TN History Textbook: The Cold War Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: The Cold War Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

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 Page 1


353
The end of the Second World War saw the rise of the U.S.A.
and U.S.S.R. as Super Powers. The strained relationship between
these two countries till the collapse of the U.S.S.R is known as the
Cold War. The term ‘Cold War’ was used for the first time by Bernard
Baruch. Thereafter this term gained popularity through the journalist
Walter Lippman.
The Cold War may be described as the existence of continued
tensions and conflicts between the western world and the Communist
countries in general and between the United States and the Soviet
Union in particular. The Cold War was otherwise an ideological war
or a propaganda war or a diplomatic war. It was neither a condition
of war nor a condition of peace. It was a state of uneasy peace.
Beginning of the Cold War
Even before the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union
had imposed Communist regimes in the East European countries of
Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Immediately
after the War the Soviet Union brought East Germany under her
influence. West Germany came under the influence of the U.S.A.
LESSON 34
THE COLD WAR
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The beginning of the Cold War.
2. The formation of military alliances.
3. The mounting tensions between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
4. The end of the Cold War.
Page 2


353
The end of the Second World War saw the rise of the U.S.A.
and U.S.S.R. as Super Powers. The strained relationship between
these two countries till the collapse of the U.S.S.R is known as the
Cold War. The term ‘Cold War’ was used for the first time by Bernard
Baruch. Thereafter this term gained popularity through the journalist
Walter Lippman.
The Cold War may be described as the existence of continued
tensions and conflicts between the western world and the Communist
countries in general and between the United States and the Soviet
Union in particular. The Cold War was otherwise an ideological war
or a propaganda war or a diplomatic war. It was neither a condition
of war nor a condition of peace. It was a state of uneasy peace.
Beginning of the Cold War
Even before the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union
had imposed Communist regimes in the East European countries of
Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Immediately
after the War the Soviet Union brought East Germany under her
influence. West Germany came under the influence of the U.S.A.
LESSON 34
THE COLD WAR
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The beginning of the Cold War.
2. The formation of military alliances.
3. The mounting tensions between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
4. The end of the Cold War.
355 354
Organization (CENTO). In response to these western military pacts,
the Soviet Union concluded the Warsaw Pact on 14
th
 May 1955 with
her satellite powers. During this phase a number of military pacts
were concluded, but the tension between East and West was
somewhat reduced.
China
The establishment of People’s’ Republic of China by Mao-Tse
Tung in October 1949 strengthened the Soviet bloc.  The U.S.A.
refused to recognize the Communist Government of China. On the
other hand the U.S.A. helped Chiang Kai-Sheik to establish his
Nationalist Government in Taiwan.  The U.S.A. recognised the
Nationalist Government as the legal Government of China and made
her as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. The
Communist China or the People’s Republic of China was prevented
by the U.S.A. to become a member in the UNO.
Korean Crisis
In 1950, the arena of the cold war was changed from Europe
to East Asia.  After the Second World War Korea was split into
north and south Korea.  In the North Korea the Soviet - supported
communist government was formed, while the South Korea had an
American - sponsored government.  The two Korean governments
were in conflict with each other. On 25
th
 June 1950 North Korea
attacked South Korea. North Korea was fighting with Soviet weapons
and Chinese troops, while the U.S.A. in the name of U.N. force was
fighting on behalf of South Korea. The Korean War turned the Cold
War into an open armed conflict.
Vietnam War
Cold War was extended to Vietnam also.  The fall of Dien
Bien Phu on 7
th
 May 1954 brought the final collapse of France in
Indo-China.  By Geneva Agreement, Vietnam was partitioned at the
The Soviet Union blocked all roads to the west-occupied zones in
Berlin. This is known as Berlin Blockade. Thus, a tense situation
developed between the two blocs of the Cold War groups. The West
was now concerned about the Russian influence. The U.S.A. had
then assumed the responsibility of containing Communism. On 5
th
June 1947, the Marshall Plan was announced by the U.S.A. by
which economic assistance was to be provided to the western
European nations. It was a step to save the European Continent from
the growing influence of Communism. In response to American
Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union initiated Molotov Plan. On 12
th
March 1948, Truman Doctrine [Truman was the President of USA]
was announced and accordingly the U.S.A. provided economic and
the military aid to Greece and Turkey to the tune of 400 million dollars
in order to stop the Soviet influence in those countries.
