TN History Textbook: The Justice Party Rule Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: TN History Textbook: The Justice Party Rule Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

The document TN History Textbook: The Justice Party Rule Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation.
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 Page 1


187 186
rediscovery of the greatness of the Tamil language and literature
also provided a stimulus to the non-Brahmins. Particularly, the
publication of the book entitled A Comparative Grammar of the
Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages by Rev. Robert
Caldwell in 1856 gave birth to the Dravidian concept. Later the ancient
Tamil literature had been rediscovered and printed by various Tamil
scholars including Arumuga Navalar, C.V. Damodaram Pillai and U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai in his famous historical work,
The Tamils 1800 Years Ago pointed out that Tamils had attained a
high degree of civilization before the Advent of the Aryans. This led
to the growth of Dravidian feelings among the non-Brahmins. These
factors collectively contributed to the birth of the Non-Brahmin
Movement and the Justice Party.
The precursor of the Justice Party was the Madras United
League which was renamed as the Madras Dravidian Association
in November 1912. Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar played a significant role
in nurturing this organization. In 1916 the South Indian Liberal
Federation was formed for the purpose of ‘promoting the political
interests of non-Brahmin caste Hindus’. The leaders who stood behind
the formation of this organization were Pitti Theagaraya Chetti, Dr.
T.M. Nair, P. Ramarayaninger (Raja of Panagal) and Dr. C. Natesa
Mudaliar. The South Indian Liberal Federation published an English
newspaper called Justice and hence this organization came to be
called the Justice Party. The other news paper which supported the
Justice Party was Dravidan (in Tamil). Besides, the Justice Party
organized a series of public meetings, conferences, lectures to
popularise Non-Brahmin movement. Similarly, the Justice Party
formed District Associations, the Non-Brahmin Youth League.
Justice Party Rule
The Justice Party came to power following the election of 1920
held according to the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. The Justice
The Justice Party rule in the Madras Presidency constitutes
an important chapter in the history of South India. The ideology and
objectives of the Justice Party had been unique and somewhat
different from those of the Congress Party. The Justice Party
represented the Non-Brahmin Movement and engineered a social
revolution against the domination of Brahmins in the sphere of public
services and education.
Birth of the Justice Party
Various factors had contributed to the formation of the Justice
Party, which represented the Non-Brahmin Movement. The social
dominance of the Brahmins was the main cause for the emergence
of the Non-Brahmin Movement. Their high proportion in the Civil
Service, educational institutions and also their predominance in the
Madras Legislative Council caused a great worry among the non-
Brahmins. The Brahmins had also monopolized the Press. The
Lesson 18
THE JUSTICE PARTY RULE
Learning Objectives
Students will come to understand
1. The factors that led to the rise of Non-Brahmin Movement
in Madras Presidency.
2. The genesis of the Justice Party.
3. The Justice Party in power.
4. Achievements of the Justice Party.
5. The end of the Justice rule in Madras Presidency.
Page 2


187 186
rediscovery of the greatness of the Tamil language and literature
also provided a stimulus to the non-Brahmins. Particularly, the
publication of the book entitled A Comparative Grammar of the
Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages by Rev. Robert
Caldwell in 1856 gave birth to the Dravidian concept. Later the ancient
Tamil literature had been rediscovered and printed by various Tamil
scholars including Arumuga Navalar, C.V. Damodaram Pillai and U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai in his famous historical work,
The Tamils 1800 Years Ago pointed out that Tamils had attained a
high degree of civilization before the Advent of the Aryans. This led
to the growth of Dravidian feelings among the non-Brahmins. These
factors collectively contributed to the birth of the Non-Brahmin
Movement and the Justice Party.
The precursor of the Justice Party was the Madras United
League which was renamed as the Madras Dravidian Association
in November 1912. Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar played a significant role
in nurturing this organization. In 1916 the South Indian Liberal
Federation was formed for the purpose of ‘promoting the political
interests of non-Brahmin caste Hindus’. The leaders who stood behind
the formation of this organization were Pitti Theagaraya Chetti, Dr.
