Class 10 Exam  >  Class 10 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 10  >  Worksheet: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe - 2

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe - 2 Class 10 Worksheet History Chapter 2

Multiple Choice Questions


Q1: Romanticism refers to
(a) cultural movement
(b) religious movement
(c) political movement
(d) literary movement

Ans: cultural movement

Q2: In Prussia, who was referred to as ‘Junkers’?
(a) Military officials
(b) Large landowners
(c) Factory owners
(d) Aristocratic nobles

Ans:  Large landowners

Q3: Who among the following was proclaimed the first King of United Italy?
(a) Nicholas II
(b) King George II
(c) Wilhelm IV
(d) Victor Emmanuel II

Ans: Victor Emmanuel II

Q4: A large number of people were hostile to the Napoleonic code because
(a) it was not suitable for all.
(b) it destroyed the special privileges of the rulers.
(c) administrative changes did not go hand-in-hand with political freedom.
(d) none of the above.
Ans: administrative changes did not go hand-in-hand with political freedom

Q5: Who, among the following, hosted the Congress at Vienna in 1815?
(a) King of the Netherlands
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Duke Metternich
(d) Otto von Bismarck
Ans: Duke Metternich

Very Short Answer Questions

Q1: Who remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”. 
Ans: Duke Metternich.

Q2: Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation.
Ans: 
Treaty of 1832: Constantinople.

Q3: What was the main aim of the revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815? 
Ans: To oppose monarchial forms of government. 

Q4: Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871? 
Ans: Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871. 

Q5: Name the event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848
Ans: The Greek War of Independence in 1821. 

Short Answer Type Questions


Q1: Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck to German unification. 
Ans: Otto von Bismarck played a significant role in the German unification process as nationalist sentiments gained traction among middle-class Germans in 1848. During this period, there was a concerted effort to unite various regions of the German Confederation into a single nation-state, aiming for a government with elected representatives. Unfortunately, this liberal movement faced suppression from a coalition of monarchy and military forces, backed by Prussian landowners. 

Q2: Describe any three reforms introduced by Napoleon in the territories he conquered. 
Ans: 
Napoleon implemented three key reforms in the territories he conquered:

  1. The Napoleonic Code: This legal framework eliminated birth-based privileges, ensuring equality before the law and safeguarding property rights.

  2. Administrative Simplification: Napoleon streamlined administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, and emancipated peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

  3. Standardization Measures: He established uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and introduced a common national currency to facilitate the seamless movement and exchange of goods and capital across different regions.

Q3: How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain. 
                                                                              Or
Describe the role of culture in shaping the feelings of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of the 19th century.

Ans: (i) Culture played a pivotal role in fostering nationalist sentiments, with art, poetry, and music serving as mediums for expressing such feelings. The cultural movement of Romanticism, which prioritized emotions over reason, played a significant role in shaping nationalist ideals.
(ii) Language also played a crucial role in nurturing nationalism. In the face of Russian occupation, the Polish resistance adopted language as a tool of national defiance after an armed rebellion against Russian rule in 1831.
(iii) Additionally, music and dance played a role in popularizing the spirit of the nation. Romantics like the German philosopher Herder emphasized the importance of discovering true national culture among the common people, or "das volk," through folk songs, poetry, and dances.

Q4: Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe. 
Ans: 

  • Liberalism in the economic sphere championed free markets and the removal of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
  • In the 19th century, Napoleon's administrative measures consolidated numerous small principalities into a confederation of 39 states.
  • Each state had its currency, weights, and measures, creating a fragmented economic landscape.
  • Merchants traveling from Hamburg to Nuremberg, for example, encountered 11 custom barriers, with a 5% duty at each checkpoint.
  • Diverse regional systems of weights and measures added complexity, requiring time-consuming calculations.
  • The new commercial classes saw these conditions as impediments to economic growth and exchange.
  • Advocates argued for the establishment of a unified economic territory to enable free movement of goods, people, and capital.

