Anglo-Maratha Wars And Conquest Of Maharashtra And Anglo-Sikh Wars And Conquest Of Punjab And Briti UPSC Notes | EduRev

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ANGLO-MARATHA WARS AND CONQUEST OF MAHARASHTRA
 First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82)

Causes

  • Struggle for power among the Marathas (between Sawai Madhav Rao, supported by Nana Phadavis, and Raghunatha Rao, uncle of Madhav Rao).
  • Attempts of the British to take advantage of this struggle by intervening on behalf of one party (namely, Raghunatha Rao).
  • Defeat of British by the Marathas at Talegoan (1726).
  • March of British army under Goddar from Calcutta to Ahmedabad through centraIndia (which itself was a great military feat in those days) and the brilliant victories on the way (177980).
  • Stalemate and deadlock for two years (1781-82).

Results

  • Treaty of Salbai (1782) by which the status quo was maintained, and gave the British 20 years of peace with the Marathas.
  • The Treaty also enabled the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of the Marathas in recovering their territories from Haider Ali.
  • Thus, the British, on the one hand, saved themselves from the combined opposition of Indian powers, and on the other, succeeded in dividing the Indian powers.

Second Anglo-Marathas War (1803-05)
 Causes

  • Wallesley’s aggressive policy of interference in the internaaffairs of the Marathas—his desire to impose Subsidiary Alliance on the Marathas.
  • Opportunity provided to the British by the death of almost alwise and experienced Maratha leaders by the end of the 18th century.
  • Fratricidastrife among the Maratha chiefs, leading to the signing of the Subsidiary Treaty at Bassein (1902) by the Peshwa (Baji Rao II) with the British.

Results

  • Defeat of the combined forces of Scindia and Bhonsle by the British under Arthur Wellesley at Assaye and Argaon in 1803 and the conclusion of Subsidiary Treaties with them.
  • Failure of British to defeat Holkar and their finapeace with him by signing the Treaty of Rajghat.
  • Establishment of British interests in the Maratha empire.
  • Thus, the war resulted in the company becoming the paramount power in India.

Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-18)
 Causes

  • Resentment of the Marathas against the loss of their freedom to the British.
  • Rigid controexercised by the British residents on the Maratha chiefs.

Results

  • Dethornement of the Peshwa (he was pensioned off and sent to Bithur near Kanpur) and the annexation of all his territories by the British (the creation of the Bombay Presidency).
  • Creation of the kingdom of Satara out of Peshwa’s lands to satisfy Maratha pride
  • Conceding of large territories by the Maratha chiefs to the company.
  • Thus, after this war, the Maratha chiefs too existed at the marcy of the British.

ANGLO-SIKH WARS AND CONQUEST OF PUNJAB
 First War (1845-1846)

  • Anarchy in Punjab after the death of Ranjit Singh murder of three rulers (Kharag Singh, Nao Nihal Singh and Sher Singh) within 6 years (18391845); succession of Dalip Singh (5 year old son of Ranjit Singh—1845); absence of any control over the army (KhaIsa)
  • British policy of encirclement of Punjab from 1833 itself (occupation of Ferozpur in 1835 and Sikharpur in 1836, and appointment of British residents at Ludhiana and in Sind 1838) and their military preparations (increase of their army from 2,500 in 1836 to 14,000 in 1843).
  • Confirmation of the suspicions of the Sikh army by the annexation of Sind by the British in 1843.
  • Course of the War: Defeat of the Sikh army under Lal Singh (Prime Minister) by Sir Hugh Gough at Mudki (1845); defeat of Sikh army under Tej Singh (commander-in-chief) by the British at Ferozpur (1845); defeat of the British under Harry Smith by the Sikhs under Ranjur Singh Majhithia at Buddewal (1846); defeat of Sikhs by Smith at Aliwal and Sobroan (1846) (the second one being one of the hardest-fought battles in Indian history); crossing of the Sutlej and occupation of Lahore by the British.

