BRITISH CONQUEST OF INDIA
First war (1745-1748)
- Capture of the French ships by the English navy under Barnett (1745); Retaliation of the French under Dupleix by the capture of Madras (1746).
- Appeal of the English to the Carnatic nawab to save them from the French and secure the release of Madras from the French; refusal of the French to obey the Nawab (Anwar-ud-din) and the battle between the forces of the Nawab (10,000) and the French (around 1,000) at St. Thome which resulted in a severe defeat to the Nawab, exposing the weakness of the traditional Indian armies against the European trained armies.
- End of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe resulting in the end of Anglo-French hostilities in India (1748); Restoration of Madras to the English by the French.
Second War (1749-1754)
- French support to Muzaffar Jang and Chanda Sahib in Hyderabad and Carnatic respectively; English support to their opponents in the two states (Nasir Jang in Hyderabad and Anwaruddin and later his son Muhammad Ali in the Carnatic).
- Success of the French in both states in defeating and murdering their opponents and placing their supports on the thrones in 1749.
- Capture of Arcot by the English under Clive (1751); successive defeats of the French by the English; capture and execution of Chanda Sahib (he was killed by a general of Tanjore, an ally of theEntish during the war-1752) and placement of Muhammad Ali on the the throne of the Carnatic.
- Futile efforts of Dupleix to reverse the trend (1753-1754), and his recall by the French Government (1754). (Still the French, through their agent Bussy, retained their position at Hyderabad).
Third War (1758-1 763)
- Outbreak of the Seven Year’s War in Europe in 1756 and the capture of Chanderngar by Clive and Watson (1757) in Bengal.
- Arrival of Count de Lally to retrieve the position of the French in India (1758).
- Defeat of the French fleet under ‘d’ Ache by the English navy under Pocock in three naval battles, and the departure of d’ Ache for France (1759).
- Defeat of Count Lally by the English General Eyre Coote in the Battle of Wandiwash (a fort in the Carnatic state) (22nd January, 1760).
- Replacement of the French by the English as the Nizam’s protectors (March, 1760).
- Surrender of Pondicherry to the English (1761) and loss of all other settlements in India by the French.
- Conclusion of peace and restoration of the settlements to the French (1763); but the French henceforth lived under British protection.
Anglo-Mysore Wars And The Conquest of Mysore State
First War (1766-1769)
- Haider’s ambition was to drive the British away from the Carnatic and finally from India.
- British realisation of the threat posed to them by Haider.
- Formation of Tripartite Alliance against Haidar by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas.
- Haider’s success in breaking the alliance and declaration of war on the British.
- Brilliant victories of Haidar over the British and his appearance within 5 miles of Madras in March, 1769.
- End of the War as a draw and conclusion of a Defensive Treaty (April, 1769) by which both sides agreed to restore the conquered areas to each other and to render assistance to each other in case of an attack by a third party.
Second War (1780-1784)
Mutual distrust and refusal of the English to fulfil the terms of the defensive treaty with Haidar when he was attacked by the Marathas in 1771.
- Outbreak of hostilities between the English and the French (an ally of Haidar) during the American War of Independence. British capture of Mahe, a French settlement within Haidar’s jurisdiction.
- Formation of an alliance by Ha dar with Nizam and Marathas against the English in 1779.
- Course of the War-Defeat of Colonel Baillie and seizure of Arcot by Haidar (1780); defeat of Haidar by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo (1781); defeat of Colonel Braithwaite by Haidar (1782); Death of Haidar and succession of Tipu (Dec., 1782); capture of Brigadier Mathews and his men by Tipu (1783).
- End of war as a draw and conclusion of the Treaty of Mangalore (March, 1784) by Tipu and Lord Macartney (Governor of Madras), by which both parties agreed to restore the conquered territories to each other.
Third War (1790-1792)
- Success of Tipu in strengthening his position by undertaking various internal reforms; apprehensions of the British, the Nizam and the Marathas.
- Attempts of Tipu to acquire the help of France and Turkey by sending envoys to those countries (1787).
- Enlargement of his territories by Tipu at the cost of his neighbours particularly the Raja of Travancore, who was an ally of the British (1789).
- Conclusion of an alliance by the British with the Nizam and the Marathas against Tipu (1790).
- Course of the War–Defeat of Major-General Medows by Tipu (1790); assumption of command by Cornwallis himself (Jan, 1791); successs of Cornwallis in surrounding Seringapatam after some initial setbacks (Feb. 1792).
Treaty of Seringapatam (March, 1792)
- Surrender of almost half of Tipu’s territories, which were to be shared among the three allies (English, Marathas and Nizam).
- Payment of a war indemnity of Rs. 3 crores by Tipu.
- Sending two of his sons by Tipu as hostages to the British camp.
Fourth War (1799)
- Desire of Tipu to avenge his humiliating defeat and the terms imposed on him by the British; and his success in making Mysore strong once again.
- Tipu’s efforts to seek help from the Revolutionary France and the Muslims of Arabia, Kabul, Turkey, etc., in order to expel the British from India (he sent emissaries to these countries, and a small French force even landed at Mangalore in April, 1798).
- Determination of Lord Wellesley (the new Governor-General) to remove the threat from Tipu once for all.
- Course of the War–Defeat of Tipu first by Stuart at Sedaser (5th March) and then by General Harris at Malvelley (27th March); ret-reat of Tipu to Seringapatam where he died def-ending it (4th May). Arthur Wellesley, who was the brother of the Governor-General and who was to defeat Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, also participated in this war.
- Annexation of the major part of Mysore by the British and restoration of a small part of it to a successor (Krishnaraja III-a boy of 5 years) of the former Hindu Raja of Wodeyar dynasty signing of a Subsidiary Treaty by the new Raja with British (1799).
- In 1831, William Bentinck took over the administration of Mysore because of misgovernment by its ruler, but in 1880 Lord Ripon restored it to its raja.