NATO
The U.S.A. had created a military alliance to prevent further
spread of communism into Western Europe. A beginning in this
direction was made by the signing of the Brussels Treaty in March
1948. Britain, France, Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg signed this
treaty promising military collaboration in case of war. On 4
th
 April
1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed thus forming a military
power bloc, commonly known as the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization or NATO. The U.S.A., Canada, Britain, France,
Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg, Portugal, Denmark, Italy and
Norway became its members. They had agreed to mutually extend
military help in case of an attack on any one of them. It was formed
against the Soviet Union.
Warsaw Pact
Between 1955 and 1958, West Asia remained the centre of
the Cold War. In the series of western military pacts, the Baghdad
Pact was concluded in 1955, later known as Central Treaty
Page 3


353
The end of the Second World War saw the rise of the U.S.A.
and U.S.S.R. as Super Powers. The strained relationship between
these two countries till the collapse of the U.S.S.R is known as the
Cold War. The term ‘Cold War’ was used for the first time by Bernard
Baruch. Thereafter this term gained popularity through the journalist
Walter Lippman.
The Cold War may be described as the existence of continued
tensions and conflicts between the western world and the Communist
countries in general and between the United States and the Soviet
Union in particular. The Cold War was otherwise an ideological war
or a propaganda war or a diplomatic war. It was neither a condition
of war nor a condition of peace. It was a state of uneasy peace.
Beginning of the Cold War
Even before the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union
had imposed Communist regimes in the East European countries of
Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Immediately
after the War the Soviet Union brought East Germany under her
influence. West Germany came under the influence of the U.S.A.
LESSON 34
THE COLD WAR
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The beginning of the Cold War.
2. The formation of military alliances.
3. The mounting tensions between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
4. The end of the Cold War.
355 354
Organization (CENTO). In response to these western military pacts,
the Soviet Union concluded the Warsaw Pact on 14
th
 May 1955 with
her satellite powers. During this phase a number of military pacts
were concluded, but the tension between East and West was
somewhat reduced.
China
The establishment of People’s’ Republic of China by Mao-Tse
Tung in October 1949 strengthened the Soviet bloc.  The U.S.A.
refused to recognize the Communist Government of China. On the
other hand the U.S.A. helped Chiang Kai-Sheik to establish his
Nationalist Government in Taiwan.  The U.S.A. recognised the
Nationalist Government as the legal Government of China and made
her as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. The
Communist China or the People’s Republic of China was prevented
by the U.S.A. to become a member in the UNO.
Korean Crisis
In 1950, the arena of the cold war was changed from Europe
to East Asia.  After the Second World War Korea was split into
north and south Korea.  In the North Korea the Soviet - supported
communist government was formed, while the South Korea had an
American - sponsored government.  The two Korean governments
were in conflict with each other. On 25
th
 June 1950 North Korea
attacked South Korea. North Korea was fighting with Soviet weapons
and Chinese troops, while the U.S.A. in the name of U.N. force was
fighting on behalf of South Korea. The Korean War turned the Cold
War into an open armed conflict.
Vietnam War
Cold War was extended to Vietnam also.  The fall of Dien
Bien Phu on 7
th
 May 1954 brought the final collapse of France in
Indo-China.  By Geneva Agreement, Vietnam was partitioned at the
The Soviet Union blocked all roads to the west-occupied zones in
Berlin. This is known as Berlin Blockade. Thus, a tense situation
developed between the two blocs of the Cold War groups. The West
was now concerned about the Russian influence. The U.S.A. had
then assumed the responsibility of containing Communism. On 5
th
June 1947, the Marshall Plan was announced by the U.S.A. by
which economic assistance was to be provided to the western
European nations. It was a step to save the European Continent from
the growing influence of Communism. In response to American
Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union initiated Molotov Plan. On 12
th
March 1948, Truman Doctrine [Truman was the President of USA]
was announced and accordingly the U.S.A. provided economic and
the military aid to Greece and Turkey to the tune of 400 million dollars
in order to stop the Soviet influence in those countries.
