TN History Textbook: Indian National Movement (1885-1905) Notes | Study Old & New NCERTs for IAS Preparation (Must Read) - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: Indian National Movement (1885-1905) Notes | Study Old & New NCERTs for IAS Preparation (Must Read) - UPSC

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 Page 1


139
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
The following causes are responsible for the origin and growth of
nationalism in India.
1. Political Unity
For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically
and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced
a uniform system of law and government.
2. Development of Communication and Transport
The introduction of railways, telegraphs and postal services and
the construction of roads and canals facilitated communication among
the people. All these brought Indians nearer to each other and provided
the facility to organise the national movement on an all India basis.
LESSON 14
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The growth of East India Company’s Rule in India.
1. Origin and growth of nationalism in India..
2. Birth of Indian National Congress.
3. The objectives and methods of Early Nationalist Movement.
4. Leaders of this period.
5. Achievements of moderates.
Page 2


139
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
The following causes are responsible for the origin and growth of
nationalism in India.
1. Political Unity
For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically
and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced
a uniform system of law and government.
2. Development of Communication and Transport
The introduction of railways, telegraphs and postal services and
the construction of roads and canals facilitated communication among
the people. All these brought Indians nearer to each other and provided
the facility to organise the national movement on an all India basis.
LESSON 14
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The growth of East India Company’s Rule in India.
1. Origin and growth of nationalism in India..
2. Birth of Indian National Congress.
3. The objectives and methods of Early Nationalist Movement.
4. Leaders of this period.
5. Achievements of moderates.
141 140
means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms. All these measures
created widespread discontent among the Indians.
9.  The Ilbert Bill controversy
The Ilbert Bill was presented in the Central Legislature during the
Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon. The Bill tried to remove racial inequality
between Indian and European judges in courts. This Bill was opposed
by the British residents in India. Ultimately the Bill was modified.
Thus various factors contributed to the rise of nationalism and the
formation of the Indian National Congress.
Early Political Associations
The British Indian Association – 1851 Bengal
The Bombay Association — 1852 Dadabhai Naoroji
East India Association 1856 London
Madras Native Association 1852
Poona Sarvojanik Sabha—1870
The Madras Mahajana Sabha—1884
The Indian National Congress (1885)
Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant
in the British Government took the  initiative to form
an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National
Congress was founded and its first session was held
at Bombay in 1885. W.C. Banerjee was its first
president. It was attended by 72 delegates from all
over India. Persons attending the session belonged
to different religious faiths. They discussed the
problems of all the Indians irrespective of their
religion, caste, language and regions. Thus Indian
National Congress from the start was an all-India secular movement
A. O. HUME 
3. English Language and Western Education
The English language played an important role in the growth of
nationalism in the country. The English educated Indians, who led the
national movement, developed Indian nationalism and organised it.
Western education facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality,
freedom and nationalism and sowed the seeds of nationalism.
4. The Role of the Press
The Indian Press, both English and vernacular, had also aroused
the national consciousness.
5. Social and Religious Movements of the Nineteenth Century
The leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj,
Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, and Theosophical Society generated
a feeling of regard for and pride in the motherland.
6. Economic Exploitation by the British
A good deal of anti-British feeling was created by the economic
policy pursued by the British government in India. The English
systematically ruined the Indian trade and native industries. Therefore,
economic exploitation by the British was one of the most important causes
for the rise of Indian nationalism.
7. Racial Discrimination
The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness and
suspicion between the British and the Indians. The English feeling of
racial superiority grew. India as a nation and Indians as individuals were
subjected to insults, humiliation and contemptuous treatment.
8. Administration of Lytton
Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger
part of India was in the grip of famine. He passed the Vernacular Press
Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press. His Arms Act was a
Page 3


139
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
The following causes are responsible for the origin and growth of
nationalism in India.
1. Political Unity
For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically
and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced
a uniform system of law and government.
2. Development of Communication and Transport
The introduction of railways, telegraphs and postal services and
the construction of roads and canals facilitated communication among
the people. All these brought Indians nearer to each other and provided
the facility to organise the national movement on an all India basis.
LESSON 14
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The growth of East India Company’s Rule in India.
1. Origin and growth of nationalism in India..
2. Birth of Indian National Congress.
3. The objectives and methods of Early Nationalist Movement.
4. Leaders of this period.
5. Achievements of moderates.
141 140
means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms. All these measures
created widespread discontent among the Indians.
9.  The Ilbert Bill controversy
The Ilbert Bill was presented in the Central Legislature during the
Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon. The Bill tried to remove racial inequality
between Indian and European judges in courts. This Bill was opposed
by the British residents in India. Ultimately the Bill was modified.
