TN History Textbook: Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions UPSC Notes | EduRev

History for UPSC CSE

UPSC : TN History Textbook: Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


273
Agricultural Revolution
The term agricultural revolution refers to the radical changes
in the method of agriculture in England in the 17
th
 and 18
th
 centuries.
There was a massive increase in agricultural productivity, which
supported the growing population. The Agricultural Revolution
preceded the Industrial Revolution in England. During the Agricultural
Revolution, four key changes took place in agricultural practices.
They were enclosure of lands, mechanization of farming, four-field
crop rotation, and selective breeding of domestic animals.
Prior to the agricultural revolution, the practice of agriculture
had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The
open field system was essentially feudal. Each farmer engaged in
cultivation in common land and dividing the produce.
From the beginning of 12
th
 century, some of the common fields
in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields. This process
rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries as sheep farming
grew more profitable. This led to farmers losing their land and their
LESSON 26
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The process of agricultural revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific inventions in different sectors of industrial
production.
4. Merits and demerits of the Industrial Revolution.
Page 2


273
Agricultural Revolution
The term agricultural revolution refers to the radical changes
in the method of agriculture in England in the 17
th
 and 18
th
 centuries.
There was a massive increase in agricultural productivity, which
supported the growing population. The Agricultural Revolution
preceded the Industrial Revolution in England. During the Agricultural
Revolution, four key changes took place in agricultural practices.
They were enclosure of lands, mechanization of farming, four-field
crop rotation, and selective breeding of domestic animals.
Prior to the agricultural revolution, the practice of agriculture
had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The
open field system was essentially feudal. Each farmer engaged in
cultivation in common land and dividing the produce.
From the beginning of 12
th
 century, some of the common fields
in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields. This process
rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries as sheep farming
grew more profitable. This led to farmers losing their land and their
LESSON 26
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The process of agricultural revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific inventions in different sectors of industrial
production.
4. Merits and demerits of the Industrial Revolution.
275 274
prosperity for some, but in the initial stages many people including
women and children had experienced poor living and working
conditions. This sparked off protests and the government was forced
to enact laws to improve the conditions of workers.
Causes for the Industrial Revolution
! England’s advantageous geographical location.
! The precedence of agricultural revolution.
! New inventions and the introduction of machinery.
! The enterprising spirit of British entrepreneurs.
! Growth of capital in England.
! Colonial possessions of England, which supplied raw
materials and served as markets
Scientific Inventions
Textile Machinery
The primary cause of the Industrial Revolution was the scientific
inventions. The earliest mechanical inventions came in the textile
industry. Spinning was the slowest process in the manufacturing of
cloth. The invention of flying shuttle by Kay in 1733 improved weaving.
In 1764, Hargreaves invented the ‘spinning jenny’. This machine could
spin eight threads at the same time, instead of one. Arkwright
improved the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1769. Compton improved it still further
in 1779. In 1785, Cartwright invented the power loom. Whitney, an
American, speeded up the process (1792) with a cotton gin, which
automatically removed seeds from the fiber of the cotton. The
invention of the sewing machine by Elias Howe, in 1846, accelerated
the production of clothing and made possible the modern clothing
industry. Thus, one invention followed another, not only in textile
industries but also in many others. In this way, the present-day
complex machinery has evolved.
grazing rights. Many farmers became unemployed. In the 16th and
17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the
Church, and legislation was drawn up against it. However, the
mechanization of agriculture during the 18th century required large,
enclosed fields. This led to a series of government acts, culminating
finally in the General Enclosure Act of 1801. By the end of the
19th century the process of enclosure was largely complete.
Great experiments were conducted in farming during this
period. Machines were introduced for seeding and harvesting.
Rotation of crops was introduced by Townshend. The lands became
fertile by this method. Bakewell introduced scientific breeding of farm
animals. The horse-drawn ploughs, rake, portable threshers, manure
spreaders, multiple ploughs and dairy appliances had revolutionized
farming. These changes in agriculture increased food production as
well as other farm outputs.
Industrial Revolution
 The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European
scholars – Georges Michelet in France and Friedrich Engels in
Germany. It was used to describe the changes that occurred in the
industrial development of England between 1760 and 1820. The
Industrial Revolution had far-reaching effects in England.
