Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

UPSC : Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy.
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Agriculture

Land-Use &
Agriculture in India

Land utilization

Land category

Percentage

Area under forest

22.6

Net sown area

46.1

Land under non-agriculture use

7.5

Barren & waste land

6.4

Area under pastures

3.6

Area under misc. trees & Groves

1.2

Cultureable waste land (left for more than 5 yaers)

4.5

Current Fallow

4.8

Fallow other than current fallow

3.3

Total

100

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Agriculture

  • India is predominantly a society of agriculturist.
  • around 52%of Indian population is engaged in agriculture
  • It contributes 17% to total Indian GDP
  • It provides food & raw material                                                                                                                                                              

CROPPING SEASON IN INDIA

  1. Kharif
  2. Rabi
  3. zaid

Kharif

  • Crops are sown at the beginning of south west monsoon and harvested at the end of south west monsoon.
  • Sowing season: may to july
  • Harvesting season: september to october
  • Important crops: jowar, Bajra, Rice, Maize, cotton,groundnut,jute,hemp,sugarcane, tobbaco

Rabi  

  • Need cool climate during the periiod of growth but warm climate during the germination & maturation
  • Sowing season: october -december
  • Harvesting season: february –april
  • Imporatnt crops: Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard etc

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • However this type of distinction in the cropping season does not exist in southern parts of the country
  • Here the temperature is high enough to grow tropical crops during any period in the year provided the soil moisture is available
  • Therefore, in this region same crop can be grown thrice a year

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Important Crops of India

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRevAgriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Crop

  Climate

  Major States in terms of production

  Remarks

Ragi

20-30oc, 100

, TN , AP,UP, Orissa, Maharastra 

 

Gram

Mild cool,31-51

Rajasthan , Great plains in UP, Haryana , MP, 

Cultivated in unirrigated areas in plains

Sugar cane

Tropical 100-150 cm

UP, , AP,Karnataka, Haryana

largest producer of sugarcane in the world

Cotton

20-35oC, 50-80 cm

Gujarat, Maharastra, Punjab, Haryana, , MP,Rajasthan

Area wise US and India Production wise US, , , 

 

 Crop

  Climate

  Major States in terms of production

  Remarks

Jute

Requires large Quantity of water

West Bengal lead the production., 

is 3rd in World Production

Tobacco

Introduced by Portuguese in 1508

AP, Gujarat, , UP, Orissa, WB,Rajasthan

 

Ground Nut

 

, AP, Maharastra, and Karanataka

has largest area but in prdn. tops

Tea

Below 10oC, 150-250 cm

, West , Kerala, Karnataka, HP, UP

, , Sri Lanka Largest producers

Crop 

States 

Rice

West Bengal

Punjab

Uttar Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

Tamil Nadu

Wheat

Uttar Pradesh

Punjab

Haryana

Rajasthan

Madhya Pradesh

Jowar

Maharashtra

Karnatka

Madhya Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

Tamil Nadu

Groundnut

Gujarat

Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

Karnatka

Maharashtra

 

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Agriculture- Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Problems of Indian Agriculture

 

  • Dependence on erratic Monsoon
  • Low productivity
  • Lack of financial resources and indebtedness
  • Lack of Land reforms
  • Small farm size & fragmentation of land holdings
  • Lack of commercialization
  • Vast under employment
  • Degradation of cultivable land
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