NATO
The U.S.A. had created a military alliance to prevent further
spread of communism into Western Europe. A beginning in this
direction was made by the signing of the Brussels Treaty in March
1948. Britain, France, Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg signed this
treaty promising military collaboration in case of war. On 4
th
 April
1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed thus forming a military
power bloc, commonly known as the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization or NATO. The U.S.A., Canada, Britain, France,
Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg, Portugal, Denmark, Italy and
Norway became its members. They had agreed to mutually extend
military help in case of an attack on any one of them. It was formed
against the Soviet Union.
Warsaw Pact
Between 1955 and 1958, West Asia remained the centre of
the Cold War. In the series of western military pacts, the Baghdad
Pact was concluded in 1955, later known as Central Treaty
357 356
of peaceful co-existence. They were, therefore, prompted to conclude
the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963. This treaty was followed by a
‘Hot Line Agreement’ between Washington and Kremlin.
After the 1970s, the friction between the Soviet Union and
Communist China led to Sino-Soviet rift. The People’s Republic of
China was admitted into the UN. President Nixon of U.S.A. visited
Moscow in May 1972 and concluded the SALT -I Treaty (Strategic
Arms Limitation Treaty).  In June 1973, Brezhnev paid a nine-day
visit to the United States and further progress was made in the
direction of strategic arms limitation. This reduction of tension
between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. is known as era of détente.
End of the Cold War
With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the collapse of
Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe occurred. The
bi-polar world became unipolar world. On 31
st
 July 1991, American
President George Bush and Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev signed
the ‘historic’ START - I Treaty in the Moscow Summit. This marks
the end of the Era of Cold War.
The ideological war otherwise known as Cold War was fought
for about five decades since 1945. The world saw the vertical division
of nation states. Military alliances were made. Arms race developed.
Nuclear holocaust threatened the world on many occasions. However,
after the 1970s détente resulted in the gradual relaxation of tension
between the two super powers which ultimately ended with the
dissolution of Soviet Union.
17
th
 parallel between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. A conflict
developed between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The U.S.A.
entered the war supporting South Vietnam. Further, in order to contain
Communism in South East Asia, the South East Asia Treaty
Organization (SEATO) was formed in 1954.
The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
The Soviet Union stationed her nuclear missiles in Cuba, which
was a communist country and Soviet ally. The U.S.A. considered
this as a great threat to her security. John F. Kennedy sent the 7
th
Nuclear fleet towards Cuba. This literally brought the two super -
powers to the verge of war. However, the good sense prevailed on
both the sides and the crisis was averted. Subsequently, the U.S.S.R.
dismantled missiles in Cuba.
Decline of Cold War- Détente (Reduction of Tension)
After 1960, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. had developed equality
in nuclear weapons. Thus any nuclear war would lead to co-destruction.
This awareness led both the super powers to believe in the inevitability
Regional Security Arrangement
NATO SEATO WARSA W PACT
Expansion : North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
Expansion : South East Asian Treaty
Organization
Year : 1955
Year : 1955 Year : 1955 Members : Russia, Poland,
Czechoslovakia,
Hungary and Rumania
Members :12 + Greece, West
Germany,  Turkey
Members :U.S.A., U.K., France
Australia, Newzealand,
Paksitan, Thailand and
Phillipines
Learning Outcome
After learning this lesson the students will be able to explain
1. The meaning of the Cold War and its beginning.
2. The formation of military blocs such as the NATO, CENTO,
SEATO and the Warsaw Pact.
3. The turning of Cold War into real military conflicts such as
the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
4. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet
Union.