Subsequently, similar changes occurred in European countries and in
the U.S.A. the Industrial Revolution had a major impact on the society
and economy of these countries and also on the rest of the world.
This phase of industrial development in England is strongly
associated with new machinery and technologies. These made it
possible to produce goods on a massive scale compared to handicraft
and handloom industries. There were changes in the cotton and iron
industries. Steam, a new source of power, began to be used on a
wide scale in British industries. Its use led to faster forms of
transportation by ships and railways. Industrialisation led to greater
Page 3


273
Agricultural Revolution
The term agricultural revolution refers to the radical changes
in the method of agriculture in England in the 17
th
 and 18
th
 centuries.
There was a massive increase in agricultural productivity, which
supported the growing population. The Agricultural Revolution
preceded the Industrial Revolution in England. During the Agricultural
Revolution, four key changes took place in agricultural practices.
They were enclosure of lands, mechanization of farming, four-field
crop rotation, and selective breeding of domestic animals.
Prior to the agricultural revolution, the practice of agriculture
had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The
open field system was essentially feudal. Each farmer engaged in
cultivation in common land and dividing the produce.
From the beginning of 12
th
 century, some of the common fields
in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields. This process
rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries as sheep farming
grew more profitable. This led to farmers losing their land and their
LESSON 26
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The process of agricultural revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific inventions in different sectors of industrial
production.
4. Merits and demerits of the Industrial Revolution.
275 274
prosperity for some, but in the initial stages many people including
women and children had experienced poor living and working
conditions. This sparked off protests and the government was forced
to enact laws to improve the conditions of workers.
Causes for the Industrial Revolution
! England’s advantageous geographical location.
! The precedence of agricultural revolution.
! New inventions and the introduction of machinery.
! The enterprising spirit of British entrepreneurs.
! Growth of capital in England.
! Colonial possessions of England, which supplied raw
materials and served as markets
Scientific Inventions
Textile Machinery
The primary cause of the Industrial Revolution was the scientific
inventions. The earliest mechanical inventions came in the textile
industry. Spinning was the slowest process in the manufacturing of
cloth. The invention of flying shuttle by Kay in 1733 improved weaving.
In 1764, Hargreaves invented the ‘spinning jenny’. This machine could
spin eight threads at the same time, instead of one. Arkwright
improved the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1769. Compton improved it still further
in 1779. In 1785, Cartwright invented the power loom. Whitney, an
American, speeded up the process (1792) with a cotton gin, which
automatically removed seeds from the fiber of the cotton. The
invention of the sewing machine by Elias Howe, in 1846, accelerated
the production of clothing and made possible the modern clothing
industry. Thus, one invention followed another, not only in textile
industries but also in many others. In this way, the present-day
complex machinery has evolved.
grazing rights. Many farmers became unemployed. In the 16th and
17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the
Church, and legislation was drawn up against it. However, the
mechanization of agriculture during the 18th century required large,
enclosed fields. This led to a series of government acts, culminating
finally in the General Enclosure Act of 1801. By the end of the
19th century the process of enclosure was largely complete.
Great experiments were conducted in farming during this
period. Machines were introduced for seeding and harvesting.
Rotation of crops was introduced by Townshend. The lands became
fertile by this method. Bakewell introduced scientific breeding of farm
animals. The horse-drawn ploughs, rake, portable threshers, manure
spreaders, multiple ploughs and dairy appliances had revolutionized
farming. These changes in agriculture increased food production as
well as other farm outputs.
Industrial Revolution
 The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European
scholars – Georges Michelet in France and Friedrich Engels in
Germany. It was used to describe the changes that occurred in the
industrial development of England between 1760 and 1820. The
Industrial Revolution had far-reaching effects in England.
Subsequently, similar changes occurred in European countries and in
the U.S.A. the Industrial Revolution had a major impact on the society
and economy of these countries and also on the rest of the world.
This phase of industrial development in England is strongly
associated with new machinery and technologies. These made it
possible to produce goods on a massive scale compared to handicraft
and handloom industries. There were changes in the cotton and iron
industries. Steam, a new source of power, began to be used on a
wide scale in British industries. Its use led to faster forms of
transportation by ships and railways. Industrialisation led to greater
277 276
the extent to which water
transportation could be utilized.