T.M. Nair, P. Ramarayaninger (Raja of Panagal) and Dr. C. Natesa
Mudaliar. The South Indian Liberal Federation published an English
newspaper called Justice and hence this organization came to be
called the Justice Party. The other news paper which supported the
Justice Party was Dravidan (in Tamil). Besides, the Justice Party
organized a series of public meetings, conferences, lectures to
popularise Non-Brahmin movement. Similarly, the Justice Party
formed District Associations, the Non-Brahmin Youth League.
Justice Party Rule
The Justice Party came to power following the election of 1920
held according to the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. The Justice
The Justice Party rule in the Madras Presidency constitutes
an important chapter in the history of South India. The ideology and
objectives of the Justice Party had been unique and somewhat
different from those of the Congress Party. The Justice Party
represented the Non-Brahmin Movement and engineered a social
revolution against the domination of Brahmins in the sphere of public
services and education.
Birth of the Justice Party
Various factors had contributed to the formation of the Justice
Party, which represented the Non-Brahmin Movement. The social
dominance of the Brahmins was the main cause for the emergence
of the Non-Brahmin Movement. Their high proportion in the Civil
Service, educational institutions and also their predominance in the
Madras Legislative Council caused a great worry among the non-
Brahmins. The Brahmins had also monopolized the Press. The
Lesson 18
THE JUSTICE PARTY RULE
Learning Objectives
Students will come to understand
1. The factors that led to the rise of Non-Brahmin Movement
in Madras Presidency.
2. The genesis of the Justice Party.
3. The Justice Party in power.
4. Achievements of the Justice Party.
5. The end of the Justice rule in Madras Presidency.
189 188
5. The Education of girls received encouragement during the
Justice rule in Madras.
6. Education of the Depressed Classes was entrusted with Labour
Department.
7. Encouragement was given to Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani
medical education.
The government took over the power of appointing district
munsiffs out of the control of the High Court. The Communal
G. O.s (Government Orders) of 1921 and 1922 provided for the
reservation of appointments in local bodies and educational institutions
for non-Brahmin communities in increased proportion.
The Staff Selection Board, created by the Panagal Ministry in
1924, was made the Pubic Service Commission in 1929. It was the
first of its kind in India. The women were granted the right to vote on
the same basis as was given to men.
 
The Hindu Religious Endowment
Act of 1921, enacted by the Panagal Ministry, tried to eliminate
corruption in the management of temples. Justice Party Government
introduced economic reforms.
To assist the growth of industries State Aid to Industries Act,
1922 was passed. This led to the establishment of new industries
such as : sugar factories, engineering works, tanneries, aluminum
factories, cement factories and oil milling so on. This act provided
credits to industries, allotted land and water. This proved favourable
for industrial progress.)
Similarly, Justice Party Government introduced schemes for
rural development to help agrarian population, public health schemes
to prevent diseases. To improve village economy village road scheme
was introduced. In the city of Madras the Town Improvement
Committee of the Madras Corporation introduced Slum Clearance
Party captured sixty three out of ninety eight elected seats in the
Madras Legislative Council. As Pitti Theagaraya Chetti declined to
lead the ministry, A. Subbarayalu Reddiar formed the ministry.  In
the election of 1923 it fought against the Swarajya Party. The Justice
Party again won the majority and the ministry was formed by Raja
of Panagal. In the election of 1926 a divided Justice Party faced the
opposition of a united Congress. Therefore, an independent,
A. Subbarayan with the help of the Swarajya Party formed the
ministry. In 1930 when the next election was held the Justice Party
won the majority and formed a ministry with B. Muniswami Naidu
as the leader. In 1932 Raja of Bobbili replaced him as Prime Minister
of the Presidency. In 1934 Raja of Bobbili formed his second ministry,
which continued in power until the election of 1937.
Achievements of the Justice Party
The Justice Party remained in power for a period of thirteen
years. Its administration was noted for social justice and social reform.