Thus various factors contributed to the rise of nationalism and the
formation of the Indian National Congress.
Early Political Associations
The British Indian Association – 1851 Bengal
The Bombay Association — 1852 Dadabhai Naoroji
East India Association 1856 London
Madras Native Association 1852
Poona Sarvojanik Sabha—1870
The Madras Mahajana Sabha—1884
The Indian National Congress (1885)
Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant
in the British Government took the  initiative to form
an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National
Congress was founded and its first session was held
at Bombay in 1885. W.C. Banerjee was its first
president. It was attended by 72 delegates from all
over India. Persons attending the session belonged
to different religious faiths. They discussed the
problems of all the Indians irrespective of their
religion, caste, language and regions. Thus Indian
National Congress from the start was an all-India secular movement
A. O. HUME 
3. English Language and Western Education
The English language played an important role in the growth of
nationalism in the country. The English educated Indians, who led the
national movement, developed Indian nationalism and organised it.
Western education facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality,
freedom and nationalism and sowed the seeds of nationalism.
4. The Role of the Press
The Indian Press, both English and vernacular, had also aroused
the national consciousness.
5. Social and Religious Movements of the Nineteenth Century
The leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj,
Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, and Theosophical Society generated
a feeling of regard for and pride in the motherland.
6. Economic Exploitation by the British
A good deal of anti-British feeling was created by the economic
policy pursued by the British government in India. The English
systematically ruined the Indian trade and native industries. Therefore,
economic exploitation by the British was one of the most important causes
for the rise of Indian nationalism.
7. Racial Discrimination
The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness and
suspicion between the British and the Indians. The English feeling of
racial superiority grew. India as a nation and Indians as individuals were
subjected to insults, humiliation and contemptuous treatment.
8. Administration of Lytton
Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger
part of India was in the grip of famine. He passed the Vernacular Press
Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press. His Arms Act was a
143 142
For a few years the Congress enjoyed the patronage of the British
administrators. Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were
moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill.
They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and
constitutional means to achieve their demands.
Main Demands of Moderates
! Expansion and reform of legislative councils.
! Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding
the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
! Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
! More powers for the local bodies.
! Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from
unjust landlords.
! Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty.
! Reduction of spending on army.
! Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form
associations
Methods of Moderates
The Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They were loyal to the British. They looked to England for
inspiration and guidance. The Moderates used petitions, resolutions,
meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present
their demands. They confined their political activities to the educated
classes only. Their aim was to attain political rights and self-government
stage by stage.
In the beginning, the British Government welcomed the birth of
the Indian National Congress.  In 1886, Governor General Lord Dufferin
gave a tea garden party for the Congress members in Calcutta. The
embracing every section of Indian society. The second session was held
in Calcutta in 1886 and the third in Madras in 1887.
The history of the Indian National Movement can be studied in
three important phases:
(i) The phase of moderate nationalism (1885-1905) when the
Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown.
(ii) The years 1906-1916 witnessed- Swadeshi Movement, rise
of militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement.
(iii) The period from 1917 to1947 is known as the Gandhian
era.
Moderate Nationalism
The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement
were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai
Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale,
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji,
Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar.
Surendranath Banerjee was called the Indian
Burke.  He firmly opposed the Partition of Bengal.
He founded the Indian Association (1876) to
agitate for political reforms. He had convened the
Indian National Conference (1883) which merged
with the Indian National Congress in l886. G.
Subramanya Aiyar preached nationalism through the
Madras Mahajana Sabha. He also founded the The Hindu and
Swadesamitran. Dadabhai Naoroji was known as the Grand Old Man
of India.  He is regarded as India’s unofficial Ambassador in England.
He was the first Indian to become a Member of the British House of
Commons. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was regarded as the political guru of
Gandhi. In 1905, he founded the Servants of India Society to train
Indians to dedicate their lives to the cause of the country
GOKHALE 
Page 4


139
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
The following causes are responsible for the origin and growth of
nationalism in India.
1. Political Unity
For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically
and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced
a uniform system of law and government.
2. Development of Communication and Transport
The introduction of railways, telegraphs and postal services and
the construction of roads and canals facilitated communication among
the people. All these brought Indians nearer to each other and provided
the facility to organise the national movement on an all India basis.
LESSON 14
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The growth of East India Company’s Rule in India.
1. Origin and growth of nationalism in India..
2. Birth of Indian National Congress.
3. The objectives and methods of Early Nationalist Movement.
4. Leaders of this period.
5. Achievements of moderates.
141 140
means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms. All these measures
created widespread discontent among the Indians.
