular Positive

O ➜ Particular Negative

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT


Understanding Syllogism with the help of Venn Diagram:

Different Types of Arguments

1. Affirmative Positive - A type 

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Example: All ‘A’ are ‘B’.
From this statement, it can be inferred that:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’.
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a definite conclusion.

Note:  All ‘B’ are ‘A’ is a possibility but  it may not be true in all cases

2. Affirmative Negative - E Type 

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Example: No ‘A’ are ‘B’.
Conclusions which can be drawn from the given statement are:

  • Some ‘A’ are Not ‘B’. 
  • No ‘B’ are ‘A’.  
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’.

3. Particular Positive - I Type Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

(i), (ii) and (iii) respectively 


Example: Some ‘A’ are 'B’
From the given statement, we can conclude: 

  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’. (i)
  • However, All ‘A’ are ‘B’. (i) 
  • All ‘B’ are ‘A’. (ii)
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘B’. (iii)
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’ is not a definite conclusion.

4. Particular Negative - O Type 

Example: Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.
It cannot be explained with a diagram. Moreover, no logical conclusion can be drawn from the given statement.  There can be more than one possibilities in which this argument can be represented.
They are as under:

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

The shaded portion shows the A, which is not B.

Deriving Logical Conclusions When Various Types ofrguments are Given Together

1. All ‘A’ are ‘B’,  All ‘B’ are ‘C’    (A & A)                 
This argument is represented below:

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT Conclusions:

  • All ‘A’ are ‘C’, 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’,  
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘B’,
  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’
  • (All ‘C’ can be ‘A’, All ‘B’ can be ‘A’ but may not be defiantly true in all the cases.)

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: All the harmoniums are instruments. All the instruments are flutes.
Conclusions:
1. All the flutes are instruments.
2. All the harmoniums are flutes.
View Solution

2. All ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’  (A & E)
This argument is represented below:

Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

  • No ‘A’ is ‘C’.
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • All ‘A’ are ‘B’.

3. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 9 as well as figure 10.

 Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Conclusions which are definitely true in both the cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are ‘A’.

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: Some ships are boats. All boats are submarines. Some submarines are yatches.
Conclusion:

I. Some yatches are boats.

II. Some submarines are boats.

III. Some submarines are ships.

IV. Some yatches are ships

View Solution

Note: All ‘A’ are ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’ , Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’ and vice versa can be a possibility but may not be true in all the cases. The other possibility is as under.

4. Some ‘A’ are ‘B’, No ‘B’ are ‘C’ (I & E)   

This argument can be represented by Figure 11, 12 & 13.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the possible cases:

  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘C’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘C’. 
  • No ‘C’ is ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

The shaded portion shows A which are not C.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘C’ as subject and ‘A’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

5. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, All ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & A)

This argument can be represented by Figure 14, 15, & 16.

Conclusions which are definitely true in all the cases:

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • No ‘B’ is ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘B’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’.

 Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

The shaded portion shows C, which are not A.

Note: Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

6. No ‘A’ are ‘B’, Some ‘B’ are ‘C’ (E & I)
This argument can be represented by Figure 17, 18 & 19.

 Syllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLATSyllogism Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Conclusions which are definitely possible in all the cases: 

  • Some ‘C’ are not ‘A’. 
  • Some ‘A’ are not ‘B’. 
  • Some ‘B’ not ‘A.’ 

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself:Statements: Most CPUs are keyboards. No keyboard is a Mouse. All Mouses are CPU.
Conclusion:

I. Some keyboards are CPU

II. All CPU’s are Mouse

III. No Mouse is a keyboard

IV. Some Mouse are keyboard

View Solution

Note:  Any conclusion with ‘A’ as subject and ‘C’ as predicate is not a definite conclusion.

Question for Syllogism
Try yourself: 

Statements:

I. All fans are cylinders.

II. Some cylinders are basins.

Conclusions:

I. Some basins are cylinders.

II. No fan is a basin.

View Solution

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