Justice rule gave adequate representation to non-Brahman
communities in the public services. It improved the status of depressed
classes through education reforms. Justice Party introduced following
reforms in the field of Education :
1. Free and compulsory education was introduced for the first
time in Madras.
2. Nearly 3000 fisher boys and fisher girls were offered free
special instruction by the Department of Fisheries.
3. Midday Meals was given at selected corporation schools in
Madras.
4. The Madras Elementary Education Act was amended in 1934
and in 1935 to improve elementary education.
Page 3


187 186
rediscovery of the greatness of the Tamil language and literature
also provided a stimulus to the non-Brahmins. Particularly, the
publication of the book entitled A Comparative Grammar of the
Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages by Rev. Robert
Caldwell in 1856 gave birth to the Dravidian concept. Later the ancient
Tamil literature had been rediscovered and printed by various Tamil
scholars including Arumuga Navalar, C.V. Damodaram Pillai and U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai in his famous historical work,
The Tamils 1800 Years Ago pointed out that Tamils had attained a
high degree of civilization before the Advent of the Aryans. This led
to the growth of Dravidian feelings among the non-Brahmins. These
factors collectively contributed to the birth of the Non-Brahmin
Movement and the Justice Party.
The precursor of the Justice Party was the Madras United
League which was renamed as the Madras Dravidian Association
in November 1912. Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar played a significant role
in nurturing this organization. In 1916 the South Indian Liberal
Federation was formed for the purpose of ‘promoting the political
interests of non-Brahmin caste Hindus’. The leaders who stood behind
the formation of this organization were Pitti Theagaraya Chetti, Dr.
T.M. Nair, P. Ramarayaninger (Raja of Panagal) and Dr. C. Natesa
Mudaliar. The South Indian Liberal Federation published an English
newspaper called Justice and hence this organization came to be
called the Justice Party. The other news paper which supported the
Justice Party was Dravidan (in Tamil). Besides, the Justice Party
organized a series of public meetings, conferences, lectures to
popularise Non-Brahmin movement. Similarly, the Justice Party
formed District Associations, the Non-Brahmin Youth League.
Justice Party Rule
The Justice Party came to power following the election of 1920
held according to the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. The Justice
The Justice Party rule in the Madras Presidency constitutes
an important chapter in the history of South India. The ideology and
objectives of the Justice Party had been unique and somewhat
different from those of the Congress Party. The Justice Party
represented the Non-Brahmin Movement and engineered a social
revolution against the domination of Brahmins in the sphere of public
services and education.
Birth of the Justice Party
Various factors had contributed to the formation of the Justice
Party, which represented the Non-Brahmin Movement. The social
dominance of the Brahmins was the main cause for the emergence
of the Non-Brahmin Movement. Their high proportion in the Civil
Service, educational institutions and also their predominance in the
Madras Legislative Council caused a great worry among the non-
Brahmins. The Brahmins had also monopolized the Press. The
Lesson 18
THE JUSTICE PARTY RULE
Learning Objectives
Students will come to understand
1. The factors that led to the rise of Non-Brahmin Movement
in Madras Presidency.
2. The genesis of the Justice Party.
3. The Justice Party in power.
4. Achievements of the Justice Party.
5. The end of the Justice rule in Madras Presidency.
189 188
5. The Education of girls received encouragement during the
Justice rule in Madras.
6. Education of the Depressed Classes was entrusted with Labour
Department.
7. Encouragement was given to Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani
medical education.
The government took over the power of appointing district
munsiffs out of the control of the High Court. The Communal
G. O.s (Government Orders) of 1921 and 1922 provided for the
reservation of appointments in local bodies and educational institutions
for non-Brahmin communities in increased proportion.
The Staff Selection Board, created by the Panagal Ministry in
1924, was made the Pubic Service Commission in 1929. It was the
first of its kind in India. The women were granted the right to vote on
the same basis as was given to men.
