TN History Textbook: Role of Tamil Nadu in the Indian National Movement Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: Role of Tamil Nadu in the Indian National Movement Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

The document TN History Textbook: Role of Tamil Nadu in the Indian National Movement Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation.
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 Page 1


177
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National
Movement. Even prior to the Great Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in
Panchalam Kuruchi, the 1801 “South Indian Rebellion” of the Marudu
brothers and the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 were the early anti-colonial
struggles in Tamil Nadu. During the nationalist era Tamil Nadu
provided the leaders like G. Subramania Iyer, V.O.C. Chidambaram
Pillai, Subramania Bharathi, C. Rajagopalachari and K. Kamaraj to
the National Movement. Besides, the nationalist movement in Tamil
Nadu was as active as elsewhere.
Beginning of the National Movement in Tamil Nadu
The earliest political organisation, the Madras Native
Association was started in July 1852. Lakshminarasu Chetty and
Srinivasa Pillai were the founders of this organization. The Madras
Native Association was sharply critical of the policies of the East
India Company’s rule. Subsequently in 1884, the Madras Mahajana
Sabha was established by P. Anandacharlu and P. Rangaiya Naidu.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Learning Objectives
After studying this lesson students will come to understand
1. The early nationalist uprisings in Tamil Nadu.
2. Swadeshi Movement.
3. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu.
4. Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu.
5. Quit India Movement.
Page 2


177
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National
Movement. Even prior to the Great Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in
Panchalam Kuruchi, the 1801 “South Indian Rebellion” of the Marudu
brothers and the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 were the early anti-colonial
struggles in Tamil Nadu. During the nationalist era Tamil Nadu
provided the leaders like G. Subramania Iyer, V.O.C. Chidambaram
Pillai, Subramania Bharathi, C. Rajagopalachari and K. Kamaraj to
the National Movement. Besides, the nationalist movement in Tamil
Nadu was as active as elsewhere.
Beginning of the National Movement in Tamil Nadu
The earliest political organisation, the Madras Native
Association was started in July 1852. Lakshminarasu Chetty and
Srinivasa Pillai were the founders of this organization. The Madras
Native Association was sharply critical of the policies of the East
India Company’s rule. Subsequently in 1884, the Madras Mahajana
Sabha was established by P. Anandacharlu and P. Rangaiya Naidu.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Learning Objectives
After studying this lesson students will come to understand
1. The early nationalist uprisings in Tamil Nadu.
2. Swadeshi Movement.
3. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu.
4. Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu.
5. Quit India Movement.
179 178
Tuticorin. In 1906 he launched the Swadeshi
Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin. Hence
he was called Kappalottiya Tamilan. There was
competition between Swadeshi Steam Navigation
Company and British India Steam Navigation
Company. V.O.C. advocated the boycott of the
British India Steam Navigation Company and this
had resulted in the Tirunelveli uprising in March
1908. He was ably assisted by Subramania Siva.
Both were arrested and imprisoned. They served six years rigorous
imprisonment. They were given harsh punishment inside the prison.
V.O.C. was asked to draw an oil press and hence he is known as
Chekkilutta Chemmal.
The arrest of the nationalist leaders,
harsh punishment for the nationalist leaders
inside the prison and the collapse of the
Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company led to
the formation of a revolutionary organization
in Tamil Nadu called the Bharathamatha
Association. Nilakanta Bramachari played a
vital role in it. One of the followers of this
association Vanchi Nathan shot dead the
notorious British official Robert William Ashe at Maniyatchi junction
in June 1911.
Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Home rule Movement in Madras was
organized by Mrs. Annie Besant  between 1916
and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s
decision to launch a Home Rule Movement
appeared in New India in September 1915.
SUBRAMANIA SIVA 
V.O. CHIDAMBARAM
ANNIE BESANT 
The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this
organization.
The Madras Mahajana Sabha strongly supported the activities
of the Indian National Congress. It had also initiated social reform.
