IIT JAM Question  >  Difference between single crystal and Polycry... Save
Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids?
View courses related to this question
Explore IIT JAM courses
Explore IIT JAM courses
View courses related to this question

Answers

CHHATAR SINGH
Feb 01, 2020
Related Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids?
The fundamental difference between single crystal , polycrystalline and amorphous solids is the length scale over which the atoms are related to one another by translational symmetry ('periodicity' or 'long-range order'). Single crystals have infinite periodicity, polycrystals have local periodicity, and amorphous solids (and liquids) have no long-range order.
1. An ideal single crystal has an atomic structure that repeats periodically across its whole volume. Even at infinite length scales, each atom is related to every other equivalent atom in the structure by translational symmetry.
2. A polycrystalline solid or polycrystal is comprised of many individual grains or crystallites. Each grain can be thought of as a single crystal, within which the atomic structure has long-range order. In an isotropic polycrystalline solid, there is no relationship between neighbouring grains. Therefore, on a large enough length scale, there is no periodicity across a polycrystalline sample.
3. Amorphous materials, like window glass, have no long-range order at all, so they have no translational symmetry. The structure of an amorphous solid (and indeed a liquid) is not truly random - the distances between atoms in the structure are well defined and similar to those in the crystal. This is why liquids and crystals have similar densities - both have short-range order that fixes the distances between atoms, but only crystals have long-range order.

The range of crystalline order distinguishes single crystals, polycrystals and amorphous solids. The figure shows how the periodicity of the atomic structure of each type of material compares.
Many characteristic properties of materials, such as mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic behaviour, can be attributed to the difference in structure between these three classes of solid.

1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Similar IIT JAM Doubts

Question Description
Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? for IIT JAM 2022 is part of IIT JAM preparation. The Question and answers have been prepared according to the IIT JAM exam syllabus. Information about Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? covers all topics & solutions for IIT JAM 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids?.
Solutions for Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? in English & in Hindi are available as part of our courses for IIT JAM. Download more important topics, notes, lectures and mock test series for IIT JAM Exam by signing up for free.
Here you can find the meaning of Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? defined & explained in the simplest way possible. Besides giving the explanation of Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids?, a detailed solution for Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? has been provided alongside types of Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? theory, EduRev gives you an ample number of questions to practice Difference between single crystal and Polycrystalline solids? tests, examples and also practice IIT JAM tests.
The fundamental difference between single crystal , polycrystalline and amorphous solids is the length scale over which the atoms are related to one another by translational symmetry ('periodicity' or 'long-range order'). Single crystals have infinite periodicity, polycrystals have local periodicity, and amorphous solids (and liquids) have no long-range order.1. An ideal single crystal has an atomic structure that repeats periodically across its whole volume. Even at infinite length scales, each atom is related to every other equivalent atom in the structure by translational symmetry.2. A polycrystalline solid or polycrystal is comprised of many individual grains or crystallites. Each grain can be thought of as a single crystal, within which the atomic structure has long-range order. In an isotropic polycrystalline solid, there is no relationship between neighbouring grains. Therefore, on a large enough length scale, there is no periodicity across a polycrystalline sample.3. Amorphous materials, like window glass, have no long-range order at all, so they have no translational symmetry. The structure of an amorphous solid (and indeed a liquid) is not truly random - the distances between atoms in the structure are well defined and similar to those in the crystal. This is why liquids and crystals have similar densities - both have short-range order that fixes the distances between atoms, but only crystals have long-range order.The range of crystalline order distinguishes single crystals, polycrystals and amorphous solids. The figure shows how the periodicity of the atomic structure of each type of material compares.Many characteristic properties of materials, such as mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic behaviour, can be attributed to the difference in structure between these three classes of solid.