Q5: Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.
Ans: 

  • Europe found itself in the throes of widespread unemployment, with a surplus of job seekers exceeding available employment opportunities in most countries. Urban centers witnessed overcrowding, giving rise to slums as individuals from rural areas migrated to cities.
  • Small producers in towns grappled with intense competition, particularly from the influx of inexpensive machine-made goods imported from England, where industrialization, especially in textile production, had advanced significantly.
  • In regions where aristocracy retained influence, peasants faced the burdensome weight of feudal dues and obligations, compounded by the challenges of rising food prices and poor harvests, further exacerbating the hardships experienced by the rural population.

 Long Answer Type Questions


Q1: Describe the ideology of liberalism during the early 19th century.
Ans: (i) Liberalism in the early 19th century stood for freedom for the individual and equality to all before the law for the new middle classes.
(ii) Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(iii) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
Detailed Answer:
Liberalism: Derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ means ‘free’. It meant different to different people.
Middle class: For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.
Politically: It emphasised the concept of government by consent. The right to vote was meant to be only for property-owning men. The lower classes were, therefore, not included. In general, it stood for the inviolability of private property and freedom of the markets from state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods.
Since the French Revolution, liberalism has stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitutional and representative government through parliament.

Q2: What was the status of France as a state before 1789? Which two political and constitutional changes came in the wake of the French Revolution?
Ans. France was a full-fledged territorial state before 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch.
(i) The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
(ii) The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. So, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

Q3: What happened during the year following 1815 when the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground? Explain.
Ans:
(i) Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
(ii) To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.
(iii) Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom. One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.
(iv) He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.
(v) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
(vi) This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Poland.
(vii) Mazzini‘s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

Q4:Explain the process of unification of Italy. 
Ans: 

  • Italy had a history of political fragmentation, with Italians scattered across dynastic states and the Habsburg Empire.
  • The country was divided into seven states, and the Italian language lacked a common form.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini played a key role in unification, forming the secret society 'Young Italy' to promote his goal of a unified republic.
  • Mazzini believed that Italy should not remain a patchwork of small states and needed to be forged into a single, unified republic.
  • After unsuccessful uprisings in 1831 and 1848, the responsibility for unification shifted to Sardinia-Piedmont under Emmanuel II.
  • Chief Minister Cavour, under Emmanuel II's rule, successfully defeated Austrian forces in 1859.
  • Cavour, through diplomatic alliances with France, overcame Austrian forces, and Giuseppe Garibaldi also joined the cause.
  • In 1860, they marched towards South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with local peasant support, driving out the Spanish rulers.
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the King of a United Italy.

Q5: Describe the process of the Unification of Britain.
                                      Or
How has Britain come into existence? Explain. 
Ans: Nationalism in Britain differed from that in the rest of Europe in several key aspects:

  1. Gradual Evolution: Unlike many European nations, British nationalism did not emerge suddenly through uprisings or revolutions but developed over an extended period.

  2. Ethnic Diversity: Before the 18th century, there was no unified British nation; instead, the British Isles housed distinct ethnic groups such as the English, Welsh, Scots, and Irish. The English, gaining wealth and influence, gradually extended their dominance over other nations, including Scotland.

  3. English Dominance: The British Parliament, largely composed of English members, sought to suppress Scotland's unique culture and political institutions. This led to restrictions on language, dress, and the expulsion of many Scots.

  4. Bloodless Revolution: In 1688, a bloodless revolution saw the English Parliament wrest power from the monarchy, establishing itself as the focal point of a nation-state.

  5. Incorporation of Scotland and Ireland: The Act of Union in 1707 brought Scotland into the United Kingdom, while Ireland, despite opposition, was forcibly incorporated in 1801.

  6. Parliamentary Action: The formation of the British nation was achieved primarily through parliamentary actions rather than through revolutions or wars.

