Q.1. How has the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India ? Explain with examples. Marks 5
Ans. What was the impact of the First World War on the economic conditions in India.
(i) It created new economic and political problems. The war had led to huge expenditure which was financed by heavy loans and an increase in taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
(ii) The prices had doubled between 1913 and 1918 and the common people underwent great hardships.
(iii) Crops had failed between 1918-19 and 1920-21 leading to famine and disease. There were epidemics killing between 12-13 million people (Census, 1921).
(iv) People’s hope that the end of the war would bring an end to their misery and near to their goals and this led to their support to the National Movement.
(v) The Muslims were antagonised by the British ill-treatment of the Khalifa, after the First World War.
(vi) Indian villagers were also incensed by the British Government’s forced recruitment of men in the army.
(vii) The Congress and other parties were angry with the British for not consulting them before making India a party on their side against Germany.
(viii) Taking advantage of the First World War, many revolutionary parties cropped up and they incited the people to join the anti-Colonial Movement in India (i.e. the National Movement). (Any five)
Q.2. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement start with participation of middle class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front. Marks 5
How had the Non–Cooperation Movement spread in cities. Explain.
How did the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.
Ans. The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was started by the Congress Party in January 1921. Initially, this movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students, teachers and lawyers gave up their institutions and profession and joined the movement. This movement began in different cities across the country. The NonCooperation Movement dramatically affected the economy of British India. The economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement were as follows –
(i) As foreign goods and foreign clothes were boycotted, the import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922, and its value dropped from ‘102 crore to’ 57 crore rupees.
(ii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or invest in foreign trade.
(iii) As people discarded imported clothes and started to use Indian clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q.3.“The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples.
How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement? State any three points of difference.
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement : Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
(ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Foreign clothes were burnt in the heap.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
(vi) Students left the government-owned schools and colleges.
(vii) Lawyers gave up legal practices.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) People were asked to break colonial laws.
(ii) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
(iv) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(v) Forest people violated forest rules and laws. (Any three points of difference to be mentioned)
Q.4. The Simon Commission was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments. Marks 3
Ans. Simon Commission:
(i) The new government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.
(ii) It was set up in response to the nationalist movement.
(iii) The commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
(iv) The problem was that the commission didn‘t have a single Indian member.
(v) When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’.
(vi) All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. (Any three)
Q.5. “Some of the Muslim political organizations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.” Examine the statement. Marks 5
Ans. Large sections of Muslims were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement due to the following factors:
(i) Association of Congress with Hindu Mahasabha: After the decline of the Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s, the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(ii) Communal Clashes: As relations between the Hindus and the Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
(iii) Issue of demand for separate electorates: Some of the Muslim leaders demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims which was not supported by the Congress leaders.
(iv) Status of Muslims in Hindu majority state: Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
(v) Issue of reserved seats in the Central Assembly: Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Central Assembly but this was not acceptable to the Congress leaders. So, Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.
Q.6. Critically examine the reasons of conflict between the Congress and the Muslim League. Why did the Muslim League fail to respond to the call of united struggle during the Civil Disobedience Movement? Marks 5
Ans. The important differences between the Congress and the Muslim League were over the question of representation of Muslims in the future assemblies that were to be elected. Suspicion and distrust between the two communities was a major reason.
(i) The Civil Disobedience Movement started under this atmosphere of distrust.
(ii) Negotiation over the question of representation continued but all hopes of resolving the issue in the All Parties Conference in 1928, disappeared when M. R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts of compromise.
(iii) Alienated from Congress, large sections of the Muslims failed to respond to the call of a united struggle.
(iv) The Muslims feared that the culture and identity of the minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
Q.7. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain. Marks 5
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement because:
(i) Worried by the development of the Civil Disobedience Movement, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent clashes in many places.
(iii) When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April 1930, an angry crowd demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(iv) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested; industrial workers in Solapur attacked the police force, municipal buildings, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
(v) A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
(vi) The peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested. Under these circumstances, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement. (Any five points to be explained)
Detailed Answer: (i) By drawing inspiration from Gandhi's salt march, thousands of people broke the Salt Law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(ii) People boycotted foreign cloth and picketed liquor shops. In many regions, peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari, taxes, village officials resigned and forest people broke forest laws going into reserved forests, to graze cattle or collect firewood and fruits.(iii) British officials, seeing the incidents, decided to clamp down on nationalists. When Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, people demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(iv) When Gandhiji himself was arrested, industrial workers in Solapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations.
