Class 9 Exam  >  Class 9 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 9  >  Short Answer Questions - Food Security in India

Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Economics

Q1: How is food security affected during a calamity?

Ans: During a calamity, the total production of food grains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices of commodities go up. At higher prices, some people cannot afford to buy the food. If such a calamity happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a long time, it may lead to a situation of starvation.

Q2: 'Food security is essential in India.' Justify the statement. [CBSE 2011]


(i) Food security is essential in a country to ensure that food is available at all times and thereby to avoid starvation like a situation. The people living below the poverty line might be food insecure all the time while better-off people might also turn food insecure during famine, calamity or disaster.

(ii) Due to natural calamity such as drought, famine, etc. total production of foodgrains decreases. It creates a shortage of food in the affected areas. Due to a shortage of food, the prices go up. At high prices, some people cannot afford to buy food. If such calamity happens in a very wide area or is stretched over a longer time period it may cause a situation of starvation.

(iii) Massive starvation might take a turn of famine. The most devastating famine that occurred in India was the famine of Bengal in 1943. This famine killed thirty lakh people in the province of Bengal. If food security were there, the famine-like situation would have been averted easily.

Q3: What is a famine? Who were the most affected by the famine of Bengal?

Ans: A famine is characterized by widespread deaths due to starvation and epidemics caused by the forced use of contaminated water or decaying food and loss of body resistance due to weakening from starvation. The people who were the most affected by the famine in Bengal were agricultural laborers, fishermen, transport workers and other casual laborers.

Q4: 'The food insecure people are disproportionately large in some regions of the country.' Explain. [HOTS]

Ans: In certain parts of the country, there is a significantly higher proportion of individuals facing food insecurity, mainly because of regional differences in economic growth and living standards. These areas encompass states with low economic development and widespread poverty, remote tribal regions, and areas prone to natural disasters.

Q5: Mention the activities of the Food Corporation of India. [CBSE 2014]

Ans: The functions/activities of the Food Corporation of India are:

  1. It safeguards the interests of the farmers by providing them with remunerative prices for their foodgrain.
  2. It maintains an adequate level of food grains to ensure stocks are available in any mishappening or calamity.
  3. It allows the government to intervene in the food grains market for price stabilization.

Q6:  Why is buffer stock created by the government? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]


Buffer stock is created due to the following reasons:

  • To distribute food grains in deficit areas.
  • To distribute food grains among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than market price.
  • To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.

Q7: What are the essentials of a food security system?

Ans: Essentials of the Food Security System are the following:

  • Increasing domestic production of food to meet its growing demand.
  • Food should be available in adequate quantity as well as to meet nutritional requirements.
  • Food should be available at reasonable prices.
  • A buffer stock of food should be maintained. Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Economics

Q8: How is food security affected during a natural calamity?

Ans: In times of any natural calamity, say a drought, the total production of foodgrains declines. It creates a shortage of food, particularly in the affected areas. Due to the shortage of food, the prices go up in the market. At high prices, poor people may not afford to buy food. If such a calamity occurs in a large area, it may lead to starvation.

Q9: Why is there a need for self-sufficiency in food grains in India?

Ans: The need for self-sufficiency in foodgrains arises from the following:

  • to feed the growing population
  • to fight against any natural calamity
  • to reduce import of foodgrains
  • to control prices of foodgrains

Q10: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in foodgrains in the future seems to be difficult. Give two reasons in support of this statement.

Ans: The task of attaining self-sufficiency in food grains in future seems to be difficult in India. It is because:

  • There has been a gradual shift from the cultivation of food crops to the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, and crops that act as industrial raw materials.
  • More and more land is being used for the construction of factories, residential buildings, etc.

Q11: Mention two objectives of PDS. [Important]

Ans: Two Objectives of PDS.

  • To provide essential goods at subsidized prices to the consumers.
  • To control prices of essential commodities.

Q12: Why is the procurement of food grains done in India?

Ans: The government procures food grains at pre-announced prices to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of crops. The food procured by the government is distributed among the poorer section of society through fair-price shops at subsidized prices.

Q13: Mention two reasons behind excessive buffer stocks of foodgrains.

Ans: Two Reasons for Excessive Buffer Stock:

  • There has been an increase in the minimum support price.
  • The offtake of food grains under PDS has been declining.

Q14: State two consequences of the excess reserves of food grains in India.

Ans: Two Consequences of Excessive Buffer Stock:

  • To enable the distribution of food grains to regions experiencing deficits and to provide them at reduced prices to economically disadvantaged communities.

  • Surplus buffer stocks can be redirected to regions susceptible to calamities or experiencing shortages of specific crops.

Q15: Mention two measures undertaken by the government to reduce the stock of food grains.

Ans: Measures to Reduce Buffer Stock.

  • Open sale at prices much below the economic cost.
  • Increase in BPL allocation from 28 kg to 35 kg per month per family.

Q16: What is the Public Distribution System? [CBSE 2010]

Ans: The Food Corporation of India procures food at pre-announced prices. The state governments distribute food grains to the poor through ration shops at subsidized prices fixed by the government. This is called the Public Distribution System. There are about 4.6 lakh ration shops all over the country. Ration shops are also known as fair-price shops.

Q17: How are cooperatives helpful in food security? [CBSE 2010]

Ans: Role of cooperatives in providing food security:
In many parts of India, cooperative societies set up their own cooperatives to supply different items at cheaper rates. 