G. Subramania Iyer performed the remarriage of his widowed
daughter in December 1889. He moved the first resolution in the
first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He started the
nationalist papers like The Hindu in English and Swadeshamitran
in Tamil. In 1892, the Madras Provincial Conference was started to
mobilize people in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. The third session of
the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in 1887 under the
presidentship of Fakruddin Thyabji. Later a number of such annual
sessions were also held in the city of Madras.
Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 led to
the beginning of Swadeshi  Movement in
Tamil Nadu. During this period the important
leaders of the National Movement were –
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, Subramania Siva
and Subramania Bharathi. In May 1907
Bharathi brought Bipin Chandra Pal one of
the leaders of extremists in the Congress to
Madras city. After the Surat split in 1907,
V.O.C. and fellow nationalists started the
Chennai Jana Sangam. Subramania Bharathi was a non-conformist,
unorthodox and a revolutionary in social and political ideas. He edited
the Tamil Weekly India .He wrote nationalist songs called the
Swadesa Geethangal.
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a lawyer by profession and he
joined the nationalist movement in 1905. He was a follower of Bal
Ganghadar Tilak. He led the Coral Mill Strike in February 1908 in
SUBRAMANIA BHARATHI
Page 3


177
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National
Movement. Even prior to the Great Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in
Panchalam Kuruchi, the 1801 “South Indian Rebellion” of the Marudu
brothers and the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 were the early anti-colonial
struggles in Tamil Nadu. During the nationalist era Tamil Nadu
provided the leaders like G. Subramania Iyer, V.O.C. Chidambaram
Pillai, Subramania Bharathi, C. Rajagopalachari and K. Kamaraj to
the National Movement. Besides, the nationalist movement in Tamil
Nadu was as active as elsewhere.
Beginning of the National Movement in Tamil Nadu
The earliest political organisation, the Madras Native
Association was started in July 1852. Lakshminarasu Chetty and
Srinivasa Pillai were the founders of this organization. The Madras
Native Association was sharply critical of the policies of the East
India Company’s rule. Subsequently in 1884, the Madras Mahajana
Sabha was established by P. Anandacharlu and P. Rangaiya Naidu.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Learning Objectives
After studying this lesson students will come to understand
1. The early nationalist uprisings in Tamil Nadu.
2. Swadeshi Movement.
3. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu.
4. Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu.
5. Quit India Movement.
179 178
Tuticorin. In 1906 he launched the Swadeshi
Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin. Hence
he was called Kappalottiya Tamilan. There was
competition between Swadeshi Steam Navigation
Company and British India Steam Navigation
Company. V.O.C. advocated the boycott of the
British India Steam Navigation Company and this
had resulted in the Tirunelveli uprising in March
1908. He was ably assisted by Subramania Siva.
Both were arrested and imprisoned. They served six years rigorous
imprisonment. They were given harsh punishment inside the prison.
V.O.C. was asked to draw an oil press and hence he is known as
Chekkilutta Chemmal.
The arrest of the nationalist leaders,
harsh punishment for the nationalist leaders
inside the prison and the collapse of the
Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company led to
the formation of a revolutionary organization
in Tamil Nadu called the Bharathamatha
Association. Nilakanta Bramachari played a
vital role in it. One of the followers of this
association Vanchi Nathan shot dead the
notorious British official Robert William Ashe at Maniyatchi junction
in June 1911.
Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Home rule Movement in Madras was
organized by Mrs. Annie Besant  between 1916
and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s
decision to launch a Home Rule Movement
appeared in New India in September 1915.
SUBRAMANIA SIVA 
V.O. CHIDAMBARAM
ANNIE BESANT 
The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this
organization.
The Madras Mahajana Sabha strongly supported the activities
of the Indian National Congress. It had also initiated social reform.
G. Subramania Iyer performed the remarriage of his widowed
daughter in December 1889. He moved the first resolution in the
first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He started the
nationalist papers like The Hindu in English and Swadeshamitran
in Tamil. In 1892, the Madras Provincial Conference was started to
mobilize people in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. The third session of
the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in 1887 under the
presidentship of Fakruddin Thyabji. Later a number of such annual
sessions were also held in the city of Madras.
Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 led to
the beginning of Swadeshi  Movement in
Tamil Nadu. During this period the important
leaders of the National Movement were –
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, Subramania Siva
and Subramania Bharathi. In May 1907
Bharathi brought Bipin Chandra Pal one of
the leaders of extremists in the Congress to
Madras city. After the Surat split in 1907,
V.O.C. and fellow nationalists started the
Chennai Jana Sangam. Subramania Bharathi was a non-conformist,
unorthodox and a revolutionary in social and political ideas. He edited
the Tamil Weekly India .He wrote nationalist songs called the
Swadesa Geethangal.
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a lawyer by profession and he
joined the nationalist movement in 1905. He was a follower of Bal
Ganghadar Tilak. He led the Coral Mill Strike in February 1908 in
SUBRAMANIA BHARATHI
181 180
Committee in 1929. From the beginning, Kamaraj was the man of
the masses. He spoke in simple and direct language.    He had a
sound   common   sense   and practical wisdom.    He was fully
aware of the    rural   Tamil Nadu.     He visited each and every
village and understood the different problems of the masses. He
always identified himself with   the    common man of Tamil Nadu.
Thus, he really brought the Congress movement to the villages in
Tamil Nadu,
Salt Satyagraha
As part of the Civil Disobedience Movement, Gandhi launched
the Salt Satyagraha. He  undertook the Dandi March in 1930.
C. Rajagopalachari became the TNCC
president in April 1930. Authorized by TNCC
and AICC to direct the Salt Satyagraha in Tamil
Nadu Rajaji undertook the famous
Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha March. He
selected the route from Tiruchirappalli to
Vedaranyam in Thanjauvr district. The March
began on Tamil New Year’s Day   (13
th
 April).
The   March reached Vedaranyam on 28 April
1930. Two days later Rajagopalachari was
arrested for breaking the salt  laws. Some of the other important
leaders who participated in the Vedaranyam Salt
Satyagraha were T.S.S. Rajan, Mrs. Lakshmipathi
Sardar Vedaratnam Pillai, C. Swaminatha Chetty and
K. Santhanam.
Tiruppur Kumaran who led the flag march was
fatally beaten. Since he guarded the national flag in
his hands he was called Kodi Kaththa Kumaran.
Commemorating his sacrifice the Goverment of India
issued a postal stamp in his honour.
Besant sought the support of the Indian National Congress at its
annual meeting at Bombay in December, 1915. She was supported
in her movement by Tilak. Home Rule Movement was vigorous during
the First World War.
Non-co-operation Movement
In Tamil Nadu the Non-co-operation Movement was strong
during the years 1921—23. Beginning in March 1921 there were
campaigns of Non-Cooperation against the foreign regulations. In
1921 and 1922 there were campaigns against the consumption of
liquor in many parts of the province. Temperance campaign was
particularly prominent in Madurai.  Non- Cooperation    had   been a
success in Tamil Nadu. C. Rajagopalachari, S. Satyamurthi and E.
V. Ramaswami Naicker were the important leaders of the Non-
Cooperation Movement in Tamil Nadu. At that time   E. V. Ramaswami
Naicker was the President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee.
C. Rajagopalachari stressed that the council boycott was a central
part of the Gandhian Programme. However, this view was not shared
by Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, Srinivasa Iyengar, Varadarajulu Naidu
and Vijayaraghavachari.
In the meantime, Periyar E.V.R. launched the Vaikom
Satyagraha in Kerala against the practice of social segregation. Later
he resigned from the Congress and came out on the social segregation
issue at Seramandevi Guru Kulam of V.V.S. Iyer.  S. Satyamurthi of
Pudukkottai was one of the important freedom
fighters. He led the anti-Simon Campaign in 1929
when the Simon Commission visited Tamil Nadu.
