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Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 1 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT PDF Download

Question 1: What happens to our brains as we age is of crucial importance not just to science but to public policy. By 2030, for example, 72 million people in the US will be over 65, double the figure in 2000 and their average life expectancy will likely have edged above 20 years. However, this demographic time-bomb would be much less threatening if the elderly were looked upon as intelligent contributors to society rather than as dependants in long-term decline.
A. The idea that we get dumber as we grow older is just a myth, according to brain research that will encourage anyone old enough to know better.
B. It is time we rethink what we mean by the ageing mind before our false assumptions result in decisions and policies that marginalize the old or waste precious public resources to re-mediate problems that do not exist.
C. Many of the assumptions scientists currently make about ‘cognitive decline’ are seriously flawed and, for the most part, formally invalid.
D. Using computer models to simulate young and old brains, Ramscar and his colleagues found they could account for the decline in test scores simply by factoring in experience
Answer: It is time we rethink what we mean by the ageing mind before our false assumptions result in decisions and policies that marginalize the old or waste precious public resources to re-mediate problems that do not exist.
Explanation:
This paragraph discusses the growing aging populace and need to identify how they can be contributors to the society.
Choice (b) continues the line of thought about not wasting public resources based on existing assumptions about cognitive decline with age.
Choice (d) is also eliminated right away as it talks of a “decline in test scores”, the test not detailed here.
Choice (a) is incorrect as it doesn’t talk of the aged in the society, just lays down the basic premise that they are not on the path of mental decline. This would have been discussed before the paragraph we are trying to complete begins.
Choice (c) builds on the idea discussed by choice (a) and doesn’t fit as well as (b) to complete the paragraph.
Sentences C and B go together, as do A and D.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B
Choice B is the correct answer.

Question 2: The better behaviour resulting from smart devices is just one threat to the insurance industry. Conventional risk pools (for home or car insurance, for example) are shrinking as preventable accidents decline, leaving the slow-footed giants of the industry at risk. Business is instead moving to digital-native insurers, many of which are offering low premiums to those willing to collect and share their data. Yet the biggest winners could be tech companies rather than the firms that now dominate the industry. Insurance is increasingly reliant on the use of technology to change behaviour; firms act as helicopter parents to policyholders, warning of impending harm—slow down; reduce your sugar intake; call the plumber—the better to reduce unnecessary payouts.
A. The growing mountain of personal data available to individuals and, crucially, to firms is giving those with the necessary processing power the ability to distinguish between low-risk and high-risk individuals.
B. Cheap sensors and the tsunami of data they generate can improve our lives; blackboxes in cars can tell us how to drive more carefully and wearable devices will nudge us toward healthier lifestyles.
C. Yet this sort of relationship relies on trust, and the Googles and Apples of the world, on which consumers rely day-by-day and hour-by-hour, may be best placed to win this business.
D. The uncertainty that underpins the need for insurance is now shrinking thanks to better insights into individual risks.
Answer: Yet this sort of relationship relies on trust, and the Googles and Apples of the world, on which consumers rely day-by-day and hour-by-hour, may be best placed to win this business.
Explanation:
The main point of this paragraph is that technology is producing some threats to the insurance industry, and that tech companies could be the biggest winners in this.
Starting off by mentioning the threats, the author has declared that “yet the biggest winners could be tech companies” and, in justifying why so, he talks of how insurance is using technology to change behaviour to reduce payouts.
Consider option A. This talks of how data available to individuals and firms is helping them assess risk better. It doesn’t carry forward the thought about helicopter parenting from the penultimate line of the paragraph.
Option B talks of how smart devices are helping improve lives and lifestyles. This substantiates the threat of “better behaviour resulting from smart devices” that the author refers to while starting the paragraph. It doesn’t conclude the paragraph.
Option D is ruled out as it talks of reducing uncertainty due to better insights into risks. This is the basic premise on which this paragraph is based, but does not conclude the given paragraph.
Option C talks of “this sort of relationship” and why the tech companies are better placed to win business based on trust. This provides the reasoning for why the author thinks tech companies are the biggest winners, so this is the correct concluding line.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence C
Choice C is the correct answer.