9.  The Ilbert Bill controversy
The Ilbert Bill was presented in the Central Legislature during the
Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon. The Bill tried to remove racial inequality
between Indian and European judges in courts. This Bill was opposed
by the British residents in India. Ultimately the Bill was modified.
Thus various factors contributed to the rise of nationalism and the
formation of the Indian National Congress.
Early Political Associations
The British Indian Association – 1851 Bengal
The Bombay Association — 1852 Dadabhai Naoroji
East India Association 1856 London
Madras Native Association 1852
Poona Sarvojanik Sabha—1870
The Madras Mahajana Sabha—1884
The Indian National Congress (1885)
Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant
in the British Government took the  initiative to form
an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National
Congress was founded and its first session was held
at Bombay in 1885. W.C. Banerjee was its first
president. It was attended by 72 delegates from all
over India. Persons attending the session belonged
to different religious faiths. They discussed the
problems of all the Indians irrespective of their
religion, caste, language and regions. Thus Indian
National Congress from the start was an all-India secular movement
A. O. HUME 
3. English Language and Western Education
The English language played an important role in the growth of
nationalism in the country. The English educated Indians, who led the
national movement, developed Indian nationalism and organised it.
Western education facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality,
freedom and nationalism and sowed the seeds of nationalism.
4. The Role of the Press
The Indian Press, both English and vernacular, had also aroused
the national consciousness.
5. Social and Religious Movements of the Nineteenth Century
The leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj,
Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, and Theosophical Society generated
a feeling of regard for and pride in the motherland.
6. Economic Exploitation by the British
A good deal of anti-British feeling was created by the economic
policy pursued by the British government in India. The English
systematically ruined the Indian trade and native industries. Therefore,
economic exploitation by the British was one of the most important causes
for the rise of Indian nationalism.
7. Racial Discrimination
The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness and
suspicion between the British and the Indians. The English feeling of
racial superiority grew. India as a nation and Indians as individuals were
subjected to insults, humiliation and contemptuous treatment.
8. Administration of Lytton
Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger
part of India was in the grip of famine. He passed the Vernacular Press
Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press. His Arms Act was a
143 142
For a few years the Congress enjoyed the patronage of the British
administrators. Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were
moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill.
They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and
constitutional means to achieve their demands.
Main Demands of Moderates
! Expansion and reform of legislative councils.
! Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding
the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
! Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
! More powers for the local bodies.
! Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from
unjust landlords.
! Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty.
! Reduction of spending on army.
! Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form
associations
Methods of Moderates
The Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They were loyal to the British. They looked to England for
inspiration and guidance. The Moderates used petitions, resolutions,
meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present
their demands. They confined their political activities to the educated
classes only. Their aim was to attain political rights and self-government
stage by stage.
In the beginning, the British Government welcomed the birth of
the Indian National Congress.  In 1886, Governor General Lord Dufferin
gave a tea garden party for the Congress members in Calcutta. The
embracing every section of Indian society. The second session was held
in Calcutta in 1886 and the third in Madras in 1887.
The history of the Indian National Movement can be studied in
three important phases:
(i) The phase of moderate nationalism (1885-1905) when the
Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown.
(ii) The years 1906-1916 witnessed- Swadeshi Movement, rise
of militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement.
(iii) The period from 1917 to1947 is known as the Gandhian
era.
Moderate Nationalism
The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement
were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai
Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale,
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji,
Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar.
Surendranath Banerjee was called the Indian
Burke.  He firmly opposed the Partition of Bengal.
He founded the Indian Association (1876) to
agitate for political reforms. He had convened the
Indian National Conference (1883) which merged
with the Indian National Congress in l886. G.
Subramanya Aiyar preached nationalism through the
Madras Mahajana Sabha. He also founded the The Hindu and
Swadesamitran. Dadabhai Naoroji was known as the Grand Old Man
of India.  He is regarded as India’s unofficial Ambassador in England.
He was the first Indian to become a Member of the British House of
Commons. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was regarded as the political guru of
Gandhi. In 1905, he founded the Servants of India Society to train
Indians to dedicate their lives to the cause of the country
GOKHALE 
145 144
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson students would be able to explain
1. The factors led to the growth of Indian nationalism.
2. The birth and growth of the Indian National Congress.
3. A brief sketch of the leaders of the moderate nationalism.
4. The aims and methods of the moderates in claiming their
demands.
5. The British exploitation of the Indian economy and the Drain
Theory.
government officials had also attended Congress sessions. With the
increase in Congress demands, the government became unfriendly. It
encouraged the Muslims to stay away from the Congress. The only
demand of the Congress granted by the British was the expansion of the
legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
Achievements of Moderates
1. The Moderates were able to create a wide national awakening
among the people.