The other important nationalist leader was
K. Kamaraj from Virudhunagar. He participated in
the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1924 and thus entered
nationalist movement. He was the vice-president
and treasurer of the Ramnad District Congress
K. KAMARAJ 
C. Rajagopalachari
Tiruppur
Kumaran
Page 4


177
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National
Movement. Even prior to the Great Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in
Panchalam Kuruchi, the 1801 “South Indian Rebellion” of the Marudu
brothers and the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 were the early anti-colonial
struggles in Tamil Nadu. During the nationalist era Tamil Nadu
provided the leaders like G. Subramania Iyer, V.O.C. Chidambaram
Pillai, Subramania Bharathi, C. Rajagopalachari and K. Kamaraj to
the National Movement. Besides, the nationalist movement in Tamil
Nadu was as active as elsewhere.
Beginning of the National Movement in Tamil Nadu
The earliest political organisation, the Madras Native
Association was started in July 1852. Lakshminarasu Chetty and
Srinivasa Pillai were the founders of this organization. The Madras
Native Association was sharply critical of the policies of the East
India Company’s rule. Subsequently in 1884, the Madras Mahajana
Sabha was established by P. Anandacharlu and P. Rangaiya Naidu.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Learning Objectives
After studying this lesson students will come to understand
1. The early nationalist uprisings in Tamil Nadu.
2. Swadeshi Movement.
3. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu.
4. Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu.
5. Quit India Movement.
179 178
Tuticorin. In 1906 he launched the Swadeshi
Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin. Hence
he was called Kappalottiya Tamilan. There was
competition between Swadeshi Steam Navigation
Company and British India Steam Navigation
Company. V.O.C. advocated the boycott of the
British India Steam Navigation Company and this
had resulted in the Tirunelveli uprising in March
1908. He was ably assisted by Subramania Siva.
Both were arrested and imprisoned. They served six years rigorous
imprisonment. They were given harsh punishment inside the prison.
V.O.C. was asked to draw an oil press and hence he is known as
Chekkilutta Chemmal.
The arrest of the nationalist leaders,
harsh punishment for the nationalist leaders
inside the prison and the collapse of the
Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company led to
the formation of a revolutionary organization
in Tamil Nadu called the Bharathamatha
Association. Nilakanta Bramachari played a
vital role in it. One of the followers of this
association Vanchi Nathan shot dead the
notorious British official Robert William Ashe at Maniyatchi junction
in June 1911.
Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Home rule Movement in Madras was
organized by Mrs. Annie Besant  between 1916
and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s
decision to launch a Home Rule Movement
appeared in New India in September 1915.
SUBRAMANIA SIVA 
V.O. CHIDAMBARAM
ANNIE BESANT 
The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this
organization.
The Madras Mahajana Sabha strongly supported the activities
of the Indian National Congress. It had also initiated social reform.
G. Subramania Iyer performed the remarriage of his widowed
daughter in December 1889. He moved the first resolution in the
first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He started the
nationalist papers like The Hindu in English and Swadeshamitran
in Tamil. In 1892, the Madras Provincial Conference was started to
mobilize people in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. The third session of
the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in 1887 under the
presidentship of Fakruddin Thyabji. Later a number of such annual
sessions were also held in the city of Madras.
Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 led to
the beginning of Swadeshi  Movement in
Tamil Nadu. During this period the important
leaders of the National Movement were –
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, Subramania Siva
and Subramania Bharathi. In May 1907
Bharathi brought Bipin Chandra Pal one of
the leaders of extremists in the Congress to
Madras city. After the Surat split in 1907,
V.O.C. and fellow nationalists started the
Chennai Jana Sangam. Subramania Bharathi was a non-conformist,
unorthodox and a revolutionary in social and political ideas. He edited
the Tamil Weekly India .He wrote nationalist songs called the
Swadesa Geethangal.