Question 3: The expenditure of time, money and sparse judicial and prosecutorial resources is often justified by claims of a powerful deterrent message embodied in the ultimate punishment- the death penalty. But studies repeatedly suggest that there is no meaningful deterrent effect associated with the death penalty and further, any deterrent impact is no doubt greatly diluted by the amount of time that inevitably passes between the time of the conduct and the punishment. In 2010, the average time between sentencing and execution in the United States averaged nearly 15 years.
A. A single federal death penalty case in Philadelphia was found to cost upwards of $10 million — eight times higher than the cost of trying a death eligible case where prosecutors seek only life imprisonment.
B. The ethics of the issue aside, it is questionable whether seeking the death penalty is ever worth the time and resources that it takes to sentence someone to death.
C. Apart from delaying justice, the death penalty diverts resources that could be used to help the victims’ families heal.
D. A much more effective deterrent would be a sentence of life imprisonment imposed close in time to the crime.
Answer: A much more effective deterrent would be a sentence of life imprisonment imposed close in time to the crime.
Explanation:
This paragraph argues that resources spent-time, money and judiciary resources- are justified on the basis that the death penalty is a deterrent and questions whether it is indeed an effective deterrent. The author argues that it isn’t, and says that any deterrent impacts are diluted by the inordinate amount of time between the sentencing and execution. The penultimate line talks of the 15 year gap between sentencing and execution.
We see that option A talks of the cost of handling a death penalty case. This is irrelevant to the main idea of this paragraph- the deterrent effect of death penalty. So, this option is ruled out.
Option B again talks of the time and resources involved. As seen before, this paragraph starts by asking whether the resources spent have a deterrent effect. Option B is, therefore, ruled out.
Option C starts a new idea altogether, i.e, how the resources used for the death penalty cases could be better utilized. Again, this is not a conclusion for the given paragraph.
Option D is talks of a “much more effective deterrent”. This is the correct concluding line for the paragraph, as it ties in with the main idea of the paragraph of a punishment that is a “powerful deterrent”.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 4: The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has come out with the dismaying prediction that the southwest monsoon this year will be below normal. If this prognosis holds true, it may mar the prospects of redeeming the rabi crop output losses through bumper harvests in the later kharif season. India's farm sector has certainly acquired a degree of resilience when it comes to the monsoon - as reflected in the positive growth numbers in all the weak monsoon years since 2009. However, monsoon rainfall and its distribution still remain crucial.
A. They impact supplies and prices of most farm commodities, especially coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and livestock products, as well as the rural sector demand for consumer goods.
B. A poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation might well throw off the Reserve Bank of India's schedule for rate cuts.
C. Nevertheless, the first stage monsoon forecast of the IMD should normally be taken with a pinch of salt, as the weather agency's accuracy record on this count is none too inspiring.
D. The monsoon’s behavior this year seems to bear out the notion that climate change is affecting the Indian monsoon and altering its rainfall calendar.
Answer: They impact supplies and prices of most farm commodities, especially coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and livestock products, as well as the rural sector demand for consumer goods.
Explanation:
This paragraph starts with the prediction of a poor monsoon and goes on to discuss the impact of this on India’s farm sector. The penultimate line states that monsoon rainfall and its distribution are still crucial. Crucial to whom, is the question. The paragraph discusses India’s farm sector so we are discussing how the monsoon is still crucial to the farm sector.
Now let us consider the options given.
Option A- This discusses the impact “they” have on supplies and prices of most farm commodities and rural demand for consumer goods. The penultimate line talks of monsoon rainfall and its distribution. “They” could refer to these two factors. Hence option A seems to be a good conclusion to the given paragraph.
Option B- This discusses the effect of the poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation on RBI rate cuts. This statement introduces a new, related idea, i.e, the indirect impact of the monsoon on inflation and rate cuts. This cannot be the line that completes the given paragraph, which is discussing the monsoon and India’s farm sector.
Option C- This talks of the accuracy of IMD’s forecasts. It looks like a possible contender to complete the paragraph, as the paragraph started with the prediction of a bad monsoon. However, this statement refers to the “first stage monsoon forecast”, while there is no indication in the given paragraph whether the forecast discussed is the first stage one or the second stage forecast. Furthermore, the paragraph has focused on the impact of a poor monsoon on the farm sector. The given statement does not continue that line of thought.