(v) Frightened the government responded with brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and around 1,00,000 satyagrahis were put in jail. Seeing so much of violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement and entered into a pact with Irwin on 5th March, 1931.
Q.8. What was the objective of the Simon Commission? Why was it opposed in India? Marks 3
Ans. Simon Commission was set up to look into the functioning of the Constitutional System in India and suggest changes.
It was opposed because: (i) It had all the members from the white community.
(ii) It had not even a single Indian as its member. Indians took it as their insult.
Q.9. Which incident marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Why did the peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Marks 5
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement : Violation of Salt Law by manufacturing salt from sea water by Gandhiji marked the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Reasons for which the peasants joined the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Rich peasants (Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh) were active in the movement. They were hard hit by the trade depressions and falling prices. The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue led to widespread resentment.
(ii) For the rich peasants, fighting for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenue.
(iii) Poor peasants wanted the unpaid rent to be remitted so they joined the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q.10. What were the limitations of the Civil Disobedience Movement? Elaborate. Marks 5
Ans. Limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Dalit participation was limited. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s proposal and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(ii) Muslim political groups were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was a sudden atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Alienated from the Congress, large sections of Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.
Q.11. “Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement”. Examine the statement. Marks 5
Ans. Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
The causes for this are listed below:
(i) Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
(ii) When the British government conceded Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death.
(iii) Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the society.
(iv) Dr. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
(v) It gave the depressed classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
Q.12. Match the following:
Ans. (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(a), (iv)-(b)
Q.13. Arrange the following in the correct sequence
(i) Rowlatt Act passed.
(ii) The Partition of Bengal officially came into existence.
(iii) Satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad.
(iv) Satyagraha Movement in Kheda District (Gujarat)
(a) (iv) - (ii) - (i) - (iii)
(b) (ii) - (iii) - (iv) - (i)
(c) (ii) - (iv) - (iii) - (i)
(d) (i) - (iii) - (ii) - (iv)
Q.14. Complete the following table with the happening of two events and the respective years in which they took place.
Ans. Militant guerrilla movement
Multiple Choice Questions:
Q.15. With the growth of Nationalism, who created the image of Bharat Mata?
(a) Abanindranath Tagore
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Q.16. In 19th Century India, Which ideas were revived through a movement to develop nationalism?
(a) History and fictions
(b) Figure or images
(c) Folklore or songs
(d) Popular prints
Q.17. Assertion and Reason Type Questions :the question given below, there are two statements. One is marked as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion: Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
Reason: His object, as he declared later, was to 'produce a moral effect', to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Q.18. Bhagat Singh was 21, when he was tried and executed by the Colonial government.
Ans. Bhagat Singh was 23, when he was tried and executed by the Colonial government.
Find the incorrect option:
Q.19. (a) Against this background the new Tory government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.
(b) Set up in response to nationalist movement, the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
(c) The problem was that the Commission did not have a single Indian member.
(d) They were all Americans.
Ans. The Incorrect option is (d): They were all Americans.
Correct answer is: They were all Britishers.
Q.20. Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in February 1922? Explain any three reasons. Marks 3
What were the causes of the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement? Explain.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922? Explain the reasons.
Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in February 1922? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922:
(i) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places.
(ii) A clash took place at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh.
(iii) A group of volunteers picketing a liquor shop were beaten up by a police officer.
(iv) In protest a group of peasants went to the police station, bolted the door and set fire to the police station killing 22 policemen.
(v) The incident shocked Gandhiji and he immediately withdrew the movement. (Any three)
Q.21. How could Non-Cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion. Marks 3
Ans. Non-Cooperation became a movement:
(i) It was the view of Gandhiji that the British rule was set in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(ii) If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and swaraj would come.
(iii) Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iv) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
(v) Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.
(vi) It should begin with surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods. (Any three)
Q.22. How did different social groups conceive the idea of ‘Non-Cooperation’? Explain with examples. Marks 5
Ans. Some of the leaders within Congress were reluctant to start a Non-Cooperation Movement because they wanted to oppose the British government through legal and constitutional means.
For example, they wanted to contest the elections for legislative councils that were scheduled to be held in 1920 and oppose the government from inside the council once elected.
Q.23. How was the Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples. Marks 3
Ans. The Rowlatt Act of 1919 was opposed in the following manner:
(i) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(ii) Workers went on strike in Railway workshops.
(iii) Shops were closed down.
It was in opposition to the Rowlatt Act that the famous Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
General Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on the innocent Civilians who had gathered from the city of Amritsar and outside to attend a peaceful meeting.