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a lawyer by profession and he
joined the nationalist movement in 1905. He was a follower of Bal
Ganghadar Tilak. He led the Coral Mill Strike in February 1908 in
SUBRAMANIA BHARATHI
181 180
Committee in 1929. From the beginning, Kamaraj was the man of
the masses. He spoke in simple and direct language.    He had a
sound   common   sense   and practical wisdom.    He was fully
aware of the    rural   Tamil Nadu.     He visited each and every
village and understood the different problems of the masses. He
always identified himself with   the    common man of Tamil Nadu.
Thus, he really brought the Congress movement to the villages in
Tamil Nadu,
Salt Satyagraha
As part of the Civil Disobedience Movement, Gandhi launched
the Salt Satyagraha. He  undertook the Dandi March in 1930.
C. Rajagopalachari became the TNCC
president in April 1930. Authorized by TNCC
and AICC to direct the Salt Satyagraha in Tamil
Nadu Rajaji undertook the famous
Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha March. He
selected the route from Tiruchirappalli to
Vedaranyam in Thanjauvr district. The March
began on Tamil New Year’s Day   (13
th
 April).
The   March reached Vedaranyam on 28 April
1930. Two days later Rajagopalachari was
arrested for breaking the salt  laws. Some of the other important
leaders who participated in the Vedaranyam Salt
Satyagraha were T.S.S. Rajan, Mrs. Lakshmipathi
Sardar Vedaratnam Pillai, C. Swaminatha Chetty and
K. Santhanam.
Tiruppur Kumaran who led the flag march was
fatally beaten. Since he guarded the national flag in
his hands he was called Kodi Kaththa Kumaran.
Commemorating his sacrifice the Goverment of India
issued a postal stamp in his honour.
Besant sought the support of the Indian National Congress at its
annual meeting at Bombay in December, 1915. She was supported
in her movement by Tilak. Home Rule Movement was vigorous during
the First World War.
Non-co-operation Movement
In Tamil Nadu the Non-co-operation Movement was strong
during the years 1921—23. Beginning in March 1921 there were
campaigns of Non-Cooperation against the foreign regulations. In
1921 and 1922 there were campaigns against the consumption of
liquor in many parts of the province. Temperance campaign was
particularly prominent in Madurai.  Non- Cooperation    had   been a
success in Tamil Nadu. C. Rajagopalachari, S. Satyamurthi and E.
V. Ramaswami Naicker were the important leaders of the Non-
Cooperation Movement in Tamil Nadu. At that time   E. V. Ramaswami
Naicker was the President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee.
C. Rajagopalachari stressed that the council boycott was a central
part of the Gandhian Programme. However, this view was not shared
by Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, Srinivasa Iyengar, Varadarajulu Naidu
and Vijayaraghavachari.
In the meantime, Periyar E.V.R. launched the Vaikom
Satyagraha in Kerala against the practice of social segregation. Later
he resigned from the Congress and came out on the social segregation
issue at Seramandevi Guru Kulam of V.V.S. Iyer.  S. Satyamurthi of
Pudukkottai was one of the important freedom
fighters. He led the anti-Simon Campaign in 1929
when the Simon Commission visited Tamil Nadu.
The other important nationalist leader was
K. Kamaraj from Virudhunagar. He participated in
the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1924 and thus entered
nationalist movement. He was the vice-president
and treasurer of the Ramnad District Congress
K. KAMARAJ 
C. Rajagopalachari
Tiruppur
Kumaran
183 182
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson the student has understood that
1. Tamil Nadu played a significant role in the Indian Freedom
Struggle.
2. Those leaders who led the masses from Tamil Nadu in the
Swadeshi Movement.
3. The role of C. Rajagopalachari and others in the Salt
Satyagraha.
4. The nature of the Quit India Movement in Tamil Nadu.
5. Important places where people in large numbers
participated in this historic movement.
Similarly, the National Movement was encouraged by songs
composed by Namakkal Kavinjar Ramalingam Pillai. In his songs he
praised the Gandhian methods in the struggle for freedom. He sang
that “a war is coming without knife and blood”. This highlighted the
Gandhian principle of non-violent struggle against the British.