 
The Hindu Religious Endowment
Act of 1921, enacted by the Panagal Ministry, tried to eliminate
corruption in the management of temples. Justice Party Government
introduced economic reforms.
To assist the growth of industries State Aid to Industries Act,
1922 was passed. This led to the establishment of new industries
such as : sugar factories, engineering works, tanneries, aluminum
factories, cement factories and oil milling so on. This act provided
credits to industries, allotted land and water. This proved favourable
for industrial progress.)
Similarly, Justice Party Government introduced schemes for
rural development to help agrarian population, public health schemes
to prevent diseases. To improve village economy village road scheme
was introduced. In the city of Madras the Town Improvement
Committee of the Madras Corporation introduced Slum Clearance
Party captured sixty three out of ninety eight elected seats in the
Madras Legislative Council. As Pitti Theagaraya Chetti declined to
lead the ministry, A. Subbarayalu Reddiar formed the ministry.  In
the election of 1923 it fought against the Swarajya Party. The Justice
Party again won the majority and the ministry was formed by Raja
of Panagal. In the election of 1926 a divided Justice Party faced the
opposition of a united Congress. Therefore, an independent,
A. Subbarayan with the help of the Swarajya Party formed the
ministry. In 1930 when the next election was held the Justice Party
won the majority and formed a ministry with B. Muniswami Naidu
as the leader. In 1932 Raja of Bobbili replaced him as Prime Minister
of the Presidency. In 1934 Raja of Bobbili formed his second ministry,
which continued in power until the election of 1937.
Achievements of the Justice Party
The Justice Party remained in power for a period of thirteen
years. Its administration was noted for social justice and social reform.
Justice rule gave adequate representation to non-Brahman
communities in the public services. It improved the status of depressed
classes through education reforms. Justice Party introduced following
reforms in the field of Education :
1. Free and compulsory education was introduced for the first
time in Madras.
2. Nearly 3000 fisher boys and fisher girls were offered free
special instruction by the Department of Fisheries.
3. Midday Meals was given at selected corporation schools in
Madras.
4. The Madras Elementary Education Act was amended in 1934
and in 1935 to improve elementary education.
191 190
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson the student has understood that
1. The domination of Brahmin community in the sphere of civil
service and education led to the emergence of the Non-
Brahmin Movement.
2. The leaders of the Justice Movement.
3. The Justice ministries between 1920 and 1937.
4. The achievements of the Justice party administration such
as Communal G.O, Hindu Religious Endowment Act and
abolition of devadasi system.
5. The decline of the Justice Party.
and Housing Schemes. As a social welfare measures the Justice
Party Government gave waste lands in village to Depressed Classes.
The devadasi system, a disgrace to women, was abolished.
The Justice administration reorganized the working of the University
of Madras. During the administration of Justice Party, the Andhra
University was established in 1926 and Annamalai University in 1929.
End of Justice Party Rule
The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for provincial
autonomy and the electoral victory meant the assumption of a major
responsibility in the administration of the province. K. V. Reddi Naidu
led the Justice Party, while C. Rajagopalachari led the Congress in
the South. In the election of 1937, the Congress captured 152 out of
215 seats in the Legislative Assembly and 26 out of 46 in the
Legislative Council. In July 1937 the Congress formed its ministry
under C. Rajagopalachari. Thus, the rule of Justice Party which
introduced important social legislations came to an end. In 1944 the
Justice party conference was held in Salem. There Peraringar Anna
passed a resolution thereby the name of justice party was changed
as Dravidiar Kalagam.
Page 4


187 186
rediscovery of the greatness of the Tamil language and literature
also provided a stimulus to the non-Brahmins. Particularly, the
publication of the book entitled A Comparative Grammar of the
Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages by Rev. Robert
Caldwell in 1856 gave birth to the Dravidian concept. Later the ancient
Tamil literature had been rediscovered and printed by various Tamil
scholars including Arumuga Navalar, C.V. Damodaram Pillai and U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai in his famous historical work,
The Tamils 1800 Years Ago pointed out that Tamils had attained a
high degree of civilization before the Advent of the Aryans. This led
to the growth of Dravidian feelings among the non-Brahmins. These
factors collectively contributed to the birth of the Non-Brahmin
Movement and the Justice Party.
