Q.1. Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Marks 3
Ans. Role of Business class in 'Civil Disobedience Movement':
(i) The business class reached against policies that restricted business activities.
(ii) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(iii) In order to organise business interest, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iv) They gave financial assistance for the movement.
(v) They refused to buy and sell imported goods. (Any other relevant point)
Q.2. Who had organized the dalits into the 'Depressed classes Association in 1930'? Describe his achievements. Marks 5
Ans. Depressed Classes Association was organized by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in 1930. Achievements:
(i) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar raised the demand of a separate electorate for Dalits.
(ii) British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand of separate electorates for Dalits
(iii) The depressed classes got reservation of seats in provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
(iv) Ambedkar accepted Gandhi's position and as the result Poona Pact was signed. (Any other relevant point)
Q.3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain. Marks 5
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December, 1931 Gandhiji went to London for the Round Table Conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
Q.4. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘Salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain. Marks 5
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi found ‘Salt’ a powerful symbol : Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin starting eleven demands on 31st January, 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of foods. It was consumed both by rich and poor alike. He urged them to peacefully defy the tax imposed on salt. On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the law.
Q.5. Critically examine the main aspects of Indian National Movement during the period between 1920 and 1935. Marks 5
Ans. Following are the main aspects of the Indian National Movement between 1920-1935:
(i) Beginning of Mass Movement after Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
(ii) Application of satyagraha to mass movement, new methods to protest, boycott, picketing, renunciation of titles, and non-payment of taxes.
(iii) People of different sections and parts shared a common bond of resistance—united in their hatred against the British rule.
(iv) Industrialists led by Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla criticised colonialism.
Q.6. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1. Marks 3
Ans. (i) The image of Bharat Mata created by Abanindranath Tagore is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Another image of Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both are the symbols of power and authority.
(ii) Germania was the symbol of the German nation. She is depicted as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shine through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Analyze the information given below, considering one of the following correct options:
Q.7. Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was, in a way, an ultimatum. If the demands were not fulfilled by 11 March, the letter stated, the Congress would launch a Civil Disobedience Campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6 April, he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(a) Non-Cooperation Movement
(b) Salt March
(c) Khilafat Movement
(d) Rowlatt Act
Answer in one word/one sentence:
Q.8. Trace the reason because of which Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919.
Ans. To protest against the Rowlatt Act
Fill in the blanks:
Q.9. In Lahore, the resolution of ______ was adopted in 1929.
Ans. Purna Swaraj
Q.10. Assertion and Reason Type Questions :the question given below, there are two statements. One is marked as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion: It was declared that 26th January, 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for Complete Independence.
Reason: Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Q.11. Explain the issue behind the Khilafat Movement. Marks 3
What was the Khilafat Agitation? Why did Gandhiji give support to this agitation?
Ans. Khilafat Agitation:
(i) The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) initiated by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was a mass movement against the reduction of temporal powers of Caliph after defeat of Ottoman-Turkey in the First World War.
(ii) To defend Khalifa’s temporal powers, the Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 as he was considered as the spiritual head of Muslims.
(iii) Gandhiji supported it because he saw it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified National Movement
Q.12. Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside. Marks 3
Ans. Non-Cooperation Movement spread in the countryside
(i) In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here the movement was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses.
(ii) Peasants had to beg and work at landlords' farms without any payments. As tenants, they had no security of tenure and were regularly evicted so that they have no right over the leased land.
(iii) The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords. In the meantime, Jawaharlal Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh.
(iv) The Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up in the villages. The peasant movement, however, developed in forms that the Congress leadership was unhappy with.
(v) As the movement spread, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked: bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over. (Any three)
Q.13. How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India? Explain with three examples. Marks 3
Ans. Three points on the First World War’s impact on the economic situation in India are given below:
(i) It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India.
(ii) Custom duties were increased and income tax was introduced.
(iii) The prices of the goods doubled between 1913-1918 and created hardships for the people.
(iv) Forced recruitment was carried out and men from the villages were forced to become soldiers.
Q.14. How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organise Satyagraha Movement in various places just after arriving in India? Explain by giving three examples. Marks 3
Ans. After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha Movement in various places:
(i) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation of Indigo.
(ii) In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat who were affected by crop failure and plague epidemic and could not pay the revenue.
(iii) In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize the Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.
Q.15. How did Gandhiji convert the National Movement into a mass movement? Marks 5
Ans. Gandhiji converted the National Movement into a mass movement by:
(i) His simple and saintly lifestyle and style of convincing the masses made him popular.
(ii) His undisputed leadership and magnetic personality.
(iii) His policy of non-violent satyagraha.
(iv) His programmes of social reforms like fighting against untouchability.
(v) His commitment to Hindu-Muslim unity.
Q.16. Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact‘. Marks 3
Ans. The main features of ‘Poona Pact’ were:
(i) The Poona Pact (September 1932) gave Depressed Classes (later to be known as Scheduled Caste) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
(ii) They were to be voted in by the general electorate.
(iii) The Act came into force due to Gandhi's fast unto death.
(iv) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s stand. (Any three)
Q.17. Explain the grievances of the peasants against the government. What steps were taken to organise the Peasant Movement to fulfil their demands during colonial rule? Marks 5
Ans. Reasons of grievances of the peasants against the government were:
(i) Due to forest laws of the colonial government.
(ii) Depriving them of the traditional rights of entering the forest to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
(iii) High land revenues.
(iv) Forced to perform begar. (Any three)
Steps taken to organise Peasant Movement:
(i) Many kisan sabhas were organised.
(ii) Organised guerrilla militant movement.
(iii) Attacked police stations and attempted to kill British police officials.
(iv) Gandhiji declared that no tax to be paid. (Any two)
Q.18. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:
SOURCE A : The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement [NCERT History Ch. 2 Page 40] Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one. This led to violent clashes in many places. When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi, was arrested in April 1930, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed. A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Solapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised British rule. A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested.
SOURCE B : How Participants saw the Movement [NCERT History Ch. 2 Page 41] The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. As the industrialists came closer to the Congress, workers stayed aloof. But in spite of that, some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dockworkers in 1932. In 1930 thousands of workers in Chhotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns. But the Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as part of its programme of struggle. It felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.
SOURCE C : The Sense of Collective Belonging The identity of the nation, as you know is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints, and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
Questions : SOURCE A:
(i) What happened when Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested ?
(ii) What did the workers in Chhotanagpur tin mines do ?
(iii) What were Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's contributions in nationalism of India?
Ans. (i) When Abdul Ghaffar was arrested in April 1930, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(ii) In 1930 thousands of workers in Chhotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
(iii) The image of Bharat Mata was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Later it was sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
Q.19. How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement ? Explain. Marks 5
How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in the making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging?
Ans. (i) This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
(ii) But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people‘s imagination:
(a) The identity of the nation symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc.
(b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
(c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.
Q.20. Explain any three features of the Peasant Movement organised in Awadh in the second decade of 20th century. Marks 3
Ans. (i) In the second decade of the 20th century, a Peasant Movement started against exploitation of talukdars and landlords.
(ii) The movement was led by Baba Ramchandra who was earlier a Sanyasi.
(iii) The peasants through this movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of ‘begar’ and social boycott of oppressive landlords.