Railroads provided a solution for these
problems. The first tracks were made
of wood and the first cars were horse
drawn, but the introduction of iron for
rails and the application of Watt’s
steam engine for traction power
revolutionized the whole procedure. George Stephenson constructed
the first practical locomotive in 1814.The Stockton and Darlington
railroad started operation in England in 1825. The era of railroads
had begun.
Communication
 Modern transportation and business enterprises are much
dependent on rapid and efficient communication. Before the
perfection of the telegraph, carrier pigeons and
semaphores were the speediest methods available. The
electric telegraph depended upon earlier basic
researches made by Faraday, Volta, Ampere, and
Franklin. It was invented independently in Germany,
England, and the United States, by Steinheil,
Wheatstone, and Morse, respectively. Telegraphic
equipment was widely installed after 1845. A cable from  America
to Europe was laid under the Atlantic Ocean in 1866. By the close of
the 19
th
  century, all the important commercial centers in the world
had telegraphic communications. The penny post was established in
1840. The Universal Postal Union, to aid international mail service,
was adopted in 1875. Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
LOCOMOTIVE OF GEORGE STEPHENSON 
Steam Engine
Heavy machinery could not function with
out power to operate it. The invention of the steam
engine provided the practical solution. The first
practical application of steam to machinery was
made by James Watt in 1765. He devised the first
closed cylinder with a piston pushed back and forth
by steam. This has been extensively used in textile machinery.
Development of Transport
There is a close relationship between the development of
industry and improvement in transportation. Industrializaion depends
largely on the bringing of raw materials to factories and on the
disposing of manufactured goods in a wide market. As late as the
17th century, highways were poorly kept. A pack horse was the only
possible means of travel on land. In the second half of the 18
th
 century,
John McAdam (1756-1836) built a type of hard-surfaced road in
England. The only important change made in this method was the
substitution of a tar composition for mud as a binder. France copied
the English methods, and under the patronage of the government
many highways were built.
The heavy expenses involved in the building and upkeep of
highway encouraged the development of inland waterways. During
the second half of the 18
th
 century and the early part of the 19
th
century thousands of miles of artificial water route were dug in
England, in France, and in the United Slates. In 1761, a canal was
built in England from Worsley to Manchester to carry coal from the
mines to the furnaces.
There were serious drawbacks in the river and canal
transportation. The rate of travel  was slow and the expense of
construction and maintenance was high. Geographical factors limited
JAMES WATT 
GRAHAM BELL 
Page 4


273
Agricultural Revolution
The term agricultural revolution refers to the radical changes
in the method of agriculture in England in the 17
th
 and 18
th
 centuries.
There was a massive increase in agricultural productivity, which
supported the growing population. The Agricultural Revolution
preceded the Industrial Revolution in England. During the Agricultural
Revolution, four key changes took place in agricultural practices.
They were enclosure of lands, mechanization of farming, four-field
crop rotation, and selective breeding of domestic animals.
Prior to the agricultural revolution, the practice of agriculture
had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The
open field system was essentially feudal. Each farmer engaged in
cultivation in common land and dividing the produce.
From the beginning of 12
th
 century, some of the common fields
in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields. This process
rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries as sheep farming
grew more profitable. This led to farmers losing their land and their
LESSON 26
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The process of agricultural revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific inventions in different sectors of industrial
production.
4. Merits and demerits of the Industrial Revolution.
275 274
prosperity for some, but in the initial stages many people including
women and children had experienced poor living and working
conditions. This sparked off protests and the government was forced
to enact laws to improve the conditions of workers.
Causes for the Industrial Revolution
! England’s advantageous geographical location.
! The precedence of agricultural revolution.
! New inventions and the introduction of machinery.
! The enterprising spirit of British entrepreneurs.
! Growth of capital in England.
! Colonial possessions of England, which supplied raw
materials and served as markets
Scientific Inventions
Textile Machinery
The primary cause of the Industrial Revolution was the scientific
inventions. The earliest mechanical inventions came in the textile
industry. Spinning was the slowest process in the manufacturing of
cloth. The invention of flying shuttle by Kay in 1733 improved weaving.