Q.24. What were the three proposals regarding the Non-Cooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi? Marks 3
Ans. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:
(i) Surrender of titles that the government awarded.
(ii) Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative, councils, schools, and foreign goods.
(iii) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Q.25. Describe the significance of the Civil Disobedi-ence Movement in the freedom struggle of India. Marks 5
Ans. Significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched against the arrival of the Simon Commission. This continued between 1930 and 1934.
(ii) Complete Independence was the main aim of the Civil Disobedience Movement which formulated this demand in the Lahore Session.
(iii) It was fully fledged mass movement.
(iv) Mahatma Gandhi started the famous Salt March.
(v) On 6th April, he ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.(vi) This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. (Any five)
Q.26. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates for Muslims and the Dalits? Marks 3
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates? [NCERT]
Ans. (i) Dalits began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
(ii) The leaders of the depressed classes under Dr B.R. Ambedkar also wanted a separate electorate, because they were also afraid of Hindu dominance in a joint electorate. After Gandhi’s fast unto death, the Poona Pact was signed between him and Dr. Ambedkar. Gandhiji saw it as a blow to national unity and feared that the Dalits would never become one with the Hindu society, under separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar agreed to a joint electorate provided the depressed classes had reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
(iii) After the decline of the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. Muslim leaders like Muhammad Iqbal and M.A. Jinnah wanted separate electorates to safeguard the political interests of the Muslims. They were afraid, as a minority religious group, that they would never be able to win elections in a joint electorate and the Hindus would always dominate them.
Q.27. What were Mahatma Gandhi‘s views on women‘s participation in the national movements? Marks 3
Ans. (i) According to Gandhiji, the woman is the companion of man and gifted with equal rights of freedom and liberty.
(ii) The woman is more fit than a man to take exploration and bolder action in non-violence.
(iii) The woman is the better half of humanity, not the weaker sex.
Q.28. Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ in 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘Swaraj Flag’. Marks 3
Which flag did Gandhiji design in 1921? Mention its special features.
Ans. (i) In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag.
(ii) It was a tricolour (red, green and white) flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Q.29. How had a variety of cultural processes developed a sense of collective belongingness in India during the 19th century? Explain with examples. Marks 5
Ans. Collective belongingness: (i) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, All played a part in the making of nationalism.
(ii) Identity of the nation was most often symbolized in a figure or image.
(iii) The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
(iv) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Abanindra Nath Tagore created a picture of Bharat Mata.
(v) Vande Matram as a hymn for the motherland.
(vi) Folklores and tales gave a true picture of traditional culture. (Any other relevant point to be explained) (Any five)
Detailed Answer: Collective responsibility means that people began to believe that they were all a part of the same nation and discovered some unity, which bound them together. Examples of main cultural processes:
(a) Figures or Images: These helped in creating an image with which people could identify the nation. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism. It was with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India was associated with the image of Bharat Mata. This image was firstly created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram’ in his novel Anandamath. Then Abanindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. He was greatly inspired by the Swadeshi Movement.
(b) Movement to Revive Folklore: In the late 19th century, in India, nationalists started recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured the villages to gather folk songs and legends. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival. In Madras, Natesha Sastri published a massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, “The Folklore of Southern India”.
(c) Icons and Symbols: During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed. It had eight horses, representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was also a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre – representing the Gandhian ideals of self-help.
(d) Reinterpretation of History: Many Indians started looking at the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times. This glorious time, in their belief, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonized. These nationalists urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable condition of the life of Indians under the British rule.
Q.30. The Civil Disobedience Movement saw the participation of different social classes and groups. Give reasons for the participation of the following:
(a) rich peasants (b) poor peasants (c) business classes (d) industrial working classes (e) women Marks 5
Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
How did different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.
Ans. The reasons for the participation of various social classes and groups in Civil Disobedience Movement are as follows:
(a) Rich peasants- Rich peasant communities like patidars of Gujarat and the jats of Uttar Pradesh joined the movement because, being producers of commercial crops they were hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. Due to the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand made them fight against high revenues.
(b) Poor peasants- Joined the movement because they found it difficult to pay rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
(c) Business class- They reacted against colonial policies that restricted activities because they were keen on expanding their business and for this they wanted protection against imports of foreign goods. They thought that Swaraj would cancel colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without restrictions.
(d) Industrial working class- They did not participate in large numbers except in the Nagpur region. Some workers did participate in, selectively adopting some of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as a part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
(e) Women- There was large scale participation of women in the movement. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.