The precursor of the Justice Party was the Madras United
League which was renamed as the Madras Dravidian Association
in November 1912. Dr. C. Natesa Mudaliar played a significant role
in nurturing this organization. In 1916 the South Indian Liberal
Federation was formed for the purpose of ‘promoting the political
interests of non-Brahmin caste Hindus’. The leaders who stood behind
the formation of this organization were Pitti Theagaraya Chetti, Dr.
T.M. Nair, P. Ramarayaninger (Raja of Panagal) and Dr. C. Natesa
Mudaliar. The South Indian Liberal Federation published an English
newspaper called Justice and hence this organization came to be
called the Justice Party. The other news paper which supported the
Justice Party was Dravidan (in Tamil). Besides, the Justice Party
organized a series of public meetings, conferences, lectures to
popularise Non-Brahmin movement. Similarly, the Justice Party
formed District Associations, the Non-Brahmin Youth League.
Justice Party Rule
The Justice Party came to power following the election of 1920
held according to the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. The Justice
The Justice Party rule in the Madras Presidency constitutes
an important chapter in the history of South India. The ideology and
objectives of the Justice Party had been unique and somewhat
different from those of the Congress Party. The Justice Party
represented the Non-Brahmin Movement and engineered a social
revolution against the domination of Brahmins in the sphere of public
services and education.
Birth of the Justice Party
Various factors had contributed to the formation of the Justice
Party, which represented the Non-Brahmin Movement. The social
dominance of the Brahmins was the main cause for the emergence
of the Non-Brahmin Movement. Their high proportion in the Civil
Service, educational institutions and also their predominance in the
Madras Legislative Council caused a great worry among the non-
Brahmins. The Brahmins had also monopolized the Press. The
Lesson 18
THE JUSTICE PARTY RULE
Learning Objectives
Students will come to understand
1. The factors that led to the rise of Non-Brahmin Movement
in Madras Presidency.
2. The genesis of the Justice Party.
3. The Justice Party in power.
4. Achievements of the Justice Party.
5. The end of the Justice rule in Madras Presidency.
189 188
5. The Education of girls received encouragement during the
Justice rule in Madras.
6. Education of the Depressed Classes was entrusted with Labour
Department.
7. Encouragement was given to Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani
medical education.
The government took over the power of appointing district
munsiffs out of the control of the High Court. The Communal
G. O.s (Government Orders) of 1921 and 1922 provided for the
reservation of appointments in local bodies and educational institutions
for non-Brahmin communities in increased proportion.
The Staff Selection Board, created by the Panagal Ministry in
1924, was made the Pubic Service Commission in 1929. It was the
first of its kind in India. The women were granted the right to vote on
the same basis as was given to men.
 
The Hindu Religious Endowment
Act of 1921, enacted by the Panagal Ministry, tried to eliminate
corruption in the management of temples. Justice Party Government
introduced economic reforms.
To assist the growth of industries State Aid to Industries Act,
1922 was passed. This led to the establishment of new industries
such as : sugar factories, engineering works, tanneries, aluminum
factories, cement factories and oil milling so on. This act provided
credits to industries, allotted land and water. This proved favourable
for industrial progress.)
Similarly, Justice Party Government introduced schemes for
rural development to help agrarian population, public health schemes
to prevent diseases. To improve village economy village road scheme
was introduced. In the city of Madras the Town Improvement
Committee of the Madras Corporation introduced Slum Clearance
Party captured sixty three out of ninety eight elected seats in the
Madras Legislative Council. As Pitti Theagaraya Chetti declined to
lead the ministry, A. Subbarayalu Reddiar formed the ministry.  In
the election of 1923 it fought against the Swarajya Party. The Justice
Party again won the majority and the ministry was formed by Raja
of Panagal. In the election of 1926 a divided Justice Party faced the
opposition of a united Congress. Therefore, an independent,
A. Subbarayan with the help of the Swarajya Party formed the
ministry. In 1930 when the next election was held the Justice Party
won the majority and formed a ministry with B. Muniswami Naidu
as the leader. In 1932 Raja of Bobbili replaced him as Prime Minister
of the Presidency. In 1934 Raja of Bobbili formed his second ministry,
which continued in power until the election of 1937.