In 1764, Hargreaves invented the ‘spinning jenny’. This machine could
spin eight threads at the same time, instead of one. Arkwright
improved the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1769. Compton improved it still further
in 1779. In 1785, Cartwright invented the power loom. Whitney, an
American, speeded up the process (1792) with a cotton gin, which
automatically removed seeds from the fiber of the cotton. The
invention of the sewing machine by Elias Howe, in 1846, accelerated
the production of clothing and made possible the modern clothing
industry. Thus, one invention followed another, not only in textile
industries but also in many others. In this way, the present-day
complex machinery has evolved.
grazing rights. Many farmers became unemployed. In the 16th and
17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the
Church, and legislation was drawn up against it. However, the
mechanization of agriculture during the 18th century required large,
enclosed fields. This led to a series of government acts, culminating
finally in the General Enclosure Act of 1801. By the end of the
19th century the process of enclosure was largely complete.
Great experiments were conducted in farming during this
period. Machines were introduced for seeding and harvesting.
Rotation of crops was introduced by Townshend. The lands became
fertile by this method. Bakewell introduced scientific breeding of farm
animals. The horse-drawn ploughs, rake, portable threshers, manure
spreaders, multiple ploughs and dairy appliances had revolutionized
farming. These changes in agriculture increased food production as
well as other farm outputs.
Industrial Revolution
 The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European
scholars – Georges Michelet in France and Friedrich Engels in
Germany. It was used to describe the changes that occurred in the
industrial development of England between 1760 and 1820. The
Industrial Revolution had far-reaching effects in England.
Subsequently, similar changes occurred in European countries and in
the U.S.A. the Industrial Revolution had a major impact on the society
and economy of these countries and also on the rest of the world.
This phase of industrial development in England is strongly
associated with new machinery and technologies. These made it
possible to produce goods on a massive scale compared to handicraft
and handloom industries. There were changes in the cotton and iron
industries. Steam, a new source of power, began to be used on a
wide scale in British industries. Its use led to faster forms of
transportation by ships and railways. Industrialisation led to greater
277 276
the extent to which water
transportation could be utilized.
Railroads provided a solution for these
problems. The first tracks were made
of wood and the first cars were horse
drawn, but the introduction of iron for
rails and the application of Watt’s
steam engine for traction power
revolutionized the whole procedure. George Stephenson constructed
the first practical locomotive in 1814.The Stockton and Darlington
railroad started operation in England in 1825. The era of railroads
had begun.
Communication
 Modern transportation and business enterprises are much
dependent on rapid and efficient communication. Before the
perfection of the telegraph, carrier pigeons and
semaphores were the speediest methods available. The
electric telegraph depended upon earlier basic
researches made by Faraday, Volta, Ampere, and
Franklin. It was invented independently in Germany,
England, and the United States, by Steinheil,
Wheatstone, and Morse, respectively. Telegraphic
equipment was widely installed after 1845. A cable from  America
to Europe was laid under the Atlantic Ocean in 1866. By the close of
the 19
th
  century, all the important commercial centers in the world
had telegraphic communications. The penny post was established in
1840. The Universal Postal Union, to aid international mail service,
was adopted in 1875. Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
LOCOMOTIVE OF GEORGE STEPHENSON 
Steam Engine
Heavy machinery could not function with
out power to operate it. The invention of the steam
engine provided the practical solution. The first
practical application of steam to machinery was
made by James Watt in 1765. He devised the first
closed cylinder with a piston pushed back and forth
by steam. This has been extensively used in textile machinery.
Development of Transport
There is a close relationship between the development of
industry and improvement in transportation. Industrializaion depends
largely on the bringing of raw materials to factories and on the
disposing of manufactured goods in a wide market. As late as the
17th century, highways were poorly kept. A pack horse was the only
possible means of travel on land. In the second half of the 18
th
 century,
John McAdam (1756-1836) built a type of hard-surfaced road in
England. The only important change made in this method was the
substitution of a tar composition for mud as a binder. France copied
the English methods, and under the patronage of the government
many highways were built.
The heavy expenses involved in the building and upkeep of
highway encouraged the development of inland waterways. During
the second half of the 18
th
 century and the early part of the 19
th
century thousands of miles of artificial water route were dug in
England, in France, and in the United Slates. In 1761, a canal was
built in England from Worsley to Manchester to carry coal from the
mines to the furnaces.
