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Constitutional Design Summary Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2

Democratic Constitution in South Africa


Struggle against Apartheid

  • Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa.
  • This system was particularly oppressive for the blacks.
    • They were forbidden from living in white areas.
  • Since 1950, the blacks, coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system.
  • The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.
  • In 1964, Nelson Mandela and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country.

Towards a New Constitution

  • As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the white regime changed its policies.
  • After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela released from jail.
  • At the midnight of 26 April 1994, democracy was adopted as a form of government in South Africa.
  • After two years, a constitution came out which gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.

Why do we need a Constitution?

A constitution is necessary because:

  • It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
  • It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  • In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India.
  • In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like.
  • Factors contributed to the making of our Constitution.
    • Ideals of French Revolution
    • The practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain
    • The Bill of Rights in the US
    • The socialist revolution in Russia

The Constituent Assembly

  • In July 1946, Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held.
    • The drafting of the document called the constitution was done Constituent Assembly.
    • Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
    • In December 1946, the first meeting was held.
  • After the country was divided into India and Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly also got divided.
  • The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950.
  • To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.
  • The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
    • First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
    • Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion.
    • More than two thousand amendments were considered.

Philosophy of the Constitution
The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values which is called the Preamble to the constitution.
The preamble focuses on:

  • Justice, social, economic and political.
  • Liberty of thoughts, expression, belief, faith and worship.
  • Equality of status and of opportunity.
  • Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.
The document Constitutional Design Summary Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 is a part of the Class 9 Course NCERT Textbooks & Solutions for Class 9.
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FAQs on Constitutional Design Summary Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2

1. What is the significance of the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design?
Ans. The NCERT summary on Constitutional Design is significant as it provides a concise overview of the topic, making it easier for students to grasp the key concepts and information related to the constitutional design of a country.
2. How can the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design help in exam preparation?
Ans. The NCERT summary on Constitutional Design can be extremely helpful in exam preparation as it presents the important points and facts in a summarized form. It allows students to quickly revise the topic and reinforce their understanding without having to go through the entire chapter or textbook.
3. What are the key topics covered in the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design?
Ans. The key topics covered in the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design include the meaning and importance of constitutional design, the process of constitution-making, the challenges faced in designing a constitution, the features of the Indian Constitution, and a comparison with other countries' constitutions.
4. Can the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design be used as a standalone study resource?
Ans. While the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design provides a good overview of the topic, it is recommended to supplement it with the full chapter or textbook for a comprehensive understanding. The summary serves as a valuable study resource, but it may not cover all the details and nuances discussed in the complete text.
5. How can students make the most out of the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design?
Ans. To make the most out of the NCERT summary on Constitutional Design, students can use it as a quick reference tool for revision purposes. They can also use it to identify the key points and concepts they need to focus on and then delve deeper into those topics by referring to the complete chapter or textbook for more detailed information.
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