2. They popularized the ideas of democracy, civil liberties and
representative institutions.
3. They explained how the British were exploiting Indians.
Particularly, Dadabhai Naoroji in his famous book Poverty and
UnBritish Rule in India wrote his Drain Theory.  He showed
how India’s wealth was going away to England in the form of: (a)
salaries,(b)savings, (c) pensions, (d) payments to British troops in
India and (e) profits of the British companies. In fact, the British
Government was forced to appoint the Welby Commission, with
Dadabhai as the first Indian as its member, to enquire into the
matter.
4. Some Moderates like Ranade and Gokhale favoured social
reforms. They protested against child marriage and widowhood.
5.     The Moderates had succeeded in getting the expansion of the
legislative  councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
Page 5


139
Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
The following causes are responsible for the origin and growth of
nationalism in India.
1. Political Unity
For the first time, most of the regions in India were united politically
and administratively under a single power (the British rule). It introduced
a uniform system of law and government.
2. Development of Communication and Transport
The introduction of railways, telegraphs and postal services and
the construction of roads and canals facilitated communication among
the people. All these brought Indians nearer to each other and provided
the facility to organise the national movement on an all India basis.
LESSON 14
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1885-1905)
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The growth of East India Company’s Rule in India.
1. Origin and growth of nationalism in India..
2. Birth of Indian National Congress.
3. The objectives and methods of Early Nationalist Movement.
4. Leaders of this period.
5. Achievements of moderates.
141 140
means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms. All these measures
created widespread discontent among the Indians.
9.  The Ilbert Bill controversy
The Ilbert Bill was presented in the Central Legislature during the
Viceroyalty of Lord Ripon. The Bill tried to remove racial inequality
between Indian and European judges in courts. This Bill was opposed
by the British residents in India. Ultimately the Bill was modified.
Thus various factors contributed to the rise of nationalism and the
formation of the Indian National Congress.
Early Political Associations
The British Indian Association – 1851 Bengal
The Bombay Association — 1852 Dadabhai Naoroji
East India Association 1856 London
Madras Native Association 1852
Poona Sarvojanik Sabha—1870
The Madras Mahajana Sabha—1884
The Indian National Congress (1885)
Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant
in the British Government took the  initiative to form
an all-India organization. Thus, the Indian National
Congress was founded and its first session was held
at Bombay in 1885. W.C. Banerjee was its first
president. It was attended by 72 delegates from all
over India. Persons attending the session belonged
to different religious faiths. They discussed the
problems of all the Indians irrespective of their
religion, caste, language and regions. Thus Indian
National Congress from the start was an all-India secular movement
A. O. HUME 
3. English Language and Western Education
The English language played an important role in the growth of
nationalism in the country. The English educated Indians, who led the
national movement, developed Indian nationalism and organised it.
Western education facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality,
freedom and nationalism and sowed the seeds of nationalism.
4. The Role of the Press
The Indian Press, both English and vernacular, had also aroused
the national consciousness.
5. Social and Religious Movements of the Nineteenth Century
The leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj,
Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, and Theosophical Society generated
a feeling of regard for and pride in the motherland.
6. Economic Exploitation by the British
A good deal of anti-British feeling was created by the economic
policy pursued by the British government in India. The English
systematically ruined the Indian trade and native industries. Therefore,
economic exploitation by the British was one of the most important causes
for the rise of Indian nationalism.
7. Racial Discrimination
The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness and
suspicion between the British and the Indians. The English feeling of
racial superiority grew. India as a nation and Indians as individuals were
subjected to insults, humiliation and contemptuous treatment.
8. Administration of Lytton
Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger
part of India was in the grip of famine. He passed the Vernacular Press
Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press. His Arms Act was a
143 142
For a few years the Congress enjoyed the patronage of the British
administrators. Between 1885 and 1905, the Congress leaders were
moderates. The Moderates had faith in the British justice and goodwill.
They were called moderates because they adopted peaceful and
constitutional means to achieve their demands.
Main Demands of Moderates
! Expansion and reform of legislative councils.
! Greater opportunities for Indians in higher posts by holding
the ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
! Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
! More powers for the local bodies.
! Reduction of land revenue and protection of peasants from
unjust landlords.
! Abolition of salt tax and sugar duty.
! Reduction of spending on army.