Page 4


353
The end of the Second World War saw the rise of the U.S.A.
and U.S.S.R. as Super Powers. The strained relationship between
these two countries till the collapse of the U.S.S.R is known as the
Cold War. The term ‘Cold War’ was used for the first time by Bernard
Baruch. Thereafter this term gained popularity through the journalist
Walter Lippman.
The Cold War may be described as the existence of continued
tensions and conflicts between the western world and the Communist
countries in general and between the United States and the Soviet
Union in particular. The Cold War was otherwise an ideological war
or a propaganda war or a diplomatic war. It was neither a condition
of war nor a condition of peace. It was a state of uneasy peace.
Beginning of the Cold War
Even before the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union
had imposed Communist regimes in the East European countries of
Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Immediately
after the War the Soviet Union brought East Germany under her
influence. West Germany came under the influence of the U.S.A.
LESSON 34
THE COLD WAR
Learning Objectives
Students will acquire knowledge about
1. The beginning of the Cold War.
2. The formation of military alliances.
3. The mounting tensions between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.
4. The end of the Cold War.
355 354
Organization (CENTO). In response to these western military pacts,
the Soviet Union concluded the Warsaw Pact on 14
th
 May 1955 with
her satellite powers. During this phase a number of military pacts
were concluded, but the tension between East and West was
somewhat reduced.
China
The establishment of People’s’ Republic of China by Mao-Tse
Tung in October 1949 strengthened the Soviet bloc.  The U.S.A.
refused to recognize the Communist Government of China. On the
other hand the U.S.A. helped Chiang Kai-Sheik to establish his
Nationalist Government in Taiwan.  The U.S.A. recognised the
Nationalist Government as the legal Government of China and made
her as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. The
Communist China or the People’s Republic of China was prevented
by the U.S.A. to become a member in the UNO.
Korean Crisis
In 1950, the arena of the cold war was changed from Europe
to East Asia.  After the Second World War Korea was split into
north and south Korea.  In the North Korea the Soviet - supported
communist government was formed, while the South Korea had an
American - sponsored government.  The two Korean governments
were in conflict with each other. On 25
th
 June 1950 North Korea
attacked South Korea. North Korea was fighting with Soviet weapons
and Chinese troops, while the U.S.A. in the name of U.N. force was
fighting on behalf of South Korea. The Korean War turned the Cold
War into an open armed conflict.
Vietnam War
Cold War was extended to Vietnam also.  The fall of Dien
Bien Phu on 7
th
 May 1954 brought the final collapse of France in
Indo-China.  By Geneva Agreement, Vietnam was partitioned at the
The Soviet Union blocked all roads to the west-occupied zones in
Berlin. This is known as Berlin Blockade. Thus, a tense situation
developed between the two blocs of the Cold War groups. The West
was now concerned about the Russian influence. The U.S.A. had
then assumed the responsibility of containing Communism. On 5
th
June 1947, the Marshall Plan was announced by the U.S.A. by
which economic assistance was to be provided to the western
European nations. It was a step to save the European Continent from
the growing influence of Communism. In response to American
Marshall Plan, the Soviet Union initiated Molotov Plan. On 12
th
March 1948, Truman Doctrine [Truman was the President of USA]
was announced and accordingly the U.S.A. provided economic and
the military aid to Greece and Turkey to the tune of 400 million dollars
in order to stop the Soviet influence in those countries.
NATO
The U.S.A. had created a military alliance to prevent further
spread of communism into Western Europe. A beginning in this
direction was made by the signing of the Brussels Treaty in March
1948. Britain, France, Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg signed this
treaty promising military collaboration in case of war. On 4
th
 April
1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed thus forming a military
power bloc, commonly known as the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization or NATO. The U.S.A., Canada, Britain, France,
Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg, Portugal, Denmark, Italy and
Norway became its members. They had agreed to mutually extend
military help in case of an attack on any one of them. It was formed
against the Soviet Union.