Following are the examples:

  • In Tamil Nadu, 94% of ration shops are run by cooperatives.
  • In Delhi, Mother Dairy is supplying milk and milk products like butter, ghee etc. to the people at much-subsidised rates.
  • In Gujarat, Amul is doing the same job of supplying milk and milk products to people at much cheaper rates. It is being run by cooperatives. It has brought the 'White Revolution' to India.

Q18: Why is food security essential? How is food security affected during a disaster?  [CBSE 2010]


Need for food security: The poorest section of the society might be food-insecure most of the time, while persons above poverty lines might also be food insecure when the country faces a national disaster. Due to natural calamity, say drought, total production of foodgrain decreases. It creates a shortage of food in affected areas. Due to shortage of food, the prices go up. At higher prices, some people cannot buy food. So food security is essential.

Q19: Why has Public Distribution System been criticised? Explain any three reasons.  [CBSE 2010]


  • Market ineffectiveness of PDS: Average consumption of PDS grain at all India level is only 1 kg per person per month. Average consumption figure in the states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh is only 300 gms, while in states like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu this figure is 3-4 kg per person per month. As a result, the poor has to depend on markets rather than ration shops.
  • With the introduction of three types of cards and three different prices for the same articles to the different people, the whole system of Public Distribution System has become much complicated.
  • PDS dealers malpractices: The ration shop dealers resort to malpractices. They divert the grains to the open market to get a better margin.

Q20: What is the difference between chronic and seasonal hunger? Write any two.   [CBSE 2010]


  • Chronic Hunger: When diet is inadequate in terms of quantity or quality, it is called chronic hunger. Usually, poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their low income and as a result their inability to buy food even for their survival. This type of hunger is more or less of a permanent nature and presents throughout the year.
  • Seasonal Hunger: Seasonal hunger persists only during a particular period of the season. It is linked with the cycles of food growing and harvesting. In rural areas, seasonal hunger is prevalent because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities. The gap between the sowing season and the reaping season is marked by seasonal hunger.

Q21: Which people are more prone to food insecurity? Explain. [2011 (T-2)]


(i) Individuals belonging to Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and certain segments of the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) with limited land resources or low agricultural productivity are susceptible to food insecurity.

(ii) Those impacted by natural calamities often face food insecurity, leading them to migrate to other regions in pursuit of employment opportunities.

(iii) Pregnant and lactating mothers, along with children under the age of 5, represent a significant portion of the population vulnerable to food insecurity.


Q22: Describe briefly the measures adopted to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains since Independence. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: After Independence, Indian policymakers adopted all measures to achieve self-sufficiency in foodgrains. India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in the Green Revolution, especially in the production of wheat and rice.

Q23: What steps have been taken by the Government of India to provide food security to the poor? Explain any three. [2011 (T-2)]


To provide food security to the poor, the following steps have been taken by the Government of India:

  • PDS: The Public Distribution System (PDS) was established for the distribution of food grains among the poor.
  • ICDS: Integrated Child Development Services was launched in 1975 to ensure nutrition among children of the backward areas.
  • FFW: ‘Food for work’ was introduced in 1977-78 to provide employment opportunities for the poor to ensure food security for them.

Q24: Describe Public Distribution System (PDS) is the most important step taken by the Government of India towards ensuring food security. [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: In the beginning, the coverage of PDS was universal, with no discrimination between poor and non-poor. Then, later on, the policy was made more targeted.
Important Features of PDS:

  • Name of Year of Coverage target Full name scheme introduction group
  • PDS up to 1992 Universal Public Distribution System
  • RPDS 1992 Backward Blocks Revamped Public Distribution System
  • TDPS 1997 Poor and non-poor Targeted Public Distribution System
  • AAY 2000 Poorest of the Poor Antyodaya Anna Yojana
  • APS 2000 Indigent Senior Citizen Annapurna Scheme

Q25: What is buffer stock? Why is it created by the government? [2011 (T-2)]

Ans: Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. Buffer stock is created to distribute food grains in deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at prices lower than the market price. It is also used in times of adverse weather conditions.

The document Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Economics is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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FAQs on Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Economics

1. What is food security in India?
Ans. Food security in India refers to the availability, accessibility, and affordability of food for the population. It ensures that all individuals have access to an adequate quantity and quality of nutritious food to lead a healthy life.
2. What are the major causes of food insecurity in India?
Ans. The major causes of food insecurity in India are poverty, inadequate agricultural practices, lack of storage and distribution infrastructure, climate change, population growth, and unequal distribution of resources.
3. What is the government doing to improve food security in India?
Ans. The government of India has implemented several measures to improve food security, such as the Public Distribution System (PDS), the National Food Security Act (NFSA), Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and various agricultural reforms to enhance productivity.
4. How does climate change affect food security in India?
Ans. Climate change affects food security in India by causing erratic weather patterns, such as droughts and floods, which can lead to crop failures and decreased agricultural productivity. It poses a threat to the availability and accessibility of food for the population.
5. What are the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in ensuring food security in India?
Ans. Small-scale farmers in India face numerous challenges in ensuring food security, including limited access to credit and technology, lack of irrigation facilities, low productivity, dependency on monsoon rains, and vulnerability to market fluctuations. These challenges hinder their ability to produce enough food for themselves and the country.
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