Quit India Movement
Later, in 1937 when elections were held in accordance with
the 1935 Act, Congress won the elections and formed the ministry in
Madras headed by C. Rajagopalachari. There were nine other
ministers in his cabinet. The ministry was in power from July 1937 to
October 1939. The ministry had resigned along with other Congress
ministries in the different provinces over the issue of the Indian
involvement in the Second World War.
During Second War, after the failure of the Cripps’s Proposals
Gandhi had launched the Quit India Movement. In Tamil Nadu Quit
India Movement drew the factory workers, students and common
people. It was a wide spread movement. The Buckingham & Carnatic
Mills, Port Trust and the Tramway workers joined the movement in
large numbers. Quit India Movement was launched in places like
North Arcot, Madurai and Coimbatore. There was police firing at
Rajapalayam, Karaikudi and Devakottai. Besides, Subhash Bose’s
INA had many men and women soldiers from Tamil Nadu.
Finally, when India attained independence on 15
th
 August, 1947
the Madras Government under O.P. Ramaswami Reddiar passed a
resolution appreciating the Indian Independence Act.
Page 5


177
Tamil Nadu played an important role in the Indian National
Movement. Even prior to the Great Revolt of 1857, the rebellion in
Panchalam Kuruchi, the 1801 “South Indian Rebellion” of the Marudu
brothers and the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 were the early anti-colonial
struggles in Tamil Nadu. During the nationalist era Tamil Nadu
provided the leaders like G. Subramania Iyer, V.O.C. Chidambaram
Pillai, Subramania Bharathi, C. Rajagopalachari and K. Kamaraj to
the National Movement. Besides, the nationalist movement in Tamil
Nadu was as active as elsewhere.
Beginning of the National Movement in Tamil Nadu
The earliest political organisation, the Madras Native
Association was started in July 1852. Lakshminarasu Chetty and
Srinivasa Pillai were the founders of this organization. The Madras
Native Association was sharply critical of the policies of the East
India Company’s rule. Subsequently in 1884, the Madras Mahajana
Sabha was established by P. Anandacharlu and P. Rangaiya Naidu.
LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17 LESSON 17
ROLE OF TAMIL NADU IN THE INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Learning Objectives
After studying this lesson students will come to understand
1. The early nationalist uprisings in Tamil Nadu.
2. Swadeshi Movement.
3. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu.
4. Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu.
5. Quit India Movement.
179 178
Tuticorin. In 1906 he launched the Swadeshi
Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin. Hence
he was called Kappalottiya Tamilan. There was
competition between Swadeshi Steam Navigation
Company and British India Steam Navigation
Company. V.O.C. advocated the boycott of the
British India Steam Navigation Company and this
had resulted in the Tirunelveli uprising in March
1908. He was ably assisted by Subramania Siva.
Both were arrested and imprisoned. They served six years rigorous
imprisonment. They were given harsh punishment inside the prison.
V.O.C. was asked to draw an oil press and hence he is known as
Chekkilutta Chemmal.
The arrest of the nationalist leaders,
harsh punishment for the nationalist leaders
inside the prison and the collapse of the
Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company led to
the formation of a revolutionary organization
in Tamil Nadu called the Bharathamatha
Association. Nilakanta Bramachari played a
vital role in it. One of the followers of this
association Vanchi Nathan shot dead the
notorious British official Robert William Ashe at Maniyatchi junction
in June 1911.
Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Home rule Movement in Madras was
organized by Mrs. Annie Besant  between 1916
and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s
decision to launch a Home Rule Movement
appeared in New India in September 1915.
SUBRAMANIA SIVA 
V.O. CHIDAMBARAM
ANNIE BESANT 
The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this
organization.
The Madras Mahajana Sabha strongly supported the activities
of the Indian National Congress. It had also initiated social reform.