There were serious drawbacks in the river and canal
transportation. The rate of travel  was slow and the expense of
construction and maintenance was high. Geographical factors limited
JAMES WATT 
GRAHAM BELL 
279 278
Machinery
The introduction of power machinery rapidly increased
production of goods.
Intellectual Movement
The intellectual encouragement had also been great. Schools,
colleges, newspapers, libraries, and the radio had been dependent on
the capitalistic system for their rapid development. Many intellectual
like Marx, St. Simon emerged as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Large Employment
The starting of new industries provided employment to many
men and women.
Demerits of Industrial Revolution
New Social Problems
The rapid growth of industrial cities created problems that were
difficult to solve. Accommodation, sanitation, and health were not
provided adequately. Sickness and crime prevailed. Women and
children were employed for cheap labour. They worked for 12 to 14
hours per day.
Capitalism
The establishment of the factory system increased the amount
of money in circulation. However, money concentrated in the hands
of a few people.
Class Division
The Industrial Revolution divided society into two distinct
groups: the rich middle class (bourgeoisie), composed of
manufacturers, merchants, mine owners, bankers, and professional
men, on the one hand, and the wage-earning class (proletariat),
composed of mill workers and factory workers, on the other. This
Lighting
In industry, transportation, social activities, amusements, and
cultural pursuits, artificial light plays a very important role. In 1784, a
burner was devised for oil lamps, which was later used for kerosene
lamps. Gas for artificial illumination was introduced and widely used
by the middle of the 19th century. Davy, in 1821, worked out the
theory of the electric arc. Edison, in 1879 invented the electric bulb.
Iron and Steel
The coal and iron industries replaced old technologies of wood,
water and wind. In 1709 Darby introduced coal for charcoal in blast
furnace. John Smeaton invented the blast furnace
with a rotary fan. For the new machinery, a better
grade than ordinary cast iron was needed. Henry
Cord and Peter Onions introduced puddling and
rolling Process in 1784. In 1740 steel was produced
at Sheffield by Huntsman. Later, Henry Bessemer
invented a faster and cheaper method of producing
steel. The first iron bridge was constructed in 1777.
The first iron ship was made in 1790.
Merits of Industrial Revolution
Urbanisation
The factory system introduced by the Industrial Revolution
created cities and urban centres. In England, cities like Manchester,
Birmingham, Leeds, and Sheffield arose. People left their rural homes
and gathered around these cities by the hundreds and thousands in
quest of work and wages. The population of Manchester increased
six fold within a half century.
EDISON 
Page 5


273
Agricultural Revolution
The term agricultural revolution refers to the radical changes
in the method of agriculture in England in the 17
th
 and 18
th
 centuries.
There was a massive increase in agricultural productivity, which
supported the growing population. The Agricultural Revolution
preceded the Industrial Revolution in England. During the Agricultural
Revolution, four key changes took place in agricultural practices.
They were enclosure of lands, mechanization of farming, four-field
crop rotation, and selective breeding of domestic animals.
Prior to the agricultural revolution, the practice of agriculture
had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The
open field system was essentially feudal. Each farmer engaged in
cultivation in common land and dividing the produce.
From the beginning of 12
th
 century, some of the common fields
in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields. This process
rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries as sheep farming
grew more profitable. This led to farmers losing their land and their
LESSON 26
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The process of agricultural revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific inventions in different sectors of industrial
production.
4. Merits and demerits of the Industrial Revolution.
275 274
prosperity for some, but in the initial stages many people including
women and children had experienced poor living and working
conditions. This sparked off protests and the government was forced
to enact laws to improve the conditions of workers.
Causes for the Industrial Revolution
! England’s advantageous geographical location.
! The precedence of agricultural revolution.
! New inventions and the introduction of machinery.
! The enterprising spirit of British entrepreneurs.
! Growth of capital in England.
! Colonial possessions of England, which supplied raw
materials and served as markets
Scientific Inventions
Textile Machinery
The primary cause of the Industrial Revolution was the scientific
inventions. The earliest mechanical inventions came in the textile
industry. Spinning was the slowest process in the manufacturing of
cloth. The invention of flying shuttle by Kay in 1733 improved weaving.