Warsaw Pact
Between 1955 and 1958, West Asia remained the centre of
the Cold War. In the series of western military pacts, the Baghdad
Pact was concluded in 1955, later known as Central Treaty
357 356
of peaceful co-existence. They were, therefore, prompted to conclude
the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963. This treaty was followed by a
‘Hot Line Agreement’ between Washington and Kremlin.
After the 1970s, the friction between the Soviet Union and
Communist China led to Sino-Soviet rift. The People’s Republic of
China was admitted into the UN. President Nixon of U.S.A. visited
Moscow in May 1972 and concluded the SALT -I Treaty (Strategic
Arms Limitation Treaty).  In June 1973, Brezhnev paid a nine-day
visit to the United States and further progress was made in the
direction of strategic arms limitation. This reduction of tension
between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. is known as era of détente.
End of the Cold War
With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the collapse of
Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe occurred. The
bi-polar world became unipolar world. On 31
st
 July 1991, American
President George Bush and Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev signed
the ‘historic’ START - I Treaty in the Moscow Summit. This marks
the end of the Era of Cold War.
The ideological war otherwise known as Cold War was fought
for about five decades since 1945. The world saw the vertical division
of nation states. Military alliances were made. Arms race developed.
Nuclear holocaust threatened the world on many occasions. However,
after the 1970s détente resulted in the gradual relaxation of tension
between the two super powers which ultimately ended with the
dissolution of Soviet Union.
17
th
 parallel between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. A conflict
developed between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The U.S.A.
entered the war supporting South Vietnam. Further, in order to contain
Communism in South East Asia, the South East Asia Treaty
Organization (SEATO) was formed in 1954.
The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
The Soviet Union stationed her nuclear missiles in Cuba, which
was a communist country and Soviet ally. The U.S.A. considered
this as a great threat to her security. John F. Kennedy sent the 7
th
Nuclear fleet towards Cuba. This literally brought the two super -
powers to the verge of war. However, the good sense prevailed on
both the sides and the crisis was averted. Subsequently, the U.S.S.R.
dismantled missiles in Cuba.
Decline of Cold War- Détente (Reduction of Tension)
After 1960, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. had developed equality
in nuclear weapons. Thus any nuclear war would lead to co-destruction.
This awareness led both the super powers to believe in the inevitability
Regional Security Arrangement
NATO SEATO WARSA W PACT
Expansion : North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
Expansion : South East Asian Treaty
Organization
Year : 1955
Year : 1955 Year : 1955 Members : Russia, Poland,
Czechoslovakia,
Hungary and Rumania
Members :12 + Greece, West
Germany,  Turkey
Members :U.S.A., U.K., France
Australia, Newzealand,
Paksitan, Thailand and
Phillipines
Learning Outcome
After learning this lesson the students will be able to explain
1. The meaning of the Cold War and its beginning.
2. The formation of military blocs such as the NATO, CENTO,
SEATO and the Warsaw Pact.
3. The turning of Cold War into real military conflicts such as
the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
4. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet
Union.
359 358
V. State whether the following statements are True or False
1. During the Cuban Missile Crisis 7
th
 Nuclear Fleet was sent by
U.S.A.
2. USA and USSR concluded the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in
1960.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. Cold War
2. Warsaw Pact
3. NATO
4. Vietnam War
5. Korean Crisis
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Trace the beginning of the Cold War.
2. Briefly mention the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Give an account of the formation of Military Blocs during the
Cold War.
2. Critically examine the impact of the Cold War.
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. The term  Cold War was first used  by :
(a) Bernard Baruch (b) F.D. Roosevelt
(c) Stalin (d) Churchill
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty was signed in the year
……
III. Match the following.
1. NATO a. 1955
2. CENTO b. 1947
3. SEATO c. 1948
4. Warsaw Pact d. 1949
5. Truman Doctrine e. 1954
IV. Find out the Correct Statement. One Statement alone is
correct.
a. On 5
th
 June 1947, the Truman Doctrine  was announced by the
U.S.A.
b. On 4
th
 April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed.
c. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) is also known as
Warsaw Pact.
d. When Dien Bien Phu was attacked the Korean War started.
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