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Democracy & Diversity Summary Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1

Civil Rights Movement in the USA

  • This is a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.
  • The movement is led by Martin Luther King during the period of 1954-1968.

Differences, similarities, divisions

What is Social Differences

  • Social Differences are social identities based on accident of birth or on individual choices.

Origin of Social Differences

  • Most of the social differences are based on an accident of birth. 
  • Some of the differences are based on our choices.

Social Division

  • It is a situation of conflict based on social inequalities such as religion, caste etc.
  • Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.

Overlapping Differences

  • Social division takes place when some social differences overlaps with other differences.

Cross-cutting differences

  • If Social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against other.

Politics of social divisions

  • Democracy involves competition among various political parties.
  • Competition divides society and turns them into political divisions which ultimately lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.

Three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions

  • The outcome depends on how people perceive their identities.
    • If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
  • Depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community
    • It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
  • Depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups
    • If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.
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FAQs on Democracy & Diversity Summary Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1

1. What is democracy and why is it important?
Ans. Democracy is a form of government where the power lies in the hands of the people, who exercise it either directly or through elected representatives. It is important because it ensures equality, protects individual rights and freedoms, allows for peaceful resolution of conflicts, and promotes accountability and transparency in governance.
2. How does democracy promote diversity?
Ans. Democracy promotes diversity by valuing and respecting the rights and opinions of individuals from different backgrounds, cultures, and communities. It provides a platform for diverse groups to participate in decision-making processes, allowing for the representation of various perspectives and interests within society.
3. Can democracy exist without diversity?
Ans. No, democracy cannot exist without diversity. Diversity is an inherent characteristic of democracy as it thrives on the inclusion and representation of diverse voices, opinions, and ideas. Without diversity, democracy may turn into a system where a single group's interests dominate, undermining the principles of equality and fairness.
4. How does diversity impact the functioning of democracy?
Ans. Diversity impacts the functioning of democracy by enriching the decision-making process and fostering a culture of dialogue and inclusiveness. It ensures that different viewpoints and experiences are taken into account, leading to more comprehensive and well-rounded policies. Additionally, diversity challenges and prevents the concentration of power, promoting a more balanced and equitable society.
5. What are the challenges faced by democracy in managing diversity?
Ans. Democracy faces challenges in managing diversity due to the potential for conflicts arising from differing beliefs, ideologies, and interests. Ensuring equal representation and addressing the concerns of marginalized groups can also be challenging. Moreover, striking a balance between protecting minority rights and respecting majority decisions is a constant challenge for democratic governance. Overall, managing diversity requires a commitment to inclusivity, tolerance, and effective mechanisms for dialogue and negotiation.
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