Treaty of Lahore (March 1846)

  • Ceding of the Jullunder Doab to the British and payment of an indemnity of Rs. 1. 1/2 crores (Sikhs could pay only half of this amount and for the rest British got Kashmir which they sold to Gulab Singh).
  • Appointment of a British Resident at Lahore (Sir Henry Lawrence) and recognition of Dalip Singh as the ruler of Punjab and Rani Jindan as his regent.
  • Reduction of Sikh army and prohibition of its ruler from employing any European without the prior consent of the British.
  • Permission to the British troops to pass through Sikh territory whenever need arose.
  • Treaty of Bhairowal (December, 1846)
  • Removal of Rani Jindan as regent and setting up of a Council of Regency for Punjab (consisting of 8 Sikh Sardars and presided over by Sir Henry Lawrence).
  • Stationing of a British force at Lahore for which the Sikhs had to pay Rs. 22 lakhs.
  • Power of the Govemor-General of India to take and garrison any fort in Punjab.

Second War (1848-1849)

  • Desire of Sikh army to avenge their humiliation of the first war.
  • Discontentment of the Sikh Sardars with the British control over Punjab.
  • Treatment of Rani Jindan by the British (her transportation to Shaikpur first and then to Benares, and drastic reduction of her pension).
  • Revolt of Mulraj (Govrnor of Multan) and the murder of two English officers (Vans Agnew and Lt. Anderson) sent to Multan to take over its administration .
  • Revolt of Sher Singh (he was sent to suppress the revolt of Mulraj but he himself joined the revolt against the British) leading to the outbreak of a general rebellion by the Sikh army and the Sardars.

Course of War

  • Battle of Ramnagar between Sher Singh and Lord Gough (Bntish Commander-in-Chief in 1848 ended in a draw.
  • Battle of Chillianwala (1849) between the two also ended in a draw.
  • Capture of Multan by Lord Gough and surrender of Muiraj who was transported for life.
  • Final defeat of the Sikhs by Gough in the Battle of Gujarat (a town near the Chenab) in 1849, and the surrender of Sher Singh and other Sikh chiefs and the army in 1849.
  • Annexation of Punjab by Lord Dalhousie and deposal of Dalip Singh (who was pensioned off and sent to England along with his mother Rani Jindan).
  • Establishment of a Board of Three Commissioners (Lawrence brothers-Henry and John, and Charles G. Mansel) in 1849 to administer Punjab; abolition of the Board and appointment of a Chief Commissioner for Punjab in 1853 (Sir John Lawrence—the first Chief Commissioner for Punjab).

BRITISH ANNEXATION OF SIND (1843)

  • Rise of Sind as an autonomous state-first under Kaloras and from 1783 under Amirs of Baluchistan after the disintegration of the Mughal empire; under the Amirs of the Baluchi tribe, it was divided into three units (Hyderabad, Mirpur and Khairpur), each under a separate branch of the tribe.

Causes

  • Commercial possibilities of the Indus;
  • British fear of the expansion of the Russian empire towards the East;
  • British deisre to increase its influence in Persia and Afghanistan through control over Sindh.

Early relations between Sind and the British

  • Lord Minto I sent an embassy to the Amirs in 1809 and concluded a friendship treaty with them.
  • Journey of Alexander Burns up the Indus on highway of Lahore in 1831.
  • Conclusion of a treaty by Lord Bentinck with them in 1832, by which the roads and rivers of Sind were opened to English trade.
  • Lord Auckland forced the Amirs to sign the Subsidiary Treaty in 1839.

War and Annexation

  • Lord Ellenborough unnecessarily provoked the Amirs and people of Sind into a war.
  • Appointment of Sir Charles Napier as the British Resident in Sind in place of Major James Outram (1842).
  • Destruction of Imamgarh, a famous desert fortress by Napier (1843).
  • Attack on the British residency by the Baluchis (1843) and declaration of war.
  • Defeat of the Baluchi army by Napier at Miani and the surrender of some of the Amirs.

Defeat of Sher Muhammad (Amir of Mirpur) by Napier at Dabo.
 Expulsion of Sher Muhammad from Sind.
 Formal annexation of Sind by the British (1843). Appointment of Sir Napier as the first Governor of Sind.

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