In 1764, Hargreaves invented the ‘spinning jenny’. This machine could
spin eight threads at the same time, instead of one. Arkwright
improved the ‘spinning jenny’ in 1769. Compton improved it still further
in 1779. In 1785, Cartwright invented the power loom. Whitney, an
American, speeded up the process (1792) with a cotton gin, which
automatically removed seeds from the fiber of the cotton. The
invention of the sewing machine by Elias Howe, in 1846, accelerated
the production of clothing and made possible the modern clothing
industry. Thus, one invention followed another, not only in textile
industries but also in many others. In this way, the present-day
complex machinery has evolved.
grazing rights. Many farmers became unemployed. In the 16th and
17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the
Church, and legislation was drawn up against it. However, the
mechanization of agriculture during the 18th century required large,
enclosed fields. This led to a series of government acts, culminating
finally in the General Enclosure Act of 1801. By the end of the
19th century the process of enclosure was largely complete.
Great experiments were conducted in farming during this
period. Machines were introduced for seeding and harvesting.
Rotation of crops was introduced by Townshend. The lands became
fertile by this method. Bakewell introduced scientific breeding of farm
animals. The horse-drawn ploughs, rake, portable threshers, manure
spreaders, multiple ploughs and dairy appliances had revolutionized
farming. These changes in agriculture increased food production as
well as other farm outputs.
Industrial Revolution
 The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European
scholars – Georges Michelet in France and Friedrich Engels in
Germany. It was used to describe the changes that occurred in the
industrial development of England between 1760 and 1820. The
Industrial Revolution had far-reaching effects in England.
Subsequently, similar changes occurred in European countries and in
the U.S.A. the Industrial Revolution had a major impact on the society
and economy of these countries and also on the rest of the world.
This phase of industrial development in England is strongly
associated with new machinery and technologies. These made it
possible to produce goods on a massive scale compared to handicraft
and handloom industries. There were changes in the cotton and iron
industries. Steam, a new source of power, began to be used on a
wide scale in British industries. Its use led to faster forms of
transportation by ships and railways. Industrialisation led to greater
277 276
the extent to which water
transportation could be utilized.
Railroads provided a solution for these
problems. The first tracks were made
of wood and the first cars were horse
drawn, but the introduction of iron for
rails and the application of Watt’s
steam engine for traction power
revolutionized the whole procedure. George Stephenson constructed
the first practical locomotive in 1814.The Stockton and Darlington
railroad started operation in England in 1825. The era of railroads
had begun.
Communication
 Modern transportation and business enterprises are much
dependent on rapid and efficient communication. Before the
perfection of the telegraph, carrier pigeons and
semaphores were the speediest methods available. The
electric telegraph depended upon earlier basic
researches made by Faraday, Volta, Ampere, and
Franklin. It was invented independently in Germany,
England, and the United States, by Steinheil,
Wheatstone, and Morse, respectively. Telegraphic
equipment was widely installed after 1845. A cable from  America
to Europe was laid under the Atlantic Ocean in 1866. By the close of
the 19
th
  century, all the important commercial centers in the world
had telegraphic communications. The penny post was established in
1840. The Universal Postal Union, to aid international mail service,
was adopted in 1875. Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
LOCOMOTIVE OF GEORGE STEPHENSON 
Steam Engine
Heavy machinery could not function with
out power to operate it. The invention of the steam
engine provided the practical solution. The first
practical application of steam to machinery was
made by James Watt in 1765. He devised the first
closed cylinder with a piston pushed back and forth
by steam. This has been extensively used in textile machinery.
Development of Transport
There is a close relationship between the development of
industry and improvement in transportation. Industrializaion depends
largely on the bringing of raw materials to factories and on the
disposing of manufactured goods in a wide market. As late as the
17th century, highways were poorly kept. A pack horse was the only
possible means of travel on land. In the second half of the 18
th
 century,
John McAdam (1756-1836) built a type of hard-surfaced road in
England. The only important change made in this method was the
substitution of a tar composition for mud as a binder. France copied
the English methods, and under the patronage of the government
many highways were built.