G. Subramania Iyer performed the remarriage of his widowed
daughter in December 1889. He moved the first resolution in the
first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885. He started the
nationalist papers like The Hindu in English and Swadeshamitran
in Tamil. In 1892, the Madras Provincial Conference was started to
mobilize people in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu. The third session of
the Indian National Congress was held in Madras in 1887 under the
presidentship of Fakruddin Thyabji. Later a number of such annual
sessions were also held in the city of Madras.
Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 led to
the beginning of Swadeshi  Movement in
Tamil Nadu. During this period the important
leaders of the National Movement were –
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, Subramania Siva
and Subramania Bharathi. In May 1907
Bharathi brought Bipin Chandra Pal one of
the leaders of extremists in the Congress to
Madras city. After the Surat split in 1907,
V.O.C. and fellow nationalists started the
Chennai Jana Sangam. Subramania Bharathi was a non-conformist,
unorthodox and a revolutionary in social and political ideas. He edited
the Tamil Weekly India .He wrote nationalist songs called the
Swadesa Geethangal.
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a lawyer by profession and he
joined the nationalist movement in 1905. He was a follower of Bal
Ganghadar Tilak. He led the Coral Mill Strike in February 1908 in
SUBRAMANIA BHARATHI
181 180
Committee in 1929. From the beginning, Kamaraj was the man of
the masses. He spoke in simple and direct language.    He had a
sound   common   sense   and practical wisdom.    He was fully
aware of the    rural   Tamil Nadu.     He visited each and every
village and understood the different problems of the masses. He
always identified himself with   the    common man of Tamil Nadu.
Thus, he really brought the Congress movement to the villages in
Tamil Nadu,
Salt Satyagraha
As part of the Civil Disobedience Movement, Gandhi launched
the Salt Satyagraha. He  undertook the Dandi March in 1930.
C. Rajagopalachari became the TNCC
president in April 1930. Authorized by TNCC
and AICC to direct the Salt Satyagraha in Tamil
Nadu Rajaji undertook the famous
Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha March. He
selected the route from Tiruchirappalli to
Vedaranyam in Thanjauvr district. The March
began on Tamil New Year’s Day   (13
th
 April).
The   March reached Vedaranyam on 28 April
1930. Two days later Rajagopalachari was
arrested for breaking the salt  laws. Some of the other important
leaders who participated in the Vedaranyam Salt
Satyagraha were T.S.S. Rajan, Mrs. Lakshmipathi
Sardar Vedaratnam Pillai, C. Swaminatha Chetty and
K. Santhanam.
Tiruppur Kumaran who led the flag march was
fatally beaten. Since he guarded the national flag in
his hands he was called Kodi Kaththa Kumaran.
Commemorating his sacrifice the Goverment of India
issued a postal stamp in his honour.
Besant sought the support of the Indian National Congress at its
annual meeting at Bombay in December, 1915. She was supported
in her movement by Tilak. Home Rule Movement was vigorous during
the First World War.
Non-co-operation Movement
In Tamil Nadu the Non-co-operation Movement was strong
during the years 1921—23. Beginning in March 1921 there were
campaigns of Non-Cooperation against the foreign regulations. In
1921 and 1922 there were campaigns against the consumption of
liquor in many parts of the province. Temperance campaign was
particularly prominent in Madurai.  Non- Cooperation    had   been a
success in Tamil Nadu. C. Rajagopalachari, S. Satyamurthi and E.
V. Ramaswami Naicker were the important leaders of the Non-
Cooperation Movement in Tamil Nadu. At that time   E. V. Ramaswami
Naicker was the President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee.
C. Rajagopalachari stressed that the council boycott was a central
part of the Gandhian Programme. However, this view was not shared
by Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, Srinivasa Iyengar, Varadarajulu Naidu
and Vijayaraghavachari.