! Freedom of speech and expression and freedom to form
associations
Methods of Moderates
The Moderates had total faith in the British sense of justice and
fair play. They were loyal to the British. They looked to England for
inspiration and guidance. The Moderates used petitions, resolutions,
meetings, leaflets and pamphlets, memorandum and delegations to present
their demands. They confined their political activities to the educated
classes only. Their aim was to attain political rights and self-government
stage by stage.
In the beginning, the British Government welcomed the birth of
the Indian National Congress.  In 1886, Governor General Lord Dufferin
gave a tea garden party for the Congress members in Calcutta. The
embracing every section of Indian society. The second session was held
in Calcutta in 1886 and the third in Madras in 1887.
The history of the Indian National Movement can be studied in
three important phases:
(i) The phase of moderate nationalism (1885-1905) when the
Congress continued to be loyal to the British crown.
(ii) The years 1906-1916 witnessed- Swadeshi Movement, rise
of militant nationalism and the Home Rule Movement.
(iii) The period from 1917 to1947 is known as the Gandhian
era.
Moderate Nationalism
The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement
were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai
Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale,
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji,
Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar.
Surendranath Banerjee was called the Indian
Burke.  He firmly opposed the Partition of Bengal.
He founded the Indian Association (1876) to
agitate for political reforms. He had convened the
Indian National Conference (1883) which merged
with the Indian National Congress in l886. G.
Subramanya Aiyar preached nationalism through the
Madras Mahajana Sabha. He also founded the The Hindu and
Swadesamitran. Dadabhai Naoroji was known as the Grand Old Man
of India.  He is regarded as India’s unofficial Ambassador in England.
He was the first Indian to become a Member of the British House of
Commons. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was regarded as the political guru of
Gandhi. In 1905, he founded the Servants of India Society to train
Indians to dedicate their lives to the cause of the country
GOKHALE 
145 144
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson students would be able to explain
1. The factors led to the growth of Indian nationalism.
2. The birth and growth of the Indian National Congress.
3. A brief sketch of the leaders of the moderate nationalism.
4. The aims and methods of the moderates in claiming their
demands.
5. The British exploitation of the Indian economy and the Drain
Theory.
government officials had also attended Congress sessions. With the
increase in Congress demands, the government became unfriendly. It
encouraged the Muslims to stay away from the Congress. The only
demand of the Congress granted by the British was the expansion of the
legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
Achievements of Moderates
1. The Moderates were able to create a wide national awakening
among the people.
2. They popularized the ideas of democracy, civil liberties and
representative institutions.
3. They explained how the British were exploiting Indians.
Particularly, Dadabhai Naoroji in his famous book Poverty and
UnBritish Rule in India wrote his Drain Theory.  He showed
how India’s wealth was going away to England in the form of: (a)
salaries,(b)savings, (c) pensions, (d) payments to British troops in
India and (e) profits of the British companies. In fact, the British
Government was forced to appoint the Welby Commission, with
Dadabhai as the first Indian as its member, to enquire into the
matter.
4. Some Moderates like Ranade and Gokhale favoured social
reforms. They protested against child marriage and widowhood.
5.     The Moderates had succeeded in getting the expansion of the
legislative  councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
147 146
IV. Find out the correct statement. One statement alone is
right.
a) The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness and
suspicion between the British and the Indians.
b) Lord Ripon  arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger
part of India was in the grip of famine.
c) A.O. Hume was the  first president of the INC in 1885.
d) Gokhale  was called the Indian Burke.
V. State whether the following statements are T rue or False.
1. W.C. Banerjee was the first President of the Indian National
Congress.
2. The book Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India  was written by
S.N. Banerjee.
3. The administration of Lord Lytton contributed to the growth of
nationalism in India.
4. The period from 1906 to 1916 is known as the era of moderate
nationalism.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. Indian National Congress.
2. Dadhabai Naoroji.
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Write a note on the main demands of the moderates.
2. Discuss the methods adopted by the moderates in the first phase
of the Indian National Movement.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Examine the causes for the rise of nationalism in India.
2. Evaluate the achievements of the moderates.
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. The Indian National Congress was founded by
(a) W.C. Banerjee
(b) A.O. Hume
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
2. Who among the following was the political Guru of Gandhiji ?
(a) Surendra Nath Banerjee
(b) Gopala Krishna Gokhale
(c) Bala Gangadhara Tilak
(d) Bipin Chandra Pal
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at
……...............
2. ……… was the first Indian to become a member of the British
House of Commons.
III. Match the following.
1. Delhi Durbar a. S.N. Banerjee
2. Ilbert Bill Controversy b. Gokhale
3. Indian Association c. Lord Lytton
4. Servants of India Society d. Dadhabai Naaoroji
5. Drain Theory e. Lord Ripon
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