The heavy expenses involved in the building and upkeep of
highway encouraged the development of inland waterways. During
the second half of the 18
th
 century and the early part of the 19
th
century thousands of miles of artificial water route were dug in
England, in France, and in the United Slates. In 1761, a canal was
built in England from Worsley to Manchester to carry coal from the
mines to the furnaces.
There were serious drawbacks in the river and canal
transportation. The rate of travel  was slow and the expense of
construction and maintenance was high. Geographical factors limited
JAMES WATT 
GRAHAM BELL 
279 278
Machinery
The introduction of power machinery rapidly increased
production of goods.
Intellectual Movement
The intellectual encouragement had also been great. Schools,
colleges, newspapers, libraries, and the radio had been dependent on
the capitalistic system for their rapid development. Many intellectual
like Marx, St. Simon emerged as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Large Employment
The starting of new industries provided employment to many
men and women.
Demerits of Industrial Revolution
New Social Problems
The rapid growth of industrial cities created problems that were
difficult to solve. Accommodation, sanitation, and health were not
provided adequately. Sickness and crime prevailed. Women and
children were employed for cheap labour. They worked for 12 to 14
hours per day.
Capitalism
The establishment of the factory system increased the amount
of money in circulation. However, money concentrated in the hands
of a few people.
Class Division
The Industrial Revolution divided society into two distinct
groups: the rich middle class (bourgeoisie), composed of
manufacturers, merchants, mine owners, bankers, and professional
men, on the one hand, and the wage-earning class (proletariat),
composed of mill workers and factory workers, on the other. This
Lighting
In industry, transportation, social activities, amusements, and
cultural pursuits, artificial light plays a very important role. In 1784, a
burner was devised for oil lamps, which was later used for kerosene
lamps. Gas for artificial illumination was introduced and widely used
by the middle of the 19th century. Davy, in 1821, worked out the
theory of the electric arc. Edison, in 1879 invented the electric bulb.
Iron and Steel
The coal and iron industries replaced old technologies of wood,
water and wind. In 1709 Darby introduced coal for charcoal in blast
furnace. John Smeaton invented the blast furnace
with a rotary fan. For the new machinery, a better
grade than ordinary cast iron was needed. Henry
Cord and Peter Onions introduced puddling and
rolling Process in 1784. In 1740 steel was produced
at Sheffield by Huntsman. Later, Henry Bessemer
invented a faster and cheaper method of producing
steel. The first iron bridge was constructed in 1777.
The first iron ship was made in 1790.
Merits of Industrial Revolution
Urbanisation
The factory system introduced by the Industrial Revolution
created cities and urban centres. In England, cities like Manchester,
Birmingham, Leeds, and Sheffield arose. People left their rural homes
and gathered around these cities by the hundreds and thousands in
quest of work and wages. The population of Manchester increased
six fold within a half century.
EDISON 
281 280
gap between employer and employee gave rise to many economic
and social problems.
Growth of Colonialism and Imperialism
The Industrial Revolution had strengthened colonialism because
the colonies were useful to obtain raw materials and sell the finished
products. So, larger territories were captured thus paving way for
imperialism.
Industry Name Invention Year
Textile
Machinery
John Kay
Hardgreaves
Richard Arkwright
Samuel Crompton
Edmund Cartwright
Ely Whitney
Elias Howe
Flying Shuttle
Spinning jenny
Water Frame
Spinning Mule
Power Loom
Cotton Gin
Sewing Machine
1763
1764
1769
1779
1785
1792
1846
Coal and
Iron
Industries
John Smeaton
Henry Bessemen
Sir Humphrey Davy
Blastfurnance
Steel
Safety Lamp
1760
1850
1816
Field of
Power
James Watt
George Stephenson
Steam Engine
Locomotive
1736-1819
1781-1848
Field of
Transport
John Mc Adam
He used a mud
birder to build a
type of hard
surface road
1756-1836
1876 Comm-
unication
Alexander Graham
Bell
Telephone
Learning Outcome
After learning this lesson the students will be able to explain
1. The meaning and the process of Agricultural Revolution.
2. The causes for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Scientific Inventions that contributed to the growth of
Industrial Revolution.
4. Growth of different industrial sectors such as textiles and
transportation.
5. The merits and demerits of industrial revolution.
Read More
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