  7. Cultural Propagation: The creation of a new 'British Nation' involved the promotion of English culture. Symbols like the Union Jack, the national anthem "God Save Our Noble King," and the English language were emphasized, with the older nations becoming subordinate partners in the Union.

Passage


Q6: Read the extract and answer the questions that follow.
By the last quarter of the nineteenth-century nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment of the first half of the century, but became a narrow creed with limited ends. During this period nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war. The major European powers, in turn, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their imperialist aims. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernization and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power – Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
Questions: (i) Why did the major European powers manipulate the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe by the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
(ii) What was the basis of the Balkan people regarding their claim for independence?
(iii) State any two reasons that led to a series of wars in the Balkan region and finally the First World War.
Ans.
(i) The major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject people in Europe by the last quarter of the nineteenth century to fulfill their imperialistic aims.
(ii) The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles to win back their long-lost independence.
(iii) Two major reasons that led to a series of wars in the Balkan region and finally the
First World War: 
(a) The Balkan area had become an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.
(b) During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its control over the area.
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FAQs on The Rise of Nationalism in Europe - 2 Class 10 Worksheet History Chapter 2

1. What were the causes of the rise of nationalism in Europe during the 19th century?
Ans. The causes of the rise of nationalism in Europe during the 19th century include: - The French Revolution and the ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity spread throughout Europe, inspiring people to fight for their rights and unity. - The Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent Congress of Vienna led to the re-drawing of borders and the emergence of new nation-states. - Economic and industrial growth led to the development of a middle class that sought political representation and national identity. - Romanticism and cultural movements emphasized the uniqueness of each nation's history, language, and traditions, fostering national pride.
2. How did nationalism influence the unification of Germany and Italy?
Ans. Nationalism played a crucial role in the unification of Germany and Italy: - In the case of Germany, nationalist sentiment led to the formation of the German Confederation and the Frankfurt Assembly, which aimed to unite German states under a single nation-state. This eventually resulted in the establishment of the German Empire in 1871. - In Italy, nationalist leaders like Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and Count Camillo di Cavour fought for the unification of various Italian states. Through military campaigns and diplomatic alliances, they were able to achieve the unification of Italy in 1861.
3. How did the rise of nationalism impact the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
Ans. The rise of nationalism had a significant impact on the Austro-Hungarian Empire: - The empire was composed of various ethnic groups, each with its own aspirations for self-rule and national identity. The nationalist movements within the empire, such as the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Serbs, and Romanians, challenged the authority of the Habsburg rulers. - The empire faced internal conflicts and tensions due to nationalist demands, which eventually led to the disintegration of the empire after World War I. The empire was replaced by several independent nations based on ethnic lines.
4. How did nationalism contribute to the outbreak of World War I?
Ans. Nationalism played a significant role in the outbreak of World War I: - The intense nationalism and rivalries between European powers fueled a sense of competition and aggression, leading to the arms race and aggressive foreign policies. - Nationalist aspirations and rivalries in the Balkans, such as the desire for independence of the Slavic nations from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created a volatile region that eventually sparked the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, triggering the war. - Nationalist propaganda and the belief in the superiority of one's nation also contributed to the widespread support and enthusiasm for the war among the general public.
5. How did the rise of nationalism in Europe impact colonialism and imperialism?
Ans. The rise of nationalism in Europe had significant implications for colonialism and imperialism: - Nationalist movements sought to establish or strengthen their own nation-states, leading to a renewed focus on expanding territories and acquiring colonies to enhance national power. - European powers engaged in intense competition for colonies, leading to the scramble for Africa and the partition of Asia. Nationalist ideologies justified the colonization and exploitation of indigenous peoples as part of the civilizing mission of European nations. - Nationalist movements in colonized regions, inspired by the ideas of self-determination and independence, also emerged as a response to European imperialism, eventually leading to decolonization movements in the 20th century.
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