What is a Tissue?
- Organs such as stem, roots in plants and stomach, heart and lungs in animals are made up of different kinds of tissues.
- A tissue is a group of cells with a common origin, structure and function. Their common origin means they are derived from the same layer (details in lesson No. 20) of cells in the embryo.
- Being of a common origin, they are similar in structure and hence perform the same function. Many kinds of tissues organize to form an organ.
Example: Blood, bone, cartilage are some examples of animal tissues, whereas parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem and phloem are different tissues in plants.
- The study of tissues is called histology.
- A group of cells with similar origin, structure and function is called tissue.
Example: Bone, muscle in animals and meristem in tips of root and shoot in plants.
Question 1:Tissues are
Tissue are group of cells which are similar in origin and function.
The Plant Tissues
The plant tissues are mainly of two types:
- Meristematic (Gk. meristos: dividing)
- Permanent (non-dividing)
Classification fo Plant Tissue
Question 2:Plant tissues are divided into meristematic and permanent tissues on which of the following basis?
Meristematic tissue – Capable of division
Permanent tissue – Lose their capability to divide
1. Meristematic Tissues
- Composed of immature or undifferentiated cells without intercellular spaces.
- The cells may be rounded, oval or polygonal; always living and thin walled.
Different Types of Meristematic Tissue
- Each cell has abundant cytoplasm and prominent nuclei in it.
- Vacuoles may be small or absent.
Table: Types of Meristematic Tissue
Question 3:What is the function of lateral meristem?
Lateral meristem increase diameter or girth.
2. Permanent Tissues
- Permanent tissues are those in which growth has stopped either completely or for the time being.
- Cells of these tissues may be living or dead; and thin walled or thick walled.
- Thin walled permanent tissues are generally living, whereas the thick walled tissues may be living or dead.
➢ Types of Permanent Tissues
- Simple Tissues
Simple tissue is made up of only one type of cells. Common simple tissues are parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
- Complex Tissues
Complex tissue is made up of more than one type of cells working together as a unit. Common examples are xylem and phloem.
(a) Simple Plant Tissues
There are three types of simple plant tissues:
- Parenchyma (Chlorenchyma and Aerenchyma)
Table: Structure, Function and Distribution of simple tissues
Question 4:The parenchymatous cells are
These are living, thin-walled cells.
Question 5:Collenchyma differs from parenchyma in
Collenchyma differs from parenchyma in possessing thick cell wall having deposition of pectin at the corners.
→ Sclerenchymatous cell lack protoplasm
→ Both parenchyma and collenchyma when contain chloroplast then known as Chlorenchyma
→ Collenchyma and Parenchyma both are simple permanent tissue which loose their capacity to divide hence, not meristematic.
(b) Complex Tissues
Complex tissues are mainly of two types:
- Xylem and phloem form a continuous system inside the plants, that is from the roots through the stem and leaves.
- They are known as vascular tissues and form vascular bundles in roots and stems. Xylem (Greek xylo = wood)
- Xylem is a conducting tissue which conducts water and salts upward from roots to leaves.
- Xylem is composed of
(d) Xylem Parenchyma
- Phloem is a conducting tissue that conducts food synthesised in the leaves to different parts of the plant.
- Phloem is composed of:
(a) Sieve Tubes
(b) Companion Cells
(c) Phloem Fibre
(d) Phloem Parenchyma
- The structure, function of the complex plant tissues is given in the table below.
Table: Structure and function of the components of xylem and phloem Table
Question 6:The central lumens are obliterated in
Central lumens are obliterated in xylem fibers.
Theories Explaining Growth of the Plant at its Apex and Root Tip
There are two important theories that explain the growth of a plant at the extremities of shoot and root.
- Tunica corpus theory
- Histogen theory.
1. Tunica Corpus Theory
- Tunica corpus theory was developed for vegetative shoot apex.
- According to this theory, there are two zones of tissues in the apical meristems the tunica (Tunic = cover) consisting of one or more layers of peripheral layers of cells, and the corpus (corpus = body) a mass of cells enclosed by the tunica.
- According to the theory, different rates and methods of growth in the apex set apart two regions.
- The layers of tunica show anticlinal (perpendicular to periphery) divisions and bring about surface growth.
- In the corpus, cell division is irregular and at various planes resulting in growth in volume of the mass.
- Tunica gives rise to epidermis and cortex. Corpus gives rise to endodermis, pericycle, pith and vascular tissue.
2. Histogen Theory
- According to this theory, apical meristem of stem and root are composed of small mass of cells which are all alike and divide fast (meristematic).
- These meristematic cells form promeristem, which differentiate into three zones dermatogen, periblem and plerome.
- Every zone consists of a group of initials called a histogen (tissue builder).
(i) Dermatogen gives rise to epidermis of stems and epiblema of roots.
(ii) Periblem (middle layer) gives rise to cortex of stems and roots.
(iii) Plerome gives rise to central meristematic region– pericycle, pith and vascular tissue.