Q.1. Why in the years after 1848, the autocrats of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815? Explain. Marks 3
What forced the monarchs to introduce reforms in the society?
Ans. Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order. Monarchs were beginning to realise that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries. Hence, in the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815. Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominations and in Russia. The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.
Q.2. Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’ Marks 5
Ans. Congress of Vienna was hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich in 1815. The following changes were made:
(i) The Bourbon Dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed.
(ii) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent the French expansion in future. Thus, the kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
(iii) Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
(iv) The German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.
Congress of Vienna
Q.3. How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815? Explain with examples. Marks 3
Ans: (i) After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression. Secret societies emerged in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary, founded two underground societies—first, Young Italy in Marseilles and then, Young Europe in Berne. Following the footsteps of Mazzini, many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(ii) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The romantics used folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularize the true spirit of the nation. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music in Poland. He turned folk dances like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(iii) Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland.
Q.4. Assertion and Reason Type Questions: the question given below, there are two statements. One is marked as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion: Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian General, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy.
Reason: He was the architect in the process of nation - building.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Q.5. The concept of nationalism emerged in Europe during the eighteenth century.
Ans. The concept of nationalism emerged in Europe during the nineteenth century.
Find the incorrect option:
Q.6. (a) During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground.
(b) Secret Societies Sprang up in many Indian states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
(c) To be a revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.
(d) Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
Solution: Secret Societies sprang up in many Indian states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
Correct answer is: Secret Societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
Q.7. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:
(i) Treaty of Constantinople
(ii) First upheaval took place in France
(iii) Lord Byron died
(iv) Greek Struggle for independence begins
(a) (i) - (ii) - (iii) - (iv)
(b) (ii) - (iv) - (i) - (iii)
(c) (iv) - (iii) - (ii) - (i)
(d) (iii) - (iv) - (ii) - (i)
Q.8. Complete the following table with the happening of two events and the respective years in which they took place.
Ans. (A) - Unification of Italy (B) - 1866-71
Multiple Choice Questions
Q.9. Study the picture and answer the question that follows:
Which of the following aspects best signifies this image of Germania”?
(a) Heroism and Justice
(b) Folk and Cultural Tradition
(c) Austerity and Asceticism
(d) Revenge and Vengeance
Q.10. Analyse the information given below, considering one of the following correct options:
He was perhaps the most celebrated of Italian freedom fighters. He came from a family engaged in coastal trade and was a sailor in the merchant navy. In 1833, he met Mazzini, joined the Young Italy movement and participated in a republican uprising in Piedmont in 1834.
(a) Otto von Bismarck
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Count Camillio de Cavour
(d) Giuseppe Garibaldi
Q.11. Describe any five measures introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. Marks 5
Ans. The following measures were introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity:
(i) The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) were emphasised as the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(v) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
(vi) Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
(vii) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation. (Any five points to be described)
Q.12. Describe the process of unification of Italy. Marks 5
Ans. Unification of Italy: (i) During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.(ii) The unification process was led by three revolutionaries—Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi During 1830, Mazzini decided to unite Italy. He had formed a secret society ‘Young Italy’ to achieve his goal.
(iii) After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II took to unify the Italian states through wars.
(iv) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
(v) After earlier failures in 1831 and 1848, King Victor Emmanuel II took to unify the Italian states through wars.
(vi) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
(vii) Under the leadership of Garibaldi armed volunteers marched into South Italy in 1860 and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.
(viii) In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. (Any five)
Q.13. Name the female allegory who represents France. Describe her main characteristics. Marks 3
Ans. Marianne was the female allegory who represented France.
Her characteristics were drawn from:
(i) Those of liberty and republic.
(ii) These were the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
(iii) Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
(iv) Her images were marked on coins and stamps of 1850. (Any three)
Q.14. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:
SOURCE A : Visualising the Nation [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 23] ou will Recall that during the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. These ideals were represented through specific objects or symbols. As you would remember, the attributes of Liberty are the red cap, or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
SOURCE B : Nationalism and Imperialism [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 26] The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
SOURCE C : Visualising the Nation [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 23] While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words, they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation. Marks 3
Questions: SOURCE A : Visualising the Nation
(i) What are the attributes of Liberty and Justice according to French Revolution artists?SOURCE B : Nationalism and Imperialism
(ii) Who were Slavs ?
SOURCE C : Visualising the Nation
(iii) Why was the female form chosen to portray a nation by the French Revolution artists?
Ans. (i) The attributes of Liberty are the red cap or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.
(ii) The inhabitants of Balkans were broadly known as the Slavs. It was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern–day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(iii) Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. They represented a Country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed by female figures because the female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it was brought to give the abstract idea of the nation’s concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
Analyse the information given below, considering one of the following correct options:
Q.15. While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person.
(a) Portrait of a nation
(b) idol of a nation
(c) Personification of a nation
(d) Visualising a nation
Solution: Concept of liberalization in the field of Economic Sphere:
In the economic sphere, liberalization stood for freedom of market and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
Q.16. “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyse the statement with examples. Marks 5
“The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends.“ Examine the statement.
Ans. Sentiment of Nationalism in the first half of the 19th century:
(i) Towards the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism could not retain its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiments of the first half of the century but became a narrow belief with inadequate ends.
(ii) Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant, which led to war.
(iii) Major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.
(iv) Source of nationalist tension in Europe was the area called the Balkans.
(v) Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(vi) One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
(vii) The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that they were once independent but were subjugated by a foreign power.
(viii) Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence. Hence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. (Any five)
Q.17. How did the Balkan issue become one of the major factors responsible for the First World War? Marks 3
Ans. (i) The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(ii) The Balkan area became an area of intense conflict as different Slavic nationalities struggled for their independence.
(iii) It became the source of big power rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies and military might.
Q.18. How did the Balkan region become a source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871? Marks 3
Ans. (i) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(ii) The inhabitants of these regions were known as Slavs.
(iii) A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(iv) As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
(v) The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others (Any three)
Q.19. Examine the conditions of Italy before unification. Marks 3
Ans. Conditions of Italy before unification:
(i) The greatest problem in the unification of Italy was its fragmentation into several political units, each under a different authority.
(ii) Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg Empire.
(iii) During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states.
(iv) Out of seven, only one Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
(v) The north was under Austrian Habsburgs.
(vi) The centre was ruled by the Pope.
(vii) Southern regions were under the Bourbon kings of Spain.
(viii) The Italian language had not acquired one common form. It still had many regional and local variations. (Any six)
Q.20. "In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution." Validate the statement with relevant arguments? Marks 5
Ans. In Britain, the formation of the nation–state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
(i) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones–such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. There was no British nation prior to the 18th century
(ii) All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
(iii) Because of steady growth of the English nation in case of wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(iv) The Act of Union 1707 between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. It meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
(v) The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(vi) The growth of the British identity meant that Scotland‘s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
(vii) The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland. (Any five)
|1. What is nationalism and how did it rise in Europe?
|2. How did the French Revolution contribute to the rise of nationalism in Europe?
|3. What role did romanticism play in the growth of nationalism in Europe?
|4. How did the rise of nationalism impact the political landscape of Europe?
|5. What were the consequences of the rise of nationalism in Europe?