Achievements of the Justice Party
The Justice Party remained in power for a period of thirteen
years. Its administration was noted for social justice and social reform.
Justice rule gave adequate representation to non-Brahman
communities in the public services. It improved the status of depressed
classes through education reforms. Justice Party introduced following
reforms in the field of Education :
1. Free and compulsory education was introduced for the first
time in Madras.
2. Nearly 3000 fisher boys and fisher girls were offered free
special instruction by the Department of Fisheries.
3. Midday Meals was given at selected corporation schools in
Madras.
4. The Madras Elementary Education Act was amended in 1934
and in 1935 to improve elementary education.
191 190
Learning Outcome
After studying this lesson the student has understood that
1. The domination of Brahmin community in the sphere of civil
service and education led to the emergence of the Non-
Brahmin Movement.
2. The leaders of the Justice Movement.
3. The Justice ministries between 1920 and 1937.
4. The achievements of the Justice party administration such
as Communal G.O, Hindu Religious Endowment Act and
abolition of devadasi system.
5. The decline of the Justice Party.
and Housing Schemes. As a social welfare measures the Justice
Party Government gave waste lands in village to Depressed Classes.
The devadasi system, a disgrace to women, was abolished.
The Justice administration reorganized the working of the University
of Madras. During the administration of Justice Party, the Andhra
University was established in 1926 and Annamalai University in 1929.
End of Justice Party Rule
The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for provincial
autonomy and the electoral victory meant the assumption of a major
responsibility in the administration of the province. K. V. Reddi Naidu
led the Justice Party, while C. Rajagopalachari led the Congress in
the South. In the election of 1937, the Congress captured 152 out of
215 seats in the Legislative Assembly and 26 out of 46 in the
Legislative Council. In July 1937 the Congress formed its ministry
under C. Rajagopalachari. Thus, the rule of Justice Party which
introduced important social legislations came to an end. In 1944 the
Justice party conference was held in Salem. There Peraringar Anna
passed a resolution thereby the name of justice party was changed
as Dravidiar Kalagam.
193 192
V. State whether the following statements are True or False
1The Justice Party remained in power for a period of thirteen
years.
2Justice Party introduced Free and compulsory education.
VI. Write short notes (Any three points).
1. Non Brahmin Movement
2. Communal G.O
VII. Answer briefly (100 words).
1. Describe the educational reforms of the Justice Party.
2. Write a note on the end of Justice Party.
VIII. Answer in detail (200 words).
1. Examine the achievements of the Justice Party rule in Tamil
Nadu.
2. Estimate the role of Periyar E.V.R. in the promotion of social
justice.
MODEL QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. The South Indian Liberal Foundation was formed in the year
(a) 1912 (b) 1914
(c) 1916 (d) 1917
2. Which of the following journal was not founded by Periyar
E.V.R?
(a) Kudi Arasu (b) Puratchi
(c) Viduthalai (d) Swarajya
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. The Hindu Religious Act was passed in the year ….
III. Match the following.
1. Communal G.O. a. 1929
2. Staff Selection Board b. 1922
3. Madras State Aid to Industries Act c. 1924
4. Annamalai University d. 1921
IV. Find out the correct statement. One statement alone is
right.
a) C.V. Damodaram Pillai was the author of  The Tamils 1800
Years Ago.
b) Madras Dravidian Association was started in November 1912.
c) In 1917 the South Indian Liberal Federation was formed.
d) Tamil  newspaper called Justice supported the Justice Party.
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