In the meantime, Periyar E.V.R. launched the Vaikom
Satyagraha in Kerala against the practice of social segregation. Later
he resigned from the Congress and came out on the social segregation
issue at Seramandevi Guru Kulam of V.V.S. Iyer.  S. Satyamurthi of
Pudukkottai was one of the important freedom
fighters. He led the anti-Simon Campaign in 1929
when the Simon Commission visited Tamil Nadu.
The other important nationalist leader was
K. Kamaraj from Virudhunagar. He participated in
the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1924 and thus entered
nationalist movement. He was the vice-president
and treasurer of the Ramnad District Congress
K. KAMARAJ 
C. Rajagopalachari
Tiruppur
Kumaran
183 182
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson the student has understood that
1. Tamil Nadu played a significant role in the Indian Freedom
Struggle.
2. Those leaders who led the masses from Tamil Nadu in the
Swadeshi Movement.
3. The role of C. Rajagopalachari and others in the Salt
Satyagraha.
4. The nature of the Quit India Movement in Tamil Nadu.
5. Important places where people in large numbers
participated in this historic movement.
Similarly, the National Movement was encouraged by songs
composed by Namakkal Kavinjar Ramalingam Pillai. In his songs he
praised the Gandhian methods in the struggle for freedom. He sang
that “a war is coming without knife and blood”. This highlighted the
Gandhian principle of non-violent struggle against the British.
Quit India Movement
Later, in 1937 when elections were held in accordance with
the 1935 Act, Congress won the elections and formed the ministry in
Madras headed by C. Rajagopalachari. There were nine other
ministers in his cabinet. The ministry was in power from July 1937 to
October 1939. The ministry had resigned along with other Congress
ministries in the different provinces over the issue of the Indian
involvement in the Second World War.
During Second War, after the failure of the Cripps’s Proposals
Gandhi had launched the Quit India Movement. In Tamil Nadu Quit
India Movement drew the factory workers, students and common
people. It was a wide spread movement. The Buckingham & Carnatic
Mills, Port Trust and the Tramway workers joined the movement in
large numbers. Quit India Movement was launched in places like
North Arcot, Madurai and Coimbatore. There was police firing at
Rajapalayam, Karaikudi and Devakottai. Besides, Subhash Bose’s
INA had many men and women soldiers from Tamil Nadu.
Finally, when India attained independence on 15
th
 August, 1947
the Madras Government under O.P. Ramaswami Reddiar passed a
resolution appreciating the Indian Independence Act.
185 184
c. Periyar E.V.R. had never been the President of Tamil Nadu
Congress Committee.
d. Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha March begun on 1 January 1930
from Tiruchirappalli.
V. State whether the following statements are True or False.
1. The Madras Mahajana Sabha severely opposed the Indian
National Congress.
2. The Bharathamatha Association was a revolutionary
organization in Tamil Nadu.
3. The Vaikom Satyagraha was launched by Periyar E.V.R.
4. In 1937, the Congress Ministry was formed in Madras under
Kamaraj.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. G. Subramanya Iyer
2. Vedaranyam March
3. Subramaniya Bharathi
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Write a note on Madras Mahajana Sabha.
2. Discuss the role of V.O.C in the Indian National Movement.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Examine the role of Tamil Nadu in the Indian Freedom Struggle.
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1Who among the following moved the first resolution in the first
session of the Indian National Congress?
(a) Srinivasa Pillai (b) Lakshminarasu Chetty
(c) Rangaiya Naidu (d) G. Subramanya Iyer
2. The Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha was led by
(a) Gandhi (b) Rajaji
(c) V.O.C (d) Kamaraj
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. The Madras Native Association was started in ……
2. The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company was launched by
……
III. Match the following.
1. Subramaniya Bharathi a. Swadesamithran
2. Mrs. Annie Besant b. Madras Mahajana Sabha
3. G. Subramanya Iyer c. India
4. P. Anandacharlu d. New India
IV. Find out the correct statement one statement alone is
correct.
a. Madras Native Association was started by G. Subramania Iyer.
b. The Third Session of the Indian National Congress was held in
Madras.
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