Option D- This option talks of the climate change and the possibility of that affecting the Indian monsoon. This is a completely different idea and can hence be ruled out as the right choice.
Option A is the correct answer.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence A
Choice A is the correct answer.

Question 5: By calling for exempting unionized businesses from the minimum wage, unions are creating more incentives for employers to favor unionized workers over the non-unionized sort. Such exemptions strengthen their power. This is useful because for all the effort unions throw at raising the minimum wage, laws for better pay have an awkward habit of undermining union clout. 
A. High rates of unionization make minimum-wage rules unnecessary as collaborative wage setting achieves the flexibility goals of a low minimum wage and the fairness goals of a high one.
B. Workers who have no real alternative to employment in the unregulated shadows of the labor market are even more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse than workers with the legal right to take low wages.
C. The labor ethos of worker solidarity seems hollow if non-union workers are underpriced by union workers and left unemployed or scrambling for unauthorized work.
D. Once employers are obliged to pay the same minimum wage to both unionized and non-unionized labor, workers often see less reason to pay the dues to join a union.
Answer: Once employers are obliged to pay the same minimum wage to both unionized and non-unionized labor, workers often see less reason to pay the dues to join a union.
Explanation:
The paragraph starts by saying that unions are calling for exempting unionized businesses from the minimum wage. This provides incentives for employers to favor unionized workers over those who have not joined one. The paragraph further states that such exemptions increase the power of the union. Unions need this boost in power because though they argue for better pay, minimum wage laws actually reduce the clout of the union.
The key idea here is the rather contrary effect of the minimum wage law on the power of the unions, and the bid of the unions to strengthen their clout with the call for exemption from minimum wage for unionized businesses.
Sentence A talks of the effect of high rates of unionization. It makes minimum wage laws unnecessary as the unions are able to achieve flexible and fair wages through collaboration. This sentence does not complete the given paragraph, which discusses the effect of minimum wage laws on the clout of the union and not the vice-versa.
Sentence B discusses the case of workers without the legal right to take the low wages (as set by the minimum wage law) and no real alternative to employment being more vulnerable to exploitation. This is a new line of thought and does not complete the paragraph given.
Sentence C argues that the spirit of worker solidarity seems hollow if non-unionized workers are under-priced by their unionized counterparts.
This is a thought that seems, at the outset, to be related to the idea discussed in the paragraph. Unions are calling for exempting unionized businesses from the minimum wage. Thus they are encouraging employers to prefer unionized workers over the non-unionized and thus going against the ethos of worker solidarity.
However, this choice is incorrect, as the given paragraph is about why and how unions are seeking to increase their power having worked towards minimum wage laws, which, rather contrarily, decrease their clout. Sentence C does not carry forward the idea in the penultimate sentence about how laws for better pay have the “awkward habit of undermining union clout”.
Sentence D discusses the idea that workers have less incentive to pay and join a union when protected by minimum wage laws. This, clearly, undermines the clout of the unions. Thus sentence D provides a good choice to complete the given paragraph, carrying forward the idea expressed in the penultimate line.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 6: The premise that the choice of major amounts to choosing a career path rests on the faulty notion that the major is important for its content, and that the acquisition of that content is valuable to employers. But information is fairly easy to acquire and what is acquired in 2015 will be obsolete by 2020. What employers want are basic but difficult-to-acquire skills. When they ask students about their majors, it is usually not because they want to assess the applicants’ mastery of the content, but rather because they want to know if the students can talk about what they learned. They care about a potential employee’s abilities: writing, researching, quantitative, and analytical skills.
A. As students flock to the two or three majors they see as good investments, professors who teach in those majors are overburdened, and the majors themselves become more formulaic and less individualized.
B. Often it is the art historians and anthropology majors, for example, who, having marshaled the abilities of perspective, breadth, creativity, and analysis, have moved a company or project or vision forward.
C. Furthermore, the link between education and earnings is notoriously fraught, with cause and effect often difficult to disentangle.
D. A vocational approach to education eviscerates precisely the qualities that are most valuable about it: intellectual curiosity, creativity and critical thinking.
Answer: A vocational approach to education eviscerates precisely the qualities that are most valuable about it: intellectual curiosity, creativity and critical thinking.
Explanation:
The main idea of the paragraph is that choosing a major is not critical to building a career as it is not content of study that is valuable to employers. The paragraph then describes what is valuable to employers.
Option A- This discusses how overcrowding a few majors seen as good investments makes the majors formulaic and less individualized. This is a new, related idea. It does not complete the given paragraph.
Option B- The given paragraph is discussing what is considered “valuable” about college education by employers. Option B, which states that those who have majored in art history and anthropology may have the skills and vision to move a company or project forward, does not carry forward the idea of what is considered valuable by employers. Hence this option is also ruled out.
Option C- The link between education and earnings is not discussed in the paragraph given. It is a new idea.
Option D- This states that a job-oriented approach to education takes away from it the qualities of curiosity, creativity and critical thinking, that are, in fact, the most valuable products of education. It carries forward the main idea of the paragraph that it is not the choice of the major that determines a career and is valuable to employers but skills in writing, researching, reasoning, creativity and analysis.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 7: The premise that the choice of major amounts to choosing a career path rests on the faulty notion that the major is important for its content, and that the acquisition of that content is valuable to employers. But information is fairly easy to acquire and what is acquired in 2015 will be obsolete by 2020. What employers want are basic but difficult-to-acquire skills. When they ask students about their majors, it is usually not because they want to assess the applicants’ mastery of the content, but rather because they want to know if the students can talk about what they learned. They care about a potential employee’s abilities: writing, researching, quantitative, and analytical skills.
A. An energy-induced drop in prices, though good for consumer purchasing power, risks reinforcing expectations of lower inflation overall; it is part of the threat’s pernicious nature that such expectations easily become self-fulfilling.
B. The International Energy Agency, an oil importers’ club, said it expects global demand to rise by just 700,000 barrels a day (b/d) this year, 200,000 b/d below its forecast only last month.
C. On balance, energy consumers win and energy producers and exporting countries lose with falling oil prices.
D. On the other hand, if plentiful supply is driving prices down, that is potentially better news: cheaper oil should eventually boost spending in the world’s biggest economies.
Answer: On the other hand, if plentiful supply is driving prices down, that is potentially better news: cheaper oil should eventually boost spending in the world’s biggest economies.
Explanation:
The paragraph starts saying that normally falling oil prices boost global growth, but that this time, knowing whether the lower prices reflect weak demand or increase in supply is important to discern whether there is cause for cheer.
The paragraph discusses the case of weak demand leading to lower prices, especially where the source of weakness is financial. The penultimate line talks of cheaper oil increasing the risk of deflation.
Option A- This option elaborates on the idea of deflation discussed in the penultimate line. While it is tempting to say that this option completes the paragraph best, it should be noted that the given paragraph has a structure and this option does not fit it. The paragraph has stated two possible causes for the low price- weak demand and increase in supply. If sentence A were to complete the paragraph, the case of increase in supply and how it impacts global growth will not be discussed, leaving the paragraph incomplete. Hence option A is ruled out.
Option B- It is clear this option is not the correct one, as it is irrelevant to the given paragraph.
Option C- This option, again, does not complete the given paragraph. It offers a tangential thought.
Option D- This completes the paragraph given best, as it discusses the case of lower prices caused by surge in supply of oil, the second factor stated in the “big economic question” the paragraph talks of.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

The document Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 1 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT is a part of the CAT Course Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC).
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FAQs on Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 1 - Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

1. What is the article about?
Ans. The article is about completing statements questions and how to answer them effectively.
2. How can completing statements questions be useful in exams?
Ans. Completing statements questions can be useful in exams as they test the candidate's understanding of a topic and their ability to recall information accurately.
3. What is the purpose of completing statements questions?
Ans. The purpose of completing statements questions is to assess the candidate's knowledge and comprehension of a particular subject or topic.
4. How should one approach answering completing statements questions?
Ans. One should carefully read the given statement and identify the missing word or phrase. Then, analyze the context and use their knowledge of the subject to select the most appropriate answer option.
5. Are there any tips or strategies to improve performance in completing statements questions?
Ans. Yes, some tips include reading the entire statement before selecting an answer, using elimination techniques to rule out incorrect options, and reviewing the completed statements